Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera. Bats are more manoeuvrable than birds, flying with their long spread-out digits covered with a thin membrane or patagium; the smallest bat, arguably the smallest extant mammal, is Kitti's hog-nosed bat, 29–34 mm in length, 15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. The largest bats are the flying foxes and the giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus, which can weigh 1.6 kg and have a wingspan of 1.7 m. The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with over 1,200 species; these were traditionally divided into two suborders: the fruit-eating megabats, the echolocating microbats. But more recent evidence has supported dividing the order into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, with megabats as members of the former along with several species of microbats. Many bats are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores. A few species feed on animals other than insects. Most bats are nocturnal, many roost in caves or other refuges.
Bats are present throughout the world, with the exception of cold regions. They are important in their ecosystems for dispersing seeds. Bats provide humans at the cost of some threats. Bat dung has been used as fertiliser. Bats consume insect pests, they are sometimes numerous enough to serve as tourist attractions, are used as food across Asia and the Pacific Rim. They are natural reservoirs such as rabies. In many cultures, bats are popularly associated with darkness, witchcraft and death. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, related to the fluttering of wings. Middle English had bakke, most cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, "moth, nocturnal insect"; the word "bat" was first used in the early 1570s. The name "Chiroptera" derives from Ancient Greek: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and πτερόν – pteron, "wing"; the delicate skeletons of bats do not fossilise well, it is estimated that only 12% of bat genera that lived have been found in the fossil record.
Most of the oldest known bat fossils were very similar to modern microbats, such as Archaeopteropus. The extinct bats Palaeochiropteryx tupaiodon and Hassianycteris kumari are the first fossil mammals whose colouration has been discovered: both were reddish-brown. Bats were grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews and primates. Modern genetic evidence now places bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, with its sister taxon as Fereuungulata, which includes carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, cetaceans. One study places Chiroptera as a sister taxon to odd-toed ungulates; the phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflected the view that these groups of bats had evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor capable of flight; this hypothesis recognised differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals.
Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a monophyletic group. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene, belong within the four major lines of microbats. Two new suborders have been proposed. Yangochiroptera includes the other families of a conclusion supported by a 2005 DNA study. A 2013 phylogenomic study supported the two new proposed suborders. In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera; the flying primate hypothesis proposed that, when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features not shared with Microchiroptera. For example, the brains of megabats have advanced characteristics. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues about the meaning of the genetic and morphological evidence; the 2003 discovery of an early fossil bat from the 52 million year old Green River Formation, Onychonycteris finneyi, indicates that flight evolved before echolocative abilities.
Onychonycteris had claws on all five of its fingers, whereas modern bats have at most two claws on two digits of each hand. It had longer hind legs and shorter forearms, similar to climbing mammals that hang under branches, such as sloths and gibbons; this palm-sized bat had short, broad wings, suggesting that it could not fly as fast or as far as bat species. Instead of flapping its wings continuously while flying, Onychonycteris alternated between flaps and
A bugbear is a legendary creature or type of hobgoblin comparable to the bogeyman, other creatures of folklore, all of which were used in some cultures to frighten disobedient children. Its name is derived from the Middle English word "bugge", or the old Welsh word bwg, or old Scots bogill, has cognates in German bögge or böggel-mann, most also English "bogeyman" and American English "bugaboo". In medieval England, the Bugbear was depicted as a creepy bear that lurked in the woods to scare children, it was described in this manner in The Buggbears, an adaptation, with additions, from Grazzini’s La Spiritata. In a modern context, the term bugbear may mean pet peeve. Bugbear Moss people Pedobear Sprite Wirry-cow Yōkai
Lares, were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion. Their origin is uncertain. Lares were believed to observe and influence all that happened within the boundaries of their location or function; the statues of domestic Lares were placed at the table during family meals. Roman writers sometimes identify or conflate them with ancestor-deities, domestic Penates and the hearth; because of these associations, Lares are sometimes categorised as household gods but some had much broader domains. Roadways, agriculture, towns, the state and its military were all under the protection of their particular Lar or Lares; those who protected local neighbourhoods were housed in the crossroad shrines which served as a focus for the religious and political life of their local, overwhelmingly plebeian communities. Their cult officials included freedmen and slaves, otherwise excluded by status or property qualification from most administrative and religious offices. Compared to Rome's major deities Lares had limited scope and potency but archaeological and literary evidence attests to their central role in Roman identity and religious life.
By analogy, a homeward-bound Roman could be described as returning ad Larem. Despite official bans on non-Christian cults from the late 4th century AD onwards, unofficial cults to Lares persisted until at least the early 5th century AD. Archaic Rome's Etruscan neighbours practiced domestic, ancestral or family cults similar to those offered by Romans to their Lares; the word itself seems to derive from the Etruscan lar, lars, or larth, meaning "lord". Ancient Greek and Roman authors offer "heroes" and "daimones" as translations of "Lares". Weinstock proposes a more ancient equivalence of Lar and Greek hero, based on his gloss of a 4th-century BC Latin dedication to the Roman ancestor-hero Aeneas as Lare. No physical Lar images survive from before the Late Republican era, but literary references suggest that cult could be offered to a single Lar, sometimes many more: in the case of the obscure Lares Grundules thirty. By the early Imperial era, they had become paired divinities through the influences of Greek religion – in particular, the heroic twin Dioscuri – and the iconography of Rome's semi-divine founder-twins and Remus.
Lares are represented as two small, lively male figures clad in short, girdled tunics – made of dogskin, according to Plutarch. They take a dancer's attitude, tiptoed or balanced on one leg. One arm raises a drinking horn aloft as if to offer a libation. Compitalia shrines of the same period show Lares figures of the same type. Painted shrine-images of paired Lares show them in mirrored poses to the left and right of a central figure, understood to be an ancestral genius. Lares belonged within the "bounded physical domain" under their protection, seem to have been as innumerable as the places they protected; some appear to have had overlapping changes of name. Some have no particular or descriptive name: for example, those invoked along with Mars in the Carmen Arvale are Lases, whose divine functions must be inferred from the wording and context of the Carmen itself; those invoked along with other deities by the consul Publius Decius Mus as an act of devotio before his death in battle are "Lares".
The titles and domains given below can not therefore be taken as definitive. Lares Augusti: the Lares of Augustus, or "the august Lares", given public cult on the first of August, thereby identified with the inaugural day of Imperial Roman magistracies and with Augustus himself. Official Cult to the Lares Augusti continued from their institution through to the 4th century AD, they are identified with the Lares Lares Praestites of Augustan religious reform. Lares Compitalicii: the Lares of local communities or neighbourhoods, celebrated at the Compitalia festival, their shrines were positioned at main central crossroads of their vici, provided a focus for the religious and social life of their community for the plebeian and servile masses. The Lares Compitalicii are synonymous with the Lares Augusti of Augustan reform. Augustus' institution of cult to the Lares Praestites was held at the same Compitalia shrines, but on a different date. Lares Domestici: Lares of the house identical with Lares Familiares.
Lares Familiares: Lares of the family identical with the Lares Domestici. Lares Grundules: the thirty "grunting Lares" or Lares of the eaves given an altar and cult by Romulus or Aeneas when a sow produced a prodigious farrow of thirty piglets. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus the place where the sow bore the piglets and Aeneas made the sacrifice was sacred, forbidden to foreigners; the sow's body was said to be kept at Lavinium, preserved in salt brine as a sacred object. The thirty piglets would provide the theological justification for the thirty populi Albenses of the feriae Latinae, the thirty curiae of Rome. Lar Militaris: "military Lar", named by
The Bogeyman is a mythical creature used by adults to frighten children into good behaviour. The Bogeyman has no specific appearance, conceptions vary drastically by household and culture, but is depicted as a masculine or androgynous monster that punishes children for misbehavior. Bogeymen may target a specific act or general misbehaviour, depending on what purpose needs serving based on a warning from the child's authority figure; the term "Bogeyman" is sometimes used as a non-specific personification or metonym for terror, in some cases, the Devil. The word bogey is believed to be derived from the Middle English bogge / bugge. Theories on its origin include a cognate of the German bögge, böggel-mann, it could be influenced in meaning by Old English -budda used in compounds for "beetle". The word could be linked to many similar words in other Indo-European: bogle, Butzemann, busemann, bøhmand / bussemand, bòcan, púca, pooka or pookha, bwga or bwgan, pixie or piskie, bogu, buka or babay/babayka, bubulis, bobo, bubák, bubák, papão, торбалан, Μπαμπούλας, ბუა), babau, бабай, papu.
A related word, from bug, meaning goblin or scarecrow, bear, was imagined as a demon in the form of a bear that eats small children, was used to mean a general object of dread. The word bugaboo, with a similar pair of meanings, may have arisen as an alteration of bugbear. In Southeast Asia, the term is popularly supposed to refer to Bugis or Buganese pirates, ruthless seafarers of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia's third-largest island; these pirates plagued early English and Dutch trading ships of the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company. It is popularly believed that this resulted in the European sailors bringing their fear of the "bugi men" back to their home countries. However, etymologists disagree with this, because words relating to bogeyman were in common use centuries before European colonization of Southeast Asia. In Luo dialects in Eastern Africa the term'bwogo' means to scare; this correlation is most spurious as Nilotic language roots predate the modern concept of civilization itself.
Bogeyman-like beings are universal, common to the folklore of many countries. In many countries, a bogeyman variant is portrayed as a man with a sack on his back who carries naughty children away; this is true for many Latin countries, such as Brazil, Portugal and the countries of Spanish America, where he is referred to as el "Hombre del costal", el "hombre del saco", or in Portuguese, o "homem do saco", or el roba-chicos, meaning child-stealer. Similar legends are very common in Eastern Europe, as well as in Haiti and some countries in Asia. El Coco is a monster common to many Spanish-speaking countries. In Spain, parents will sing lullabies or tell rhymes to children, warning them that if they do not sleep, El Coco will come to get them; the rhyme originated in the 17th century and has evolved over the years, but still retains its original meaning. Coconuts received that name because their brownish hairy surface reminded Portuguese explorers of coco, a ghost with a pumpkin head. Latin America has El Coco, although its folklore is quite different mixed with native beliefs, because of cultural contacts, sometimes more related to the boogeyman of the United States.
However, the term El Coco is used in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries, such as Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, although there it is more called El Cuco, as in Puerto Rico, Chile and Argentina. Among Mexican-Americans, El Cucuy is portrayed as an evil monster that hides under children's beds at night and kidnaps or eats the child that does not obey his/her parents or go to sleep when it is time to do so. However, the Spanish American bogeyman does not resemble the shapeless or hairy monster of Spain: social sciences professor Manuel Medrano says popular legend describes El cucuy as a small humanoid with glowing red eyes that hides in closets or under the bed. "Some lore has him as a kid, the victim of violence... and now he's alive, but he's not," Medrano said, citing Xavier Garza's 2004 book Creepy Creatures and other Cucuys."In Brazilian folklore, a similar character called Cuca is depicted as a female humanoid alligator. There's a famous lullaby sung by most parents to their children that says that the Cuca will come to get them if they do not sleep, just as in Spain.
The Cuca is a character of Monteiro Lobato's Sítio do Picapau Amarelo, a series of short novels written for children which contain a large number of characters from Brazilian folklore. In the countries of central and eastern Mediterranean, children who misbehave are threatened with a creature known as "babau". In Italy, the Babau is called l'uomo nero or "black man". In Italy, he is portrayed as a tall man wearing a heavy black coat, with a black hood or hat which hides his face. Sometimes, parents will knock loudly under the table, pretending that someone is knocking at the door, say something like: "Here comes l'uomo ner
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world. Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have been depicted as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence; the earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes. Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies. Famous prototypical dragons include the mušḫuššu of ancient Mesopotamia; the popular western image of a dragon as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire is an invention of the High Middle Ages based on a conflation of earlier dragons from different traditions. In western cultures, dragons are portrayed as monsters to be tamed or overcome by saints or culture heroes, as in the popular legend of Saint George and the Dragon.
They are said to have ravenous appetites and to live in caves, where they hoard treasure. These dragons appear in western fantasy literature, including The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin; the word "dragon" has come to be applied to the Chinese lung, which are associated with good fortune and are thought to have power over rain. Dragons and their associations with rain are the source of the Chinese customs of dragon dancing and dragon boat racing. Many East Asian deities and demigods have dragons as their personal companions. Dragons were identified with the Emperor of China, during Chinese imperial history, was the only one permitted to have dragons on his house, clothing, or personal articles; the word dragon entered the English language in the early 13th century from Old French dragon, which in turn comes from Latin: draconem meaning "huge serpent, dragon", from Ancient Greek δράκων, drákōn "serpent, giant seafish".
The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not mythological. The Greek word δράκων is most derived from the Greek verb δέρκομαι meaning "I see", the aorist form of, ἐδρακόμην. Dragon-like creatures appear in all cultures around the globe. Nonetheless, scholars dispute where the idea of a dragon originates from and a wide variety of theories have been proposed. In his book An Instinct for Dragons, anthropologist David E. Jones suggests a hypothesis that humans, just like monkeys, have inherited instinctive reactions to snakes, large cats, birds of prey, he cites a study which found that 39 people in a hundred are afraid of snakes and notes that fear of snakes is prominent in children in areas where snakes are rare. The earliest attested dragons all bear snakelike attributes. Jones therefore concludes that the reason why dragons appear in nearly all cultures is because of humans' innate fear of snakes and other animals that were major predators of humans' primate ancestors. Dragons are said to reside in "dank caves, deep pools, wild mountain reaches, sea bottoms, haunted forests", all places which would have been fraught with danger for early human ancestors.
In her book The First Fossil Hunters: Dinosaurs and Myth in Greek and Roman Times, Adrienne Mayor argues that some stories of dragons may have been inspired by ancient discoveries of fossils belonging to dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. She argues that the dragon lore of northern India may have been inspired by "observations of oversized, extraordinary bones in the fossilbeds of the Siwalik Hills below the Himalayas" and that ancient Greek artistic depictions of the Monster of Troy may have been influenced by fossils of Samotherium, an extinct species of giraffe whose fossils are common in the Mediterranean region. In China, a region where fossils of large prehistoric animals are common, these remains are identified as "dragon bones" and are used in Chinese traditional medicine. Mayor, however, is careful to point out that not all stories of dragons and giants are inspired by fossils and notes that Scandinavia has many stories of dragons and sea monsters, but has long "been considered barren of large fossils."
In one of her books, she states that "Many dragon images around the world were based on folk knowledge or exaggerations of living reptiles, such as Komodo dragons, Gila monsters, alligators, or, in California, alligator lizards." Ancient peoples across the Near East believed in creatures similar to what modern people call "dragons". These ancient peoples were unaware of the existence of dinosaurs or similar creatures in the distant past. References to dragons of both benevolent and malevolent characters occur throughout ancient Mesopotamian literature. In Sumerian poetry, great kings are compared to the ušumgal, a gigantic, serpentine monster. A dragon-like creature with the foreparts of a lion and the hind-legs and wings of a bird appears in Mesopotamian artwork from the Akkadian Period until the Neo-Babylonian Period; the dragon is shown with its mouth open. It may have been known as the nā’iru, which means "roaring weather beast", may ha
The Discoverie of Witchcraft
The Discoverie of Witchcraft is a sceptical book published by the English gentleman Reginald Scot in 1584, intended as an exposé of early Modern witchcraft. It contains a small section intended to show how the public was fooled by charlatans, considered the first published material on illusionary or stage magic. Scot believed that the prosecution of those accused of witchcraft was irrational and un-Christian, he held the Roman Church responsible. Popular belief held that all obtainable copies were burned on the accession of James I in 1603. Scot's book appeared entitled The Discoverie of Witchcraft, wherein the Lewde dealing of Witches and Witchmongers is notablie detected, in sixteen books... whereunto is added a Treatise upon the Nature and Substance of Spirits and Devils, 1584. At the end of the volume the printer gives his name as William Brome. There are four dedications: to Sir Roger Manwood, chief baron of the exchequer. Scott enumerates 212 authors whose works in Latin he had consulted, twenty-three authors who wrote in English.
The names in the first list include many Arabic writers. But Scot's information was not only from books, he had studied superstitions respecting witchcraft in courts of law in country districts, where the prosecution of witches was unceasing, in village life, where the belief in witchcraft flourished in many forms. He set himself to prove that the belief in witchcraft and magic was rejected by reason and by religion and that spiritualistic manifestations were wilful impostures or illusions due to mental disturbance in the observers, his aim was to prevent the persecution of poor and simple persons, who were popularly credited with being witches. The maintenance of the superstition he blamed on the Roman Catholic Church, he attacked writers including Jean Bodin, author of Démonomie des Sorciers, Jacobus Sprenger, supposed joint author of Malleus Maleficarum. Of Cornelius Agrippa and Johann Weyer, author of De Præstigiis Demonum, whose views he adopted, he spoke with respect. Scot did adopt contemporary superstition in his references to astrology.
He believed in the medicinal value of the unicorn's horn, thought that precious stones owed their origin to the influence of the heavenly bodies. The book narrates stories of strange phenomena in the context of religious convictions; the devil is related with his ability to absorb people's souls. The book gives stories of magicians with supernatural powers performing in front of courts of kings, his volume became an exhaustive encyclopædia of contemporary beliefs about witchcraft, alchemy and legerdemain, as well as attracting widespread attention to his scepticism on witchcraft. William Shakespeare drew from his study of Scot's book hints for his picture of the witches in Macbeth, Thomas Middleton in his play of The Witch was indebted to this source. Through bibliographies, one may trace modern grimoires to this work; the chapter on magic tricks in Scot's Discoverie was plagiarised heavily. Scot's early writings constituted a substantial portion of the text in English-language stage magic books of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The debate over the contested Christian doctine continued for the following decades. Gabriel Harvey, in his Pierce's Supererogation, wrote: Scotte's discoovery of Witchcraft dismasketh sundry egregious impostures, in certaine principall chapters, speciall passages, hitteth the nayle on the head with a witnesse. William Perkins, sought to refute Scot, was joined by the powerful James VI of Scotland in his Dæmonologie, referring to the opinions of Scot as "damnable". John Rainolds in Censura Librorum Apocryphoru, Richard Bernard in Guide to Grand Jurymen, Joseph Glanvill in Philosophical Considerations touching Witches and Witchcraft, Meric Casaubon in Credulity and Uncredulity continued the attack on Scot's position. Scot found contemporary support in the influential Samuel Harsnet, his views continued to be defended by Thomas Ady (Candle in the Dark: Or, A Treatise concerning the Nature of Witches and Witchcraft, by John Webster in The Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft and was known to typical lay sceptics such as Henry Oxinden.
The book was well-received abroad. A translation into Dutch, edited by Thomas Basson, an English stationer living at Leiden, appeared there in 1609, it was undertaken on the recommendation of the professors, was dedicated to the university curators and the burgomaster of Leiden. A second edition, published by G. Basson, the first editor's son, was printed at Leiden in 1637. In 1651 the book was twice reissued in London in quarto by Richard Cotes. Another reissue was dated 1654. A third edition in folio, dated 1665, included nine new chapters, added a second book to "The Discourse on Devils and Spirits"; the third edition was published with two imprints in 1665, one being the Turk Head edition, the scarcer variant was at the Golden-Ball. In 1886 Brinsley Nicholson edited a reprint of the first edition of 1584, with the additions of