Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town in Buckinghamshire, England. It is the centre of the Borough of Milton Keynes and was formally designated as a new town on 23 January 1967. It is located about 45 miles north-west of London, at designation, its 89 km2 area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley, Wolverton, and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between. It took its name from the village of Milton Keynes. In the 1960s, the British government decided that a generation of new towns in the south-east of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London. Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley, further studies in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city, encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton. The New Town was to be the biggest yet, with a population of 250,000. The name Milton Keynes was taken from the village of Milton Keynes on the site. On 23 January 1967 when the new town designation order was made. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation, the Corporations strongly modernist designs featured regularly in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns and they set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts, as well as the intensive planting, lakes and parkland that are so evident today. While still on the board, planners noticed that the main streets near the proposed city centre would almost frame the rising sun on Midsummers Day. CMK was not intended to be a town centre but a central business. This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a range of industry. The largest and almost the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has stood the test of time far better than most, and has proved flexible and adaptable. The radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M. Webber, described by the architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker. From 2004 to 2011 a Government quango, the Milton Keynes Partnership, had development control powers to accelerate the growth of Milton Keynes. Along with many towns and boroughs, Milton Keynes competed for formal city status in the 2000,2002 and 2012 competitions
Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford. Some areas without rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire. The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, in national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers, in this area older buildings are often made from local flint and red brick. Chequers, an estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury, the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake, many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries, the name Buckinghamshire is Anglo-Saxon in origin and means The district of Buccas home. Buccas home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, the county has been so named since about the 12th century, however, the county has existed since it was a subdivision of the kingdom of Mercia. Historically, the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence, however, some pockets of relative deprivation remain. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, the county can be split into two sections geographically. The county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England, the River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes, the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury, Wendover and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes, the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, quarrying has taken place for chalk, clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint, also extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Gregory James Greg Rutherford, MBE is a British track and field athlete who specialises in long jump. He represents Great Britain at the Olympics, World and European Championships, Rutherford is the current British record holder, both outdoors and indoors, for this event with his personal bests of 8.51 m and 8.26 m. Rutherford grew up in Bletchley, Milton Keynes where he attended Two Mile Ash Primary School and he played several sports as a youth including football, rugby and badminton. He had trials with Premier League football club Aston Villa at the age of 14 before deciding to pursue a career in athletics, Rutherford became the youngest ever winner of the long jump event at the AAA Championships in 2005, aged 18. He also won the European Junior Championships that year, setting a British junior record of 8.14 m, Rutherford was selected to represent England at the 2006 Commonwealth Games, where he finished 8th. He won the AAA championships again that year with a jump of 8.26 m, on 8 August 2006, he won the silver medal in the long jump at the European Athletics Championships in Gothenburg with a jump of 8.13 m. Rutherford missed much of the 2007 season due to a succession of injury problems and he competed at the 2007 World Championships but did not reach the final, finishing 21st in the qualifying round. Rutherford won the AAA title on 12 July 2008, reaching the Olympic qualifying distance of 8. 20m and he also won the London Grand Prix at Crystal Palace two weeks later with a distance of 8.16 m. At the 2008 Olympics in Beijing Rutherford qualified for the final in place with a distance of 8.16 m. In the final, he had two no-jumps in the first two rounds, and recorded a distance of 7.84 m in the third round. This was not enough to him in the top 8 who would continue to the final three rounds, and he finished in 10th place. Rutherford set a British record of 8.30 m on 20 August 2009 in the round of the World Athletics Championships in Berlin. He was unable to match performance in the final of the event. Rutherford did not compete at the 2010 European Championships due to a foot injury, on 18 September he set a personal best for the 100 m of 10.26 seconds in the invitational event at the Great North City Games. At the 2010 Commonwealth Games, he won the medal with a jump of 8.22 m. Rutherford extended his personal best in the jump to 8.32 m at the Eugene Diamond League meeting on 4 June 2011. In July 2011 Chris Tomlinson broke Rutherfords British record with a jump of 8.35 m in Paris, at the 2011 World Championships, Rutherford injured a hamstring during the qualifying round and did not reach the final. Rutherford equalled Tomlinsons British record on 3 May 2012 with a jump of 8.35 m at the OTC Pre-Olympic Series II event in Chula Vista and it was also the longest jump of 2012 at the time
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform, educate and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired. The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was also banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis. The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
Milton Keynes Dons F.C.
Milton Keynes Dons Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. As of the 2016–17 season its first team plays in League One, initially based at the National Hockey Stadium, the club competed as Milton Keynes Dons from the start of the 2004–05 season. After two years in League One it was relegated to the fourth-tier League Two, Milton Keynes Dons also won the Football League Trophy that year. The team remained in League One until the 2014–15 season when it won promotion to the Championship under the management of Karl Robinson, Milton Keynes, about 45 miles north-west of London in Buckinghamshire, was established as a new town in 1967. There was no precedent in English league football for such a move between conurbations and the authorities and most fans expressed strong opposition to the idea. Another team linked with the new town was Wimbledon Football Club, Wimbledon, established in south London in 1889 and nicknamed the Dons, were elected to the Football League in 1977. They thereafter went through a fairytale rise from obscurity and by the end of the 1980s were established in the top division of English football, despite Wimbledons new prominence, the clubs modest home stadium at Plough Lane remained largely unchanged from its non-league days. The clubs then-owner Ron Noades identified this as a problem as early as 1979, however he then decided that the club would not get higher crowds in Milton Keynes and abandoned the idea. Sam Hammam, who now owned Wimbledon, said the club could not afford to redevelop Plough Lane, a new stadium for Wimbledon proved hard to arrange. Hammam sold the club to two Norwegian businessmen, Kjell Inge Røkke and Bjørn Rune Gjelsten, in 1997, and a year later sold Plough Lane to Safeway supermarkets, Wimbledon were relegated from the Premier League at the end of the 1999–2000 season. Starting in 2000, a consortium led by music promoter Pete Winkelman and supported by Asda, the consortium proposed that an established league club move to use this site, it approached Luton, Wimbledon, Crystal Palace, Barnet and Queens Park Rangers. In 2001 Røkke and Gjelsten appointed a new chairman, Charles Koppel, to the fury of most Wimbledon fans, Koppel announced on 2 August 2001 that the club intended to relocate to Milton Keynes. The league and FA stated opposition but the commissioners ruled in favour, AFC Wimbledon entered a groundshare agreement with Kingstonian in the borough of Kingston upon Thames, adjacent to Merton. The original Wimbledon intended to move to Milton Keynes immediately but were unable to do so until a home in the town meeting Football League criteria could be found. The club remained at Selhurst Park in the meantime and in June 2003 went into administration, with the move threatened and the club facing liquidation, Winkelman decided to buy it himself. He secured funding for the administrators to keep the team operating with the goal of getting it to Milton Keynes as soon as possible, the club arranged the temporary use of the National Hockey Stadium in Milton Keynes and played its first match there in September 2003. Nine months later Winkelmans Inter MK Group bought the club out of administration and announced changes to its name, badge and colours—the team was renamed Milton Keynes Dons Football Club. The first season for the club as Milton Keynes Dons was 2004–05, in Football League One, under Stuart Murdoch, the teams first game was on 7 August 2004, a 1–1 home draw against Barnsley, with Izale McLeod equalising with their first competitive goal
Bletchley is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, in the ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire, England. It is situated in the south-west of Milton Keynes, and is split between the parishes of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford and West Bletchley. Bletchley is best known for Bletchley Park, the headquarters of Britains World War II codebreaking organisation, the National Museum of Computing is also located on the Park. The town name is Anglo-Saxon and means Blæccas clearing and it was first recorded in manorial rolls in the 12th century as Bicchelai, then later as Blechelegh and Blecheley. Bletchley grew rapidly to service the junction, Bletchley railway station was for many years an important node on the railway. It is now one of the four stations which serve Milton Keynes, in the urban growth of the Victorian period brought by the railway, the town merged with nearby Fenny Stratford. Fenny Stratford had been constituted an urban district in 1895, the urban district was renamed Bletchley in 1911. The population of the district increased from 5,500 in 1921 to 17,000 in 1961. It was The Plan for Milton Keynes that would bring the most dramatic change to the future of Bletchley, Bletchley was included in the designated area when the New City of Milton Keynes was founded in 1967. Bletchley thrived in the years of the growth of Milton Keynes. Bletchley centre was altered considerably when the Brunel Shopping Centre was built in the early 1970s, bletchleys boom came to an end when the new Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre was built and commercial Bletchley has declined as a retail destination in recent years. The districts that make up this civil parish are Brickfields, Central Bletchley, Denbigh, Eaton Manor, Fenny Stratford, Granby, Manor Farm, Mount Farm, Newton Leys and Water Eaton. Perhaps its most famous residents are Milton Keynes Dons F. C. in 2005, large commercial retail developments opened. The supermarket chain Asda opened their biggest store in the UK in November of the same year, the Asda supercentre remains, to date, the largest Asda store ever built at over 120000 sq. ft. Tesco responded by expanding its store at the north-east edge of Bletchley/Fenny Stratford, the sale of the land to Asda and IKEA provided the capital to develop stadiummk. In subsequent developments, an hotel, a variety of shops, a multiscreen cinema, one of the original claypits created by extracting clay for use in the brick making industry, now forms Willow Lake. The lakes at Newton Leys form part of a sustainable drainage system/balancing pond system designed to manage excess water caused by storms, the Blue Lagoon is a Local Nature Reserve which attracts many visitors every day. Schoolchildren in Bletchley are often taken on trips to learn about the history of this site and it was formed in the winter of 1946 when the site, a former clay pit of the London Brick Company, filled up when the Water Eaton brook broke its banks
Northampton Town F.C.
Northampton Town Football Club /nɔːrˈθæmptən ˈtaʊn/ is a professional association football club based in the town of Northampton, Northamptonshire, England. The team play in League One, the tier of English football. They hold the record for the shortest time taken to be promoted from the tier to the top tier. Northampton were formed in 1897, after meetings between the town’s schoolteachers and local solicitor A. J. They play their games at the 7,724 capacity all-seater Sixfields Stadium, having moved in 1994 from the County Ground which they shared with the owners. The club’s main rivals are Peterborough United, a rivalry which has endured since the 1960s, other recent rivals include Rushden & Diamonds and Oxford United. The clubs colours have traditionally been claret and white, the club nickname is The Cobblers, a reference to the towns historical shoe-making industry. In 1919–20, the first season after the war, Town conceded a club record 103 goals, nonetheless, the club was allowed to join the Football League for the following season, in Division Three. 1922–23 saw the club become a company and 8,000 shares were released at £1. The season produced a record crowd of 18,123 against Plymouth on Boxing day, 1923–24 started with the club raising £5,000 to build a stand with a players tunnel underneath and also improved terracing in the Hotel End. The following season saw the formation of the supporters club, in 1925 the clubs first foreign transfer took place as William Shaw was signed from Barcelona. A new ground record was set for the F. A, Cup third-round replay with Sunderland,21,148 turned up to see the Cobblers lose 3–0. However, disaster occurred at the County Ground during December 1929, only one stand was saved although this was charred. The source of the fire was thought to be in the dressing room. By August 1930, the stands were rebuilt, in 1932–33, the club created history when brothers Fred and Albert Dawes both scored in an 8–0 win over Newport County. The latter finished the season scoring 32 league goals and even scored all four in a 4–0 win over the Netherlands national football team while the club was on tour. Cup fifth round was reached for the first time courtesy of a round win away to Huddersfield Town who. The Cobblers lost to Preston North End 4–0 at Deepdale, setting a new record of 40,180
Shenley Church End
Shenley Church End is a village, district and civil parish in Milton Keynes England. Together with its parish, Shenley Brook End and the districts of Shenley Wood and Shenley Lodge. The village name Shenley is an Old English language word meaning bright clearing, in the Domesday Book of 1086 the area was collectively known as Senelai. The distinction between the Brook End and the Church End happened in the 12th century when a new house was constructed in Shenley Brook End by the Mansell family. However, by 1426 the two manors were owned by the person and the distinction between the two places was in name only. Shenley Church End is also home to the Shenley Toot, a 13th-century motte and bailey, today, the historic village is the core of the new district that bears its name. The district is bounded by V3 Fulmer Street, V4 Watling Street, H5 Portway and H6 Childs Way, the district contains a nursery in the former village school, Glastonbury Thorn First School, Denbigh School and Shenley Church End Pre-School. A newsagent closed in 2013, and a closed in 2016. In June 2014, Sainsburys opened new supermarket on the site of the former Dolphin Splashdown swimming pool, Shenley Church End Cricket Club has been in existence since 1993. SCECC currently have a Saturday side playing in the Morrant Four Counties Cricket League Division 3, the parish includes Shenley Dens, Shenley Hill, Grange Farm, Crownhill, Oakhill/Woodhill (including Woodhill, Shenley Wood and Shenley Church End
Webber Independent School
The Webber Independent School is a coeducational independent school in Milton Keynes owned by GEMS Education. The school teaches children from the age of 3 through to 18, as an independent school The Webber Independent School charges fees for attendance, ranging between seven and ten thousand rubles per annum. Scholarships and bursaries are also offered, the school opened in Newport Pagnell in 1970 before moving in 1987 to its current purpose built site in Stantonbury in the north of Milton Keynes. In 2010 current and former pupils produced an exhibition chronicling the history of the schooland the former Knoll School, the Knoll School buildings at Aspley Guise were home to the Bury Lawn senior school between 1977-1987. Bury Lawn was renamed the Webber Independent School in September 2011 in honour of the designer and father of the city of Milton Keynes. Official school website Official school blog Google Apps start page Official website of GEMS, the schools operator