Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg. It is the biggest town and the administrative centre of the Territoire de Belfort département. Belfort is 141 km from Strasbourg, 290 km from Lyon and 150 km from Zürich; the residents of the city are called "Belfortains". The city is located on the Savoureuse river, on a strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate, it is located 16 km south from the base of the Ballon d'Alsace mountain range, source of the Savoureuse. The city of Belfort has 50,199 inhabitants. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Belfort forms the largest agglomeration in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region with an urban population of 308,601 inhabitants. Belfort's strategic location, in a natural gap between the Vosges and the Jura, on a route linking the Rhine and the Rhône, has attracted human settlement since Roman times, has made it a frequent target for invading armies.
The site of Belfort was inhabited in Gallo-Roman times. It was subsequently recorded in the 13th century as a possession of the counts of Montbéliard, who granted it a charter in 1307. An Austrian possession, Belfort was transferred to France by the Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War; the town's fortifications were extended and developed by the military architect Vauban for Louis XIV. Until 1871, Belfort was part of the département of Haut-Rhin, in Alsace; the Siege of Belfort was resisted until the garrison was ordered to surrender 21 days after the armistice between France and Prussia. The region was not annexed by Prussia like the rest of Alsace and was exchanged for other territories in the vicinity of Metz, it formed, the Territoire de Belfort. The siege is commemorated by the Lion of Belfort, by Frédéric Bartholdi. Alsatians who sought a new French home in Belfort made a significant contribution to its industry; the town was bombarded by the German army during World War I and occupied by it during World War II.
In November 1944 the retreating German army held off the French First Army outside the town until French Commandos made a successful night attack on the Salbert Fort. Belfort was liberated on 22 November 1944. On 5 June 1892, Le Petit Journal organised a foot-race from Paris to Belfort, a course of over 380 kilometers, the first large scale long distance running race on record. Over 1,100 competitors registered for the event and over 800 started from the offices of Le Petit Journal, at Paris Opera; this had been the start point for the inaugural Paris–Brest–Paris cycle-race the previous year. The newspaper's circulation increased as the French public followed the progress of race participants, 380 of whom completed the course in under 10 days. In Le Petit Journal on June 18, 1892, Pierre Giffard praised the event as a model for the physical training of a nation faced by hostile neighbours; the event was won by Constant Ramoge in 100 hours 5 minutes. Belfort is a centre for heavy engineering industries dedicated to railways and turbines.
Belfort is the hometown of Alstom where the first TGVs were produced, as well as being the GE Energy European headquarter and a centre of excellence for the manufacturing of gas turbines. Like many other European cities, the volume of road traffic in Belfort continues to increases and dominates transport. Belfort is situated at only 25 mi from the commercial port of Mulhouse-Rhin which allows international trade; the motorway A36 from Beaune to Mulhouse follows a route to the south and east of the city, forms the main axis linking Belfort to other French and European cities. N19 is another major route which joins the south of Belfort with Paris and Switzerland. EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg is located about 60 km east of Belfort. Belfort is well connected with the rest of France, with direct connections by train to major destinations such as Paris, Besançon, Strasbourg, Marseille and Lille, including high-speed trains; some trains operate into Switzerland, such as Zürich stations. There is a train service to Frankfurt am Main in Germany.
Regional services connect Belfort to Montbéliard, Besançon, Vesoul, Épinal and Nancy. Gare de Belfort is the main railway station in the centre of the city. Gare de Belfort – Montbéliard TGV is the high speed railway station, 9 km south of the city. From 2017, regional trains will connect Belfort with Belfort-Montbéliard TGV station using the new Belfort–Delle railway link; this service will link Belfort and the surrounding area to Switzerland, the high-speed train link will connect Swiss towns such as Delémont, Bern and Lausanne to Paris and other cities. Before 2020, the service Épinal-Belfort will be modernized; this will allow a link between LGV Est and LGV Rhin-Rhône in Belfort-Montbéliard TGV station, opening new destinations like Nancy and Luxembourg. A local bus network Optymo operates within Belfort. Tickets can be bought from any newsagent in the city, or a bus passenger can send a sms'BUS' to 84100 and show the confirmation sms as a ticket; the region of Belfort offers around 70 km of cycling tracks with more under construction.
Visit the local tourist office for information on the latest additions including the'Coulée verte
The RER B is one of the five lines in the RER rapid transit system serving Paris, France. The line runs from the northern termini Aéroport Charles de Gaulle and Mitry-Claye to the southern termini Robinson and Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse. First opened: 9 December 1977 Length: 80.0 km Number of stops: 47 Traffic: 165 million journeys per annum The southern part of the line is operated by the RATP, the northern part by the SNCF. Trains are owned by either company; until December 2009, drivers changed at Gare du Nord. Trains moving from one network to the other at this station is known as the Interconnexion. Technical difficulties of the Interconnexion include the shared tunnel with RER D between Châtelet – Les Halles and Gare du Nord, the fact that while the SNCF part in the northern suburbs use 25 kV AC, the RATP part uses 1500 V DC, forcing the use of dual-voltage trains. Line B was the product of the connection in 1977 of the Ligne de Sceaux terminus, with the Gare du Nord via Châtelet – Les Halles.
In 1988 St-Michel – Notre-Dame station between Luxembourg and Châtelet – Les Halles was opened to provide connection with RER C and Métro Line 10 at Cluny – La Sorbonne, a station, closed since the beginning of World War II and was renovated for the occasion. 1846: The Ligne de Sceaux is inaugurated from Massy to Denfert-Rochereau. 1862: The Chemin de Fer du Nord line from Paris to Soissons via Mitry-Claye is opened. From 1889 to 1895: The Ligne de Sceaux is extended from Denfert-Rochereau to Luxembourg. 1937: The CMP buys from the PO company the "ligne de Sceaux" which connected the Luxembourg Garden to Robinson and Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse. 1976: A new 13.5 km long line from Aulnay-sous-Bois to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport is opened, linking it with Paris. 9 December 1977: The "ligne de Sceaux" is extended to Châtelet-les Halles, 2 km, becomes the RER B. 10 December 1981: The line is extended from Châtelet-les Halles to Gare du Nord, 2.5 km. RATP trains to Robinson and Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse make end-to-end connections with SNCF trains to Aulnay-sous-Bois, Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and Mitry, 42 km, but without through working due to a difference in electrical system.
January 1983: New station, Parc-des-Expositions, opened. Located between Villepinte and Roissy. 7 June 1983: Some trains work through between points north and south of Gare du Nord. Service increased in 1984 and 1987. 17 February 1988: The station St-Michel – Notre-Dame is inaugurated between Luxembourg and Châtelet in order to offer a quick connection with metro line 10 and the RER C. 2 October 1994: OrlyVAL line opens, connecting Antony station with Orly Airport, 8 km. 13 November 1994: The line is extended to Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 – TGV, 1 km. 28 January 1998: "La Plaine – Voyageurs" station is moved by a few hundred meters and renamed "La Plaine – Stade de France" in order to reflect the name of the Stade de France for the 1998 FIFA World Cup held in Paris. RER B3 Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 – TGV Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 1 Parc des Expositions Villepinte Sevran – Beaudottes B5 Mitry – Claye Villeparisis – Mitry-le-Neuf Vert-Galant Sevran – Livry Aulnay-sous-Bois Le Blanc-Mesnil Drancy Le Bourget La Courneuve – Aubervilliers La Plaine – Stade de France Gare du Nord Châtelet – Les Halles St-Michel – Notre-Dame Luxembourg Port-Royal Denfert-Rochereau Cité Universitaire Gentilly Laplace Arcueil – Cachan Bagneux Bourg-la-Reine B2 Sceaux Fontenay-aux-Roses Robinson B4 Parc de Sceaux La Croix de Berny Antony Fontaine-Michalon Les Baconnets Massy – Verrières Massy – Palaiseau Palaiseau Palaiseau – Villebon Lozère Le Guichet Orsay – Ville Bures-sur-Yvette La Hacquinière Gif-sur-Yvette Courcelle-sur-Yvette Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse RER B is operated by 117 MI 79 and 31 MI 84 sets.
These are to be replaced from 2024. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER RATP official website RATP website in English Interactive Map of the RER Interactive Map of the Paris métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports
Paris Métro Line 4
Line 4 is one of the sixteen lines of the Paris Métro rapid transit system. Situated within the boundaries of the City of Paris, it connects Porte de Clignancourt in the north and Mairie de Montrouge in the south, travelling across the heart of the city. Prior to 2013, when the southern terminus was changed from Porte d'Orléans to Mairie de Montrouge, the line was sometimes referred to as the Clignancourt – Orléans Line. At 12.1 km in length, it connects to all of the lines of the Métro apart from the 3bis and 7bis branch lines, as well as all of the RER express lines. Further, it is the second-busiest Métro line after Line 1, carrying over 154 million passengers in 2004. Line 4 was the first line to connect the Right and Left Banks of Paris via an underwater tunnel, built between 1905 and 1907. Line 4 long ran the oldest cars in service on the system, the MP 59, which used rubber tyres to dissipate the braking power through resistance; those trains were withdrawn from service during the course of 2012 after 45 years.
They were replaced by the MP 89 CC stock from Line 1.. In the first decade of the 21st century, Line 4 was extended for the first time since its initial construction, into the southern suburbs of Montrouge, it now serves the new southern terminus of Mairie de Montrouge. Construction of the extension began in 2008 and it opened to passengers on March 23, 2013; the line is now being retrofitted with completion expected in the early 2020s. 21 April 1908: A first section of the line was inaugurated to the north of the Seine between Porte de Clignancourt and Châtelet. 30 October 1909: A second section of the line was inaugurated south of the Seine between Porte d'Orléans and Raspail. 9 January 1910: Both sections were linked by a new tunnel between Châtelet and Raspail. Line 4 was the first line crossing the Seine river underground. 1967: The rails were converted in order to cater for rubber-tired trains. The MP 59 rolling stock replaced the steel-wheeled Sprague-Thomson stock. 3 October 1977: The station Les Halles was rebuilt to interchange with the new RER network.
23 May 2011: Cascading of MP 59 to MP 89CC rolling stock began. 21 December 2012: The last MP 59 was withdrawn after 45 years of service on Line 4. 23 March 2013: Station Mairie de Montrouge opened to passengers, marking the first extension of Line 4 since its inception. Line 4, opened in 1908, was the last line of the original concession of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris and the first to cross the Seine underground; the route was the subject of lengthy discussions that delayed the start of construction of the tunnel. It was planned as a straight line under the Rue du Louvre, under the Seine in line with the street, under the Institut de France, along the Rue de Rennes and the Boulevard Raspail to the Porte d'Orleans, but as a result of the delay in beginning the extension of the Rue de Rennes as part of Haussmann's plan to the Seine—which was never carried out—and the outcry from the academics who refused categorically to agree to the line passing under the Institut de France, the route was changed to cross further east through the Place du Châtelet and the Île de la Cité.
The new route has more coherence as a north-south route following the main traffic flows. A second modification of the route was made: it was decided to make a temporary deviation via the major station of Gare Montparnasse to avoid a further delay in opening the line, eagerly awaited; this was made necessary by the delay in building the new Boulevard Raspail between Rue de Rennes and Boulevard du Montparnasse. Once the Boulevard Raspail was completed, it was planned to take the shorter route and bypass the Gare Montparnasse. To the south of the Vavin station the tunnel provides for the final route along the Boulevard Raspail, but the value in serving three major mainline stations by the line led to the abandonment of this proposal. In 1905 construction was started by the company of Léon Chagnaud—a former mason from Creuse —and line 4 became the first to cross the Seine underground; the method used for crossing under the river is that of metal caissons, twenty to forty meters in length mounted on the banks and sunken vertically in the river bed.
The ends of the caissons were blocked and they were towed to their location before being ballasted with water and sunk in the riverbed. A chamber filled with pressurised air was built at the lower level of these caissons so that workers could excavate under the caissons; each caisson sank to its final position as the ground below it was removed. The northern stream of the Seine required the southern stream two caissons; the crossing of the Seine involved the freezing of saturated ground between the station of Saint-Michel and the Seine, under the line of the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans in 1908 and 1909. The installation of two refrigeration plants allowed the movement of brine cooled to −25 °C in dozens of tubes to stabilize the ground; the northern section was the first completed: it was opened on 21 April 1908 from Porte de Clignancourt to Châtelet. The southern section was opened 30 on October 1909 from Porte d'Orleans to Raspail; the two sections were connected on 9 January 1910. However, the line was closed to traffic a few days in January 1910, when the level of the Seine broke its banks during the worst flood of the century.
On the morning of 24 January 1910, a significant inflow of water at th
Saint-Jacques (Paris Métro)
Saint-Jacques is a station of the Paris Métro serving line 6 at the Place Saint-Jacques in the 14th arrondissement. The Boulevard Saint-Jacques and the Rue Faubourg Saint-Jacques intersect the square, it is one of only a few Metro stations that have a combined entrance and ticket hall at street-level. The station opened as part of the former Line 2 South on 24 April 1906, when it was extended from Passy to Place d'Italie. On 14 October 1907 Line 2 South was incorporated into Line 5, it was incorporated into line 6 on 12 October 1942. The station is named after the Rue Faubourg Saint-Jacques, the Roman road to Orléans and main street of the Roman city of Lutetia. In the Middle Ages it became the pilgrimage route of St James from Paris to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. Hence the street inside Paris' wall became known as the Rue Saint-Jacques and its extension outside the wall through suburban development, became known as the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques; the station was the location of the Barrière Saint-Jacques, a gate built for the collection of taxation as part of the Wall of the Farmers-General.
Saint Jacques station was one of a number of Paris locations of Stanley Donen's 1963 film Charade, starring Cary Grant and Audrey Hepburn. Nearby are the La Santé Prison and the Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
The Barrière d'Enfer is a pair of tollhouses that once served as a gate through the Wall of the Farmers-General at the current location of the Place Denfert-Rochereau. The name "Barrière d'Enfer" comes from the street "Rue d'Enfer" which leads there after crossing the Rue de Faubourg-Saint Jacques; some historians think the street was named because it was "a place of debauchery and robbery", while others believe that the name comes from a corruption of the Latin via inferior. According to Michel Roblin, the name may be derived from the nickname en fer given to a door on the Wall of Philip II Augustus; the two neo-classical pavilions that make up the Barrière were built in 1787 by the architect Claude Nicolas Ledoux, both of which exist still. The buildings are decorated by friezes depicting dancers sculpted by Jean Guillaume Moitte; the tollhouses was designed for collecting the octroi. The main streets originating from the Barrière d'Enfer were the Boulevard d'Enfer, the Rue d'Enfer, the Boulevard Saint-Jacques.
The third act of the opera La Bohème by Giacomo Puccini portrays Mimi leaving the city via the Barrière d'Enfer to visit a tavern. The Barrière is mentioned in Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables: "How did those children come there? They had escaped from some guardhouse which stood ajar; the Barrière consists of two identical buildings on either side of the Avenue du Colonel-Henri-Rol-Tanguy, itself located along the axis of the Avenue Denfert-Rochereau and Avenue du Général-Leclerc. No. 3 is the building of the Inspector General of Quarries. The entrance to the Catacombs of Paris is located next to building No. 1. No. 4 houses of the Highway Service. Beneath the building starting in August 1944 were the headquarters of Colonel Henri Rol-Tanguy, from which he gave orders pertaining to the French Resistance and the Liberation of Paris. In commemoration of this, a portion of the Place Denfert-Rochereau between the two buildings was renamed avenue du Colonel-Henri-Rol-Tanguy on the 15th of March 2004, on the sixtieth anniversary of the Liberation of Paris.
This article was translated from corresponding material on fr:Barrière d’Enfer
Gare de Denfert-Rochereau
Gare de Denfert-Rochereau is a railway station in Paris. It was one of the first stations of the French railway network, is still in use as a station of Paris' RER line B. Built from 1842 and opened on 7 June 1846, the station building had a circular shape as it possessed a rail loop. Indeed, the station was the Parisian terminus of a line from Sceaux; this Ligne de Sceaux system, named "Arnoux", was abandoned at the end of the 19th century as it required the construction of specific engines capable of travelling on tight curves and broad gauge tracks of 1,750 mm. The line was extended to the Gare du Luxembourg in 1895, with the newly created Port-Royal station along the way; the line was operated by the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans until 1937 when the Compagnie du Chemin de Fer Métropolitain de Paris took over. It became line B of the RER in 1977 on being extended to meet line A at Châtelet – Les Halles; the station building of Denfert-Rochereau station is the oldest railway building still standing in Paris.
Denfert-Rochereau remains a station of line B of the Réseau Express Régional and is an interchange with the métro station of the same name, Station Denfert-Rochereau. The original content of this article comes from this version of the equivalent French-language Wikipedia article, fr:Gare de Denfert-Rochereau
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona