Li Zhimin, was a general of the People's Liberation Army from Liuyang, Hunan. Li was the former political commissar and director for the Political Department of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Li was an outstanding political leader in the PLA. Li joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1927 and the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in 1928, he held various positions as Red Fifth Army party Secretary General and Second Division Security Bureau Chief prior to the Long March. Upon reaching Shanbei, he served as the director of the Central Military Commission for the eighty-first division. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Li was the Hebei military region's Political Department deputy political commissar. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Li was the director for the Political Department of the Chinese People's Volunteers, Political Commissar for the Fuzhou military region and various other posts, he received private education when he was 9 and in 1924, went back to his hometown in Hunan to become a teacher.
Li joined the Guomindang in 1926, was an elected member of the Gaoping District Division. In April 1927, Li decided to join the CCP In March 1928, Li was involved in the formation of guerrilla units and carrying out armed struggles. In the same year in December, he participated in the invasion of Changsha under the post of the Red Fifth Army General Secretary; as the Political Commissar for the Red Fifth Army, he took part in the invasion of Changsha. In the spring of 1932, as the director for the Political Department of the Second Division he took part in the Battle of Ganzhou; this was an attempt to cover the main force of the CCP breaking out of the Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet. On October 1934, Li participated in the Long March. During the conflict in Fushan, Li was credited with the recruitment of 600-700 men and stockpiling of grain and cloth. During spring 1937, Li enrolled into the Chinese Military and Politics University of the Anti-Japanese invasion. During the Sino-Japanese War, he had posts on both the front and support lines of the communist forces.
In 1944 he served as the deputy political commissar of the Political Department. In December 1946, Li was the political commissar for the second column of the Jinchaji Field Army, spearing heading many assaults in this area. During the Pingjin Campaign, he fought in other regions. Li participated in the Battle of Taiyuan in 1949 as the director of the Political Department of the People's Liberation Army 20th Corps. Following the Battle of Taiyuan, Li replaced Luo Ruiqing as the political commissar of the 19th Corps and led his troops to engage in the Battle of Lanzhou and Battle of Ningxia. In late 1949, Li Zhimin served as political commissar of the Military District of Shaanxi. During the Korean War, he was appointed as the 19th People's Volunteer Army Corps political commissar. After his return to China in 1957, Li was appointed as the Political Commissar of the People's Liberation Army Military Academy. Despite being persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, Li assumed role of political commissar for the Fuzhou Military Region in 1972.
Li Zhimin was an alternate member of the 8th CCP Central Committee, member of the 10th and 11th Central Committee, representative at the 1st and 4th National People's Congress. He was elected to the CCP's Central Advisory Committee in 1982. On November 11, 1987, Li died in Beijing
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Li Tianyou was a general of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. He led Communist forces to victory during the Battle of Siping, he was Lin Biao's chief of staff during the Chinese Civil War. Earlier in the war, he earned a reputation as a reckless military leader due to his intentional sacrifice of his entire division during the Long March though that bought more time for the Communist forces to retreat from the pursuing KMT forces. During the Korean War, he commanded the PVA 13th Army which defeated the UN forces in northwestern Korea
Chen Mingren was a prominent military figure from Liling, Hunan Province. He was a top level military commander in the Republic of China before his defection to Communist China in 1949. Chen was awarded with the rank of General in 1955. Chen was born into family of farmers in Hunan on 7 April 1903, he went through his education in private institutions and underwent military training in 1924. On 19 November 1924, he was transferred to the Whampoa Military Academy. Upon his graduation and stellar military performance during the Northern Expedition, he rose through the ranks quickly. By 1928, he was a colonel in the Republic of China Army, he was the general of the 24th Revolutionary Army during the Central Plains War whom led a Pyrrhic victory against Shi Yousan. He was appointed as the 88th Division commander in 1932 and led the Republican Armies against the Communist Party of China's Chinese Red Army in Jiangxi and Fujian during the Encirclement Campaigns. Following his defeat to the Communists in 1934 at Shaxian County, Chen was transferred to the Lushan Military Academy.
Upon his graduation and the trust he had over Chiang Kai-shek, he was appointed into the Republican Senate for military affairs and became the Director of the Guomindang Military Department. After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Chen was appointed as a Lieutenant-General in the 2nd Army Division. Between 1937-1939, he held key positions such as being the commander of the Changsha, Hengyang, Leiyang garrisons. In the winter of 1941, he was appointed as the deputy commander of the 71st ROC Army. In 1946, the 71st Army was transported by US warships to the Northeast in preparation for the anticipated Chinese Civil War. With the start of the Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China by Communist general Lin Biao, Chen's 71st Army was forced to retreat to and rendezvous at Siping, Jilin. Mustering local forces and his own army, he had around 30 thousand man waiting from reinforcements. Between 22 May to 30 June 1947, Chen was able to repel the Chinese Red Army in Northeast China, led by Li Tianyou.
In June, he was able to resist the overwhelming forces under the command of Lin Biao at Siping Street for more than 40 days. For his gallant efforts, he was awarded with the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun and was promoted to the 7th Corps Commander. Although successful in the initial stages of the Siping Campaign, the Communist forces whom surrounded the stronghold managed to break the Nationalist defenses following a 9-month long assault. At the eve of the Huaihai Campaign, Bai Chongxi recommended Chen Mingren to Chiang Kai-shek as the garrison commander of Wuhan. Chen transferred to his Wuhuan office in October 1948 was concurrently the commander of the 29th Nationalist Army, he became the provincial chairman of the Hunan Provincial Government. On 4 August 1949, Cheng Qian defected to the Communists at Changsha. After encouraged by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai to continue his military service, he joined the People's Liberation Army
Gan Siqi, born as Jiang Fengwei, other name Jiang Bingkun, was a general of the People's Liberation Army of China. Gan was born in Hunan Province, he joined the Communist Youth League in 1925, joined the Communist Party of China in 1926. He went to the Soviet Union in 1927 to study at Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, he came back in 1930, became political director in Red Six Army Group and Red Two Army Group. He participated in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was the director of political department of 120 division of Eighth Route Army. During the Chinese Civil War, he was the director of political department in No. 1 Field Army. After formation of the People's Republic of China, he was the vice political commissar and director of political department of Chinese People's Volunteer Army, he became vice director of the General Political Department of PLA. He was made a general in 1955, he was a delegate to the 1st National People's Congress, a deputy of 7th CPC National Congress, an alternate member of 8th CPC Central Committee.
His wife, Li Zhen, was the first female major general in PRC
Fu Zhong was a general in the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China from Sichuan. Fu Zhong joined the Chinese Communist party in 1921, graduated from the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University in 1930, he was appointed as the head of the political department in the Counter-Japanese Military and Political University and served in various positions in the Eighth Route Army as the political commissar. During the Chinese Civil War, he was the deputy head of the political department in the Central Military Commission, he was one of the earliest military leaders. Fu went to Shanghai in 1921 to study French. During this period, he was affected by the May Fourth Movement and by the winter of 1921, he joined the newly founded Communist Party of China. After returning from Russia in 1930, he assisted Zhou Enlai in Shanghai's personnel and military transport work and at the same time participated in the translation of the "Soviet Infantry Fighting Order" and "Soviet Political Work Regulations".
During the Long March in 1935, Fu was responsible for communal distribution and conducting preparatory work for combat. In August, he was elected as an alternate member of the 6th Central Committee. Upon Zhang Guotao's attempt to set up an alternate communist base, Fu classified him as an "alternate member of the Politburo" but refused to work for his branch of the central committee. Following the rendezvous between the 4th Red and 2nd Red Armies in July 1937 he became the director for Central Committee Northwest Organization Department, based in Shaanbei, he was appointed as the head of the political department in the Counter-Japanese Military and Political University. Fu attended the Luochuan Conference in August 1938 and was appointed as the director of civil affairs within the Eighth Route Army's political department, he put forward the "Political Army Reform Program", published alongside "Political Military Order" that involved key leaders such as Zhu De, Peng Dehuai and Zuo Quan. In the spring of 1940, he issued orders for the Eighth Army to be involved in the communes and when he returned to Yan'an during winter, he was holding key positions such as being the deputy director of the CMC's and the Joint Defense Forces' Political Department.
In 1945, he participated in the 7th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, receiving praise from Mao Zedong for a speech regarding the unity of the party at the meeting. In the beginning of 1946, Fu was transferred to Chongqing to take charge as the President of Xinhua Daily and the Propaganda minister for Sichuan, he contributed to key doctrines of the CPC's military and politics, such as being involved in the publishing of "The Chinese People's Liberation Army Party Committee Ordinance", "Revolutionary Military Commission Regulations", "New Red Army Initial Summary" and other documents. In the 1st National Artists Congress during July 1949, he published a report on the "Contributions of the Army to Art". After the founding of the PRC, Fu was appointed as the deputy director of the People's Liberation Army General Political Department, he was a longtime contributor to the army's cultural framework. He was awarded first class medals in the Order of Bayi, Order of Independence and Freedom and Order of Liberation.
He was proactive in publishing reports that moulded the political framework of the post war CPC. However, he was criticized and checked during the Cultural Revolution, he was elected as the deputy director of the Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission, was elected as a member of the Standing Committee of the Central Advisory Committee during the 12th CPC National Congress. Fu was a member of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Central Military Commission, the 3rd, 5th National People's Congress Standing Committee and was the 3rd and 4th vice chairman of the Chinese Federation for Arts. In 1988 he was awarded with the Honor Merit Medal of first class. Fu died in Beijing on 28 July 1989, he was praised by the CPC as "an outstanding member of the Communist Party of China, an experienced and loyal proletarian revolutionary and our military's outstanding political work leader"
Li Da (general)
Li Da was a general in the People's Liberation Army of China, former deputy of the PLA General Staff, as well as being an adviser to the Central Military Commission. Xiao was born in Shaanxi Province of China, he participated the Encirclement Campaigns in 1930s. He participated in the Long March, he was recruited to the Red Fourth Army. Between 1930-1933, he was appointed as first to command of the Third Army, Second Army Group, the Eighth Route Army, fighting in many battles consisting of the Nationalist Encirclement Campaigns till the Chinese Civil War, he died in Beijing on July 12, 1993