Computer Gaming World
Computer Gaming World was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006. In 1979 Russell Sipe left the Southern Baptist Convention ministry. A fan of computer games, he realized in spring 1981 there was no magazine dedicated to computer games. Although Sipe had no publishing experience, he formed Golden Empire Publications in June and found investors, he chose the name of Computer Gaming World instead of alternatives such as Computer Games or Kilobaud Warrior because he hoped that the magazine would both review games and serve as a trade publication for the industry. The first issue appeared at about the same as rivals Electronic Games and Softline; the first issues of Computer Gaming World were published from Anaheim and sold for $2.75 individually or $11 for a year's subscription of six issues. These early bi-monthly issues were 40-50 pages in length, written in a newsletter style, including submissions by game designers such as Joel Billings, Dan Bunten, Chris Crawford.
As well, early covers were not always directly related to the magazine's contents, but rather featured work by artist Tim Finkas. In January/February 1986 CGW increased its publication cycle to nine times a year, the editorial staff included popular writers such as Scorpia, Charles Ardai, M. Evan Brooks. CGW survived the video game crash of 1983. In autumn 1987 CGW introduced a quarterly newsletter called Computer Game Forum, published during the off-months of CGW; the newsletter never became popular. Some of CGF's content became part of CGW; the magazine went through significant expansion starting in 1991, with growing page counts reaching 196 pages by its 100th issue, in November 1992. During that same year, Johnny Wilson, became editor-in-chief, although Sipe remained as Publisher. In 1993, Sipe sold the magazine to Ziff Davis—by the magazine was so thick that a reader reported that the December issue's bulk slowed a thief who had stolen a shopping bag containing it—but continued on as Publisher until 1995.
The magazine kept growing through the 1990s, with the December 1997 issue weighing in at 500 pages. In January 1999, Wilson left the magazine and George Jones became editor-in-chief, at a time when print magazines were struggling with the growing popularity of the Internet. Jones had been the editor-in-chief of CNET Gamecenter, had before that been a staffer at Computer Gaming World between 1994 and 1996, he was replaced by Jeff Green in 2002. On August 2, 2006, Ziff Davis and Microsoft jointly announced that Computer Gaming World would be replaced with Games for Windows: The Official Magazine; the final CGW-labeled issue was November 2006, for a total of 268 published editions. With the release of the final CGW issue, Ziff Davis announced the availability of the CGW Archive; the Archive features complete copies of the first 100 issues of CGW, as well as the 2 CGF issues, for a total of 7438 pages covering 11 years of gaming. The Archive was created by Stephane Racle, of the Computer Gaming World Museum, is available in PDF format.
Every issue was processed through Optical Character Recognition, which enabled the creation of a 3+ million word master index. Although Ziff Davis has taken its CGW Archive site offline, the magazines can be downloaded from the Computer Gaming World Museum. On April 8, 2008, 1UP Network announced the print edition of Games for Windows: The Official Magazine had ceased, that all content would be moved online. CGW featured reviews, news, letters and columns dealing with computer games. While console games are touched on, these are the territory of CGW's sister magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly. In 2006, two of the most popular features were "Greenspeak", a final-page column written by Editor-In-Chief Jeff Green, "Tom vs. Bruce" a unique "duelling-diaries" piece in which writers Tom Chick and Bruce Geryk logged their gameplay experience as each tried to best the other at a given game. "Tom vs. Bruce" sometimes featured a guest appearance by Erik Wolpaw of Old Man Murray. For many years, CGW never assigned scores to reviews, preferring to let readers rate their favorite games through a monthly poll.
Scores were introduced in 1994. However, beginning in April 2006, Computer Gaming World stopped assigning quantifiable scores to its reviews. In May of the same year, CGW changed the name of its review section to Viewpoint, began evaluating games on a more diverse combination of factors than a game's content. Elements considered include the communities' reaction to a game, developers' continued support through patches and whether a game's online component continues to grow; the reviews were based on a simple five-star structure, with five stars marking a outstanding game, one star signalling virtual worthlessness. Three games, Postal² by Robert Coffey, Mistmare by Jeff Green, Dungeon Lords by Denice Cook "...form an unholy trinity of the only games in CGW history to receive zero-star reviews." According to MDS Computer Gaming World had a circulation of above 300,000 as of 2006. In this regard, it was behind industry arch-rival PC Gamer. Bruce F. Webster reviewed the first issue of Computer Gaming World in The Space Gamer No.
48. Webster commented that "I recommend this magazine to computer gamers, just one reason alone will
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
The Commodore 64 known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes of RAM. With support for multicolor sprites and a custom chip for waveform generation, the C64 could create superior visuals and audio compared to systems without such custom hardware; the C64 dominated the low-end computer market for most of the 1980s. For a substantial period, the C64 had between 30% and 40% share of the US market and two million units sold per year, outselling IBM PC compatibles, Apple computers, the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Sam Tramiel, a Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview, "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a month for a couple of years."
In the UK market, the C64 faced competition from the BBC Micro and the ZX Spectrum, but the C64 was still one of the two most popular computers in the UK. Part of the Commodore 64's success was its sale in regular retail stores instead of only electronics or computer hobbyist specialty stores. Commodore produced many of its parts in-house to control costs, including custom integrated circuit chips from MOS Technology, it has been compared to the Ford Model T automobile for its role in bringing a new technology to middle-class households via creative and affordable mass-production. 10,000 commercial software titles have been made for the Commodore 64 including development tools, office productivity applications, video games. C64 emulators allow anyone with a modern computer, or a compatible video game console, to run these programs today; the C64 is credited with popularizing the computer demoscene and is still used today by some computer hobbyists. In 2011, 17 years after it was taken off the market, research showed that brand recognition for the model was still at 87%.
In January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc. Commodore's integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic and audio chips for a next generation video game console. Design work for the chips, named MOS Technology VIC-II and MOS Technology SID, was completed in November 1981. Commodore began a game console project that would use the new chips—called the Ultimax or the Commodore MAX Machine, engineered by Yash Terakura from Commodore Japan; this project was cancelled after just a few machines were manufactured for the Japanese market. At the same time, Robert "Bob" Russell and Robert "Bob" Yannes were critical of the current product line-up at Commodore, a continuation of the Commodore PET line aimed at business users. With the support of Al Charpentier and Charles Winterble, they proposed to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel a true low-cost sequel to the VIC-20. Tramiel dictated. Although 64-Kbit dynamic random-access memory chips cost over US$100 at the time, he knew that DRAM prices were falling, would drop to an acceptable level before full production was reached.
The team was able to design the computer because, unlike most other home-computer companies, Commodore had its own semiconductor fab to produce test chips. The chips were complete by November, by which time Charpentier and Tramiel had decided to proceed with the new computer; the product was code named the VIC-40 as the successor to the popular VIC-20. The team that constructed it consisted of Yash Terakura, Shiraz Shivji, Bob Russell, Bob Yannes and David A. Ziembicki; the design and some sample software were finished in time for the show, after the team had worked tirelessly over both Thanksgiving and Christmas weekends. The machine used the same case, same-sized motherboard, same Commodore BASIC 2.0 in ROM as the VIC-20. BASIC served as the user interface shell and was available on startup at the READY prompt; when the product was to be presented, the VIC-40 product was renamed C64. The C64 made an impressive debut at the January 1982 Consumer Electronics Show, as recalled by Production Engineer David A. Ziembicki: "All we saw at our booth were Atari people with their mouths dropping open, saying,'How can you do that for $595?'"
The answer was vertical integration. Commodore had a reputation for announcing products that never appeared, so sought to ship the C64. Production began in spring 1982 and volume shipments began in August; the C64 faced a wide range of competing home computers, but with a lower price and more flexible hardware, it outsold many of its competitors. In the United States the greatest competitors were the Atari 8-bit 400, the Atari 800, the Apple II; the Atari 400 and 800 had been designed to accommodate stringent FCC emissions requirements and so were expensive to
Boss (video gaming)
In video gaming, a boss is a significant computer-controlled enemy. A fight with a boss character is referred to as a boss battle or boss fight. Boss battles are seen at a climax of a particular section of the game at the end of a level or stage, or guarding a specific objective, the boss enemy is far stronger than the opponents the player has faced up to that point, is faced solo. A miniboss is a boss weaker or less significant than the main boss in the same area or level.. A superboss is much more powerful than the bosses encountered as part of the main game's plot and optional to encounter. A final boss is the main antagonist of a game's story and the defeat of that character provides ultimate satisfaction to the game player. For example, in a combat game all regular enemies might use pistols while the boss uses a machine gun. A boss enemy is quite larger in size than other enemies and the player character. At times, bosses are hard impossible, to defeat without being adequately prepared and/or knowing the correct fighting approach.
Bosses take strategy and special knowledge to defeat, such as how to attack weak points, or avoiding specific attacks. Bosses are common in many genres of video games, but they are common in story-driven titles. RPGs, FPSs, platform games of all ilks, fighting games are associated with boss battles, they may be less common in puzzle games, card video games, sports games, simulation games. The first game to feature a boss fight was the 1975 RPG dnd; the concept has expanded to new genres, like rhythm games, where there may be a "boss song", more difficult. The first interactive game to feature a boss was dnd, a 1975 role-playing video game for the PLATO system. One of the earliest dungeon crawls, dnd implemented many of the core concepts behind Dungeons & Dragons; the objective of the game is to retrieve an "Orb" from the bottommost dungeon. The orb is kept in a treasure room guarded by a high-level enemy named the Gold Dragon. Only by defeating the Dragon can the player claim the orb, complete the game, be eligible to appear on the high score list.
A 1980 example is the fixed shooter Phoenix, wherein the player ship must fight a giant mothership in the fifth and final level. Bosses are more difficult than regular enemies, can sustain more damage, are found at the end of a level or area. While most games include a mixture of boss opponents and regular opponents, some games have only regular opponents and some games have only bosses; some bosses are encountered several times through a single game with alternate attacks and a different strategy required to defeat it each time. A boss battle can be made more challenging if the boss in question becomes progressively stronger and/or less vulnerable as their health decreases, requiring players to use different strategies to win; some bosses may contain or be composed of smaller parts that can be destroyed by the player in battle, which may or may not grant an advantage. In games such as Doom and Castlevania: Order of Ecclesia, an enemy may be introduced via a boss battle, but appear as a regular enemy, after the player has become stronger or had a chance to find more powerful weaponry.
Boss battles are seen as dramatic events. As such, they are characterized with unique music and cutscenes before and after the boss battle. Recurring bosses and final bosses may have their own specific theme music to distinguish them from other boss battles; this concept extends beyond combat-oriented video games. For example, a number of titles in the Dance Dance Revolution rhythm game series contain "boss songs" that are called "bosses" because they are exceptionally difficult to perform on. A miniboss known as a "middle boss", "mid-boss", "half-boss", "sub-boss", or "semi-boss", is a boss weaker or less significant than the main boss in the same area or level; some minibosses are stronger versions of regular enemies, as in the Kirby games. Other video game characters who take the role of a miniboss are the Koopalings, Dark Link and Allen O'Neil. There is a subtype nicknamed the "Wolfpack Boss", for its similarity to a pack of wolves consisting of a group of strong normal enemies that are easy to defeat on their own, but a group of them can be as difficult as a boss battle.
A superboss is a type of boss most found in role-playing video games. They are considered optional enemies, though optional bosses are not all superbosses, do not have to be defeated to complete the game, they are much more powerful than the bosses encountered as part of the main game's plot or quest, more difficult than the final boss, the player is required to complete a sidequest or the entire game to fight the superboss. For example, in Final Fantasy VII, the player may choose to seek out and fight the Ruby and Emerald Weapons; some superbosses will take the place of the final boss. This is common in fighting games, such as Akuma in Super Street Fighter II Turbo; some superbosses can yield special items or skills that cannot be found any other way that can give a player a significant advantage during playthrough of the rest of the game, such as added experience or an powerful weapon. For example, the "raid bosses" from Borderlands 2 give rare loot unavailable anywhere else; some superbosses in online games have an immense amount of health and must be defeated within a time limit by having a large number of players or parties working together to defeat the boss.
Examples of such superbosses can be found in games like Shadow Fight 2 and
Fire King (video game)
Fire King is an action role-playing video game. It was developed by Strategic Studies Group and distributed by Electronic Arts in 1988 for the Commodore 64/128 and MS-DOS, it was sequel to another game of the same style titled Demon Stalkers: The Raid on Doomfane. The game has been compared to Gauntlet, with its top-down view and endless enemies spawning from monster generators, but differs in that it contains more plot and puzzles than the typical hack and slash game; the player becomes one of six characters, first appearing in a room above the town square of the town in Stormhaven Bay. The harmony of the land is controlled by the great elemental forces of Earth, Air and Water, each controlled by a mage; the Fire Mage was king until he was slain by a magical beast of superhuman size. Although this monster was slain, another magical beast began to dine on villagers. New enemies roam the countryside, leaving it to the player characters to confront the beast in the catacombs and end the terror; the game was reviewed in 1990 in Dragon #158 by Hartley and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column.
The reviewers gave the game 4½ out of 5 stars. Douglas Seacat of Computer Gaming World noted, "The synthesis of action and RPG is an interesting, if not altogether successful one." Seacat praised the plot but noted the pace of the action did not match the slow-paced inventory system, commenting that, "The entire game just seems to have a rough edge, as if it weren't finished yet." Fire King at GameFAQs Fire King at GameSpot Fire King at MobyGames
A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, the solver is expected to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct or fun solution of the puzzle. There are different genres of puzzles, such as crossword puzzles, word-search puzzles, number puzzles, relational puzzles, or logic puzzles. Puzzles are created to be a form of entertainment but they can arise from serious mathematical or logistical problems. In such cases, their solution may be a significant contribution to mathematical research; the 1989 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary dates the word puzzle to the end of the 16th century. Its first documented use was in a book titled The Voyage of Robert Dudley...to the West Indies, 1594–95, narrated by Capt. Wyatt, by himself, by Abram Kendall, master; the word came to be used as a noun. The word puzzle comes from pusle, meaning "bewilder, confound", a frequentive of the obsolete verb pose in the sense of "perplex".
The use of the word to mean "a toy contrived to test one's ingenuity" is recent. Puzzles can be divided into categories. For example, a maze is a type of tour puzzle; some other categories are construction puzzles, stick puzzles, tiling puzzles, disentanglement puzzles, lock puzzles, folding puzzles, combination puzzles, mechanical puzzles. A chess problem is a puzzle. Examples are the eight queens puzzle. Jigsaw puzzles. Lateral thinking puzzles called "situation puzzles" Mathematical puzzles include the missing square puzzle and many impossible puzzles — puzzles which have no solution, such as the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, the three cups problem, three utilities problem Mechanical puzzles such as the Rubik's Cube and Soma cube Metapuzzles are puzzles which unite elements of other puzzles. Paper-and-pencil puzzles such as Uncle Art's Funland, connect the dots, nonograms Also the logic puzzles published by Nikoli: Sudoku, Kakuro, Hashiwokakero, Hitori, Light Up, Number Link, Ripple Effect and Kuromasu.
Peg solitaire. Rubik's Cube and other combination puzzles can be stimulating toys for children or recreational activities for adults. Sangaku Sliding puzzles such as the 15 Puzzle. Puzz-3D is a three-dimensional variant of this type. Sokoban Spot the difference Tangram Word puzzles, including anagrams, crossword puzzles and word search puzzles. Tabletop and digital word puzzles include Bananagrams, Bonza, Letterpress, Puzzlage, Ruzzle, Upwords, WordSpot, Words with Friends. Wheel of Fortune is a game show centered on a word puzzle. Solutions of puzzles require the recognition of patterns and the adherence to a particular kind of ordering. People with a high level of inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving such puzzles than others, but puzzles based upon inquiry and discovery may be solved more by those with good deduction skills. Deductive reasoning improves with practice. Mathematical puzzles involves BODMAS. BODMAS is an acronym and it stands for Bracket, Of, Multiplication and Subtraction.
In certain regions, PEDMAS is the synonym of BODMAS. It explains the order of operations to solve an expression; some mathematical puzzle requires Top to Bottom convention to avoid the ambiguity in the order of operations. It is an elegantly simple idea that relies, as sudoku does, on the requirement that numbers appear only once starting from top to bottom as coming along. Puzzle makers are people; some notable creators of puzzles are: Ernő Rubik Sam Loyd Henry Dudeney Boris Kordemsky David J. Bodycombe Will Shortz Lloyd King Martin Gardner Raymond Smullyan Jigsaw puzzles are the most popular form of puzzle. Jigsaw puzzles were invented around 1760, when John Spilsbury, a British engraver and cartographer, mounted a map on a sheet of wood, which he sawed around the outline of each individual country on the map, he used the resulting pieces as an aid for the teaching of geography. After becoming popular among the public, this kind of teaching aid remained the primary use of jigsaw puzzles until about 1820.
The largest puzzle is made by German game company Ravensburger. The smallest puzzle made was created at LaserZentrum Hannover, it is the size of a sand grain. By the early 20th century and newspapers had found that they could increase their readership by publishing puzzle contests, beginning with crosswords and in modern days sudoku. There are organizations and events that cater to puzzle enthusiasts, such as: Nob Yoshigahara Puzzle Design Competition World Puzzle Championship National Puzzlers' League Puzzlehunts such as the Maze of Games List of impossible puzzles List of Nikoli puzzle types Riddle Puzzles at DMOZ
DOS is a family of disk operating systems, hence the name. DOS consists of MS-DOS and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS, ROM-DOS, PTS-DOS, FreeDOS. MS-DOS dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS, Apple ProDOS, Atari DOS, Commodore DOS, TRSDOS, AmigaDOS. Fictional operating systems have used this acronym as well, such as GLaDOS from the video game Portal. IBM PC DOS and its predecessor, 86-DOS, resembled Digital Research's CP/M—the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 microcomputers—but instead ran on Intel 8086 16-bit processors; when IBM introduced the IBM PC, built with the Intel 8088 microprocessor, they needed an operating system. Seeking an 8088-compatible build of CP/M, IBM approached Microsoft CEO Bill Gates.
IBM was sent to Digital Research, a meeting was set up. However, the initial negotiations for the use of CP/M broke down. Digital Research founder Gary Kildall refused, IBM withdrew. IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. There, programmer Tim Paterson had developed a variant of CP/M-80, intended as an internal product for testing SCP's new 16-bit Intel 8086 CPU card for the S-100 bus; the system was named QDOS, before being made commercially available as 86-DOS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS for $50,000; this became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS, introduced in 1981. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, which supplied the operating system for their own hardware, sometimes under their own names. Microsoft required the use of the MS-DOS name, with the exception of the IBM variant. IBM continued to develop their version, PC DOS, for the IBM PC. Digital Research became aware that an operating system similar to CP/M was being sold by IBM, threatened legal action.
IBM responded by offering an agreement: they would give PC consumers a choice of PC DOS or CP/M-86, Kildall's 8086 version. Side-by-side, CP/M cost $200 more than PC DOS, sales were low. CP/M faded, with MS-DOS and PC DOS becoming the marketed operating system for PCs and PC compatibles. Microsoft sold MS-DOS only to original equipment manufacturers. One major reason for this was. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code and the DOS kernel. Microsoft provided an OEM Adaptation Kit which allowed OEMs to customize the device driver code to their particular system. By the early 1990s, most PCs adhered to IBM PC standards so Microsoft began selling MS-DOS in retail with MS-DOS 5.0. In the mid-1980s Microsoft developed a multitasking version of DOS; this version of DOS is referred to as "European MS-DOS 4" because it was developed for ICL and licensed to several European companies. This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking, shared memory, device helper services and New Executable format executables.
None of these features were used in versions of DOS, but they were used to form the basis of the OS/2 1.0 kernel. This version of DOS is distinct from the released PC DOS 4.0, developed by IBM and based upon DOS 3.3. Digital Research attempted to regain the market lost from CP/M-86 with Concurrent DOS, FlexOS and DOS Plus with Multiuser DOS and DR DOS. Digital Research was bought by Novell, DR DOS became Novell DOS 7. Gordon Letwin wrote in 1995 that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages". Microsoft expected; the company planned to over time improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z-8000, LSI-11. IBM, did not want to replace DOS. After AT&T began selling Unix, Microsoft and IBM began developing OS/2 as an alternative; the two companies had a series of disagreements over two successor operating systems to DOS, OS/2 and Windows.
They split development of their DOS systems as a result. The last retail version of MS-DOS was MS-DOS 6.22. The last retail version of PC DOS was PC DOS 2000, though IBM did develop PC DOS 7.10 for OEMs and internal use. The FreeDOS project began on 26 June 1994, when Microsoft announced it would no longer sell or support MS-DOS. Jim Hall posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. A kernel, the COMMAND. COM command line interpreter, core utilities were created by pooling code they had wri