Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The park plays host to art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, the garden contained a pavilion, statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples, pears, in the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a garden maze, a feature of the Baroque garden. It had a system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. The 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade, Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides. The two main entrance are the Kings Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, and the Queens Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade, there are four other entrances to the park.
The tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Kriegers Baroque garden, special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was originally a pavilion, in 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann, in 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen. The Commandants House is located just left of the entrance to Rosenborg Castle. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling, today the building plays host to special exhibitions. The building is used as an exhibition space. It was built in 1688 and extended with a story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park, the Gartners House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen.
It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Orpheus and Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy, along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side
His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body, led to the famous Renaissance drawing by Da Vinci of Vitruvian Man. By his own description Vitruvius served as an artilleryman, the class of arms in the military offices. He probably served as a officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum. Little is known about Vitruvius life, most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura. Even his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain. Cetius Faventinus writes of Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores, this can be read as Vitruvius Polio, and others or, less likely, as Vitruvius, Vitruvius was a military engineer, or a praefect architectus armamentarius of the apparitor status group. He is mentioned in Pliny the Elders table of contents for Naturalis Historia, frontinus refers to Vitruvius the architect in his late 1st-century work De aquaeductu. Likely born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius and these names vary depending on the edition of De architectura.
Publius Minidius is written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, as an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesars chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus, the locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various foreign tribes. Although he describes places throughout De Architectura, he not say he was present. His service likely included north Africa, Hispania and Pontus, the position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, and the physicians who had the care of them and he had the charge of providing carriages and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He likewise had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, balistae, at various locations described by Vitruvius and sieges occurred.
He is the source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC. The broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC, and the siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic oppida, a legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata, of which ballista would be an auxiliary unit. Mainly known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect, frontinus mentions him in connection with the standard sizes of pipes
National Museum of Denmark
The National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museums main building is located a distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen. It contains exhibits from around the world, from Greenland to South America, the museum sponsors SILA - The Greenland Research Centre at the National Museum of Denmark to further archaeological and anthropological research in Greenland. Danish coins from Viking times to the present and coins from ancient Rome and Greece, as well as examples of the coinage, the National Museum keeps Denmark’s largest and most varied collection of objects from the ancient cultures of Greece and Italy, the Near East and Egypt. For example, it holds a collection of objects that were retrieved during the Danish excavation of Tell Shemshara in Iraq in 1957, the Danish pre-history section was re-opened in May 2008 after years of renovating. In 2013, an exhibition on the Vikings was opened by Queen Margrethe.
It has toured to other museums, including the British Museum in London, larsen Per Kristian Madsen Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark is the title of the museums yearbook which has been published since 1928 and contains articles and other contributions. ISSN 0084-9308 Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1807 -2007
Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Ministers Office, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables. The palace is home to the three supreme powers, the executive power, the legislative power, and the judicial power. It is the building in the world that houses all three of a countrys branches of government. The name Christiansborg is thus used as a metonym for the Danish political system. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires, the first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style, the chapel dates to 1826 and is in a neoclassical style.
The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style, Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, and is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public, the first castle on the site was Absalons Castle. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on an island outside Copenhagen Harbour. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishops palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops. Furthermore, the castle was frequently under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, in 1369, following a conflict with king Valdemar IV of Denmark, the Hanseatic League sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone.
The castle had long been a nuisance to the Hanseatic cities trade in the Sound. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. In the middle of the 15th century, the became the principal residence of the Danish kings
Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen, originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchants town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere, students, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², and includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen. It has a population of 10,140 and a density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts, to the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagens city centre.
In 1612, Christian IV initiated a programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area, in 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, and seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, and again in 1810-1813, even though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavns fortifications continued in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, and the areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen.
Today the area around the fortifications is a park area, Christianshavn is a lively, primarily residential area. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the centre of Christianshavn. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood, on the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Cultural institutions include Danish Architecture Centre and the North Atlantic House and it is in this area that the Church of Our Saviour and Christiania are found
It contains a variety of information on Greek and Roman buildings, as well as prescriptions for the planning and design of military camps and structures both large and small. Derived partially from Latin rhetoric, Vitruvian terms for order, arrangement and fitness for intended purposes have guided architects for centuries, the Roman author gave advice on the qualifications of an architect and on types of architectural drawing. The ten books or scrolls are organized as follows, De architectura – Ten Books on Architecture Roman architects were skilled in engineering, Vitruvius was very much of this type, a fact reflected in De architectura. He covered a variety of subjects he saw as touching on architecture. This included many aspects that may seem irrelevant to modern eyes, ranging from mathematics to astronomy, meteorology, in the Roman conception, architecture needed to take into account everything touching on the physical and intellectual life of man and his surroundings. Vitruvius, deals with many issues concerning architecture.
Book IX relates the abstract geometry of Plato to the work of the surveyor. Astrology is cited for its insights into the organisation of human life, Vitruvius cites Ctesibius of Alexandria and Archimedes for their inventions, Aristoxenus for music, Agatharchus for theatre, and Varro for architecture. Vitruvius sought to address the ethos of architecture, declaring that quality depends on the relevance of the artists work. Perhaps the most famous declaration from De architectura is one still quoted by architects, a modern interpretation of Wottons English might render it thus, The ideal building has three elements, it is sturdy and beautiful. Vitruvius studied human proportions and his canones were encoded in a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci. Vitruvius described the construction of sundials and water clocks, numerous such massive structures occur across the former empire, a testament to the power of Roman engineering. Vitruvius description of Roman aqueduct construction is short, but mentions key details especially for the way they were surveyed, and his book would have been of assistance to Frontinus, a general who was appointed in the late 1st century AD to administer the many aqueducts of Rome.
The Roman Empire went far in exploiting water power, as the set of no fewer than 16 water mills at Barbegal in France demonstrates, the mills ground grain in a very efficient operation, and many other mills are now known, such as the much Hierapolis sawmill. Vitruvius described many different construction materials used for a variety of different structures. Cement and lime received in-depth descriptions, the longevity of many Roman structures being mute testimony to their skill in building materials, Vitruvius advised that lead should not be used to conduct drinking water, clay pipes being preferred. He comes to conclusion in Book VIII of De architectura after empirical observation of the apparent laborer illnesses in the plumbum foundries of his time. In 1986, the United States banned the use of lead in plumbing due to lead poisonings neurological damage, much of the water used by Rome and many other cities was very hard, and coated the inner surfaces of the pipes, so lead poisoning was unlikely
Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. Empiricism, often used by scientists, says that knowledge is based on experience. One of the epistemological tenets is that sensory experience creates knowledge, empirical research, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides the scientific method. The term was used by the Empiric school of ancient Greek medical practitioners, a central concept in science and the scientific method is that it must be empirically based on the evidence of the senses. Both natural and social sciences use working hypotheses that are testable by observation, philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from ones sense-based experience. This view is contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses.
For example, John Locke held that knowledge could be arrived at through intuition. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, the main continental rationalists were advocates of the empirical scientific method. Vaisheshika darshana, founded by the ancient Indian philosopher Kanada, accepted perception and this is enumerated in his work Vaiśeṣika Sūtra. The notion of tabula rasa connotes a view of mind as a blank or empty recorder on which experience leaves marks. This denies that humans have innate ideas, the image dates back to Aristotle, What the mind thinks must be in it in the same sense as letters are on a tablet which bears no actual writing, this is just what happens in the case of the mind. These notions contrasted with Platonic notions of the mind as an entity that pre-existed somewhere in the heavens. This idea was developed in ancient philosophy by the Stoic school. Stoic epistemology generally emphasized that the mind starts blank, but acquires knowledge as the world is impressed upon it.
The doxographer Aetius summarizes this view as When a man is born, such as Sextus of Chaeronea, would continue this idea of empiricism in Stoic writings as well. As Sextus contends For every thought comes from sense-perception or not without sense-perception, so the immaterial active intellect, separate from any individual person, is still essential for understanding to occur. A similar Islamic theological novel, Theologus Autodidactus, was written by the Arab theologian and physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century, during the 13th century Thomas Aquinas adopted the Aristotelian position that the senses are essential to mind into scholasticism
Fredensborg Palace is a palace located on the eastern shore of Lake Esrum in Fredensborg on the island of Zealand in Denmark. It is the Danish Royal Family’s spring and autumn residence, and is often the site of important state visits and events in the Royal Family and it is the most used of the Royal Family’s residences. Krieger built the French-inspired baroque palace 1720–1726, and the King himself took a part in the planning of the building and grounds. The man responsible for the construction was General Building Master Johan Conrad Ernst. To commemorate the signing of the peace accord the palace was named Fredens Borg, the palace complex consisted of a small, almost square, 1 1⁄2-storey-high main palace with dome and lanterns. It is positioned exactly at the centre of what is known as a hunting star, during a hunt it was permissible to shoot freely straight down the long paths, which radiated out from the centre. The dome hall measured 15 x 15 m, and had a height of 27 m, the sumptuous room featured stucco by C. E.
Brenno and a plafond by Hendrick Krock. In front of the building was placed an octagonal courtyard encircled by the single-storey servants wings. It is the red building at Fredensborg Palace, and it has open half-timbers under a red tile roof. East of the octagon were the ring and the long stables building, To the east and adjacent to the main palace was an Orangery. On the other side of the church was the Courtiers Wing, residences for the court’s clerks and this section of the palace was built from 1724–1726, and introduces elements of the Dutch Baroque style and Rococo. The palace was extended throughout the early 18th century, however the structure of the palace has remained unchanged since its inauguration on October 11,1722. Krieger completed his work on the palace with the erection of the “new Court Chancery building” in 1731, the black-glazed tile, half-hipped roof building is now known as The Chancellery House. It butted up to the riding-ring on the southern edge, until her death, the late Queen Mother, Queen Ingrid used this house as her private residence.
The part of palace Chancellery House is the spring and autumn home of Crown Prince Frederik, a major alteration of Krieger’s original building was made in 1741–1744 when Lauritz de Thurah, the King’s favorite architect, elevated the roof of the palace’s main building. The slanted roof was replaced by a one, and a characteristically de Thurah sandstone balustrade was erected. In 1751 he transformed the Orangery into a building for the ladies-in-waiting. In 1753 Nicolai Eigtved extended the palace by adding four symmetrically-positioned corner pavilions with copper pyramid-shaped roofs to the main building, the palace gardens are among Denmarks largest historical gardens, and are Denmark’s finest example of a baroque garden
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen and part of Copenhagen Inner City. The island is dominated by the vast Christiansborg Palace which houses the Danish Parliament, the Supreme Court of Denmark, the Prime Ministers Office, the site used to consist of several small natural islands in the sound between the islands of Zealand and Amager. On the largest of these, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde constructed a castle in 1167. In 1250 the castle was extended with two towers to get the appearance that is now depicted on Copenhagens Coat of Arms. The castle was conquered by the Hanseatic League 1368 and pulled down the year as part of peace terms. Shortly after Copenhagen Castle was built on the site and it became the residence for the Danish king in 1443. However, the took place in a rather haphazard way and continued during the reign of the following kings. Probably during the reign of Christian III a building was constructed on the quay of the canal in front of the castle to house the Chancellery.
During the reign of Christian III and Frederick II an arsenal was constructed by the south of the castle. Under King Christian IV Slotsholmen saw considerable development, especially in the part of the island. Here a new harbour was established, surrounded on one side by an Arsenal. Other new buildings constructed were the Stock Exchange and the Brewhouse, all four of these historic buildings are still there today. By the time of the introduction of the monarchy in 1660. During the reign of King Frederick III, further lack of space in the led to the construction in 1665-1673 of an additional building between the Supply Depot and the Arsenal. This building, still visible today, was to house the Cabinet of curiosities of the king, founded about 1650, during the reign of King Frederick IV, a magnificent administration building was constructed in 1716-21 next to the palace adjacent to the Supply Depot. This new building was to house the chancelleries, thus replacing the previous chancellery building situated by the canal, the new chancellery building was connected to the castle by an arched passageway, thus allowing the king to stay in close contact with his government.
The Chancellery Building has functioned as the heart of the administration for almost 300 years. Several renovations were made, most notably by Frederick IV in 1721-29 and this rebuilding thoroughly changed the irregular appearance of the castle to a more regular shape
Architecture of Denmark
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, Gothic churches and it was during this period that, in a country with little access to stone, brick became the construction material of choice, not just for churches but for fortifications and castles. In parallel, the style became popular for ordinary dwellings in towns. Late in his reign, Christian IV became a proponent of Baroque which was to continue for a considerable time with many impressive buildings both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism came initially from France but was adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style and it was not, until the 1960s that Danish architects entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalism. Archaeological excavations in parts of Denmark have revealed much about the way the Vikings lived.
One of the most notable sites is Hedeby, located some 45 km south of the Danish border near the German town of Schleswig, it probably dates back to the end of the 8th century. The houses are deemed to be among the most sophisticated dwellings of their time, oak frames were used for the walls, and the roofs were probably thatched. Viking ring houses, such as those at Trelleborg, near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, have a different, ship-like shape. Each house consisted of a central hall,18 m ×8 m. Those at Fyrkat in the north of Jutland were 28.5 m long,5 m wide at the ends and 7.5 m in the middle, the walls consisted of double rows of posts with planks wedged horizontally between them. A series of posts slanted towards the wall were possibly used to support the building like buttresses. Denmarks first churches from the 9th century were built of timber and have not survived, hundreds of stone churches in the Romanesque style were built in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had a nave and chancel with small rounded windows.
Among the finest examples of brick Romanesque buildings are St. Bendts Church in Ringsted, the church at Østerlars on the island of Bornholm was built around 1150. Like three other churches on the island, it is a round church, the three-storeyed building is supported by a circular outer wall and an exceptionally wide, hollow central column. Construction of Lund Cathedral in Scania started in about 1103 when the region was part of the Kingdom of Denmark and it was the first of great Danish Romanesque cathedrals in the shape of a three-aisled basilica with transepts
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No