Arrest of Jesus
The arrest of Jesus was a pivotal event in Christianity recorded in the canonical gospels. Jesus, a preacher whom Christians consider to be the Son of God, was arrested by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane, it occurred shortly after the Last Supper, after the kiss of Judas, traditionally said to have been an act of betrayal since Judas made a deal with the chief priests to arrest Jesus. The event led, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion; the arrest led to his trial before the Sanhedrin, during which they condemned him to death and handed him to Pilate the following morning. In Christian theology, the events from the Last Supper until the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus are referred to as the Passion. In the New Testament, all four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, crucifixion and resurrection. In each Gospel, these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative.
Scholars note that the reader receives an hour-by-hour account of what is happening. According to the canonical gospels, after the Last Supper and his disciples went out to Gethsemane, a garden located at the edge of the Kidron Valley, thought by scholars to have been an olive grove. Once there, he is described as leaving the group; the synoptics state that Jesus asked God that his burden be taken from him, requested not to need to undergo the events that he was due to, though giving the final choice to God. Luke states that an angel appeared and strengthened Jesus, who returned to his disciples; the synoptics state that the three disciples that were with Jesus had fallen asleep, that Jesus criticized them for failing to stay awake for an hour, suggesting that they pray so that they could avoid temptation. At that point, Judas gave Jesus a kiss, as a pre-arranged sign to those that had accompanied Judas as to who Jesus was. Having been identified, the officers arrested Jesus, although one of Jesus' disciples thought to stop them with a sword, but cut off the ear of one of the arresting officers.
The Gospel of John specifies that it had been Simon Peter who had cut off the ear of Malchus, the servant of Caiaphas, the high priest. Luke adds. John and Luke state that Jesus criticized the violent act, insisting that they do not resist Jesus' arrest. In Matthew, Jesus made the well known statement "all who live by the sword, shall die by the sword"; the account in the Gospel of John differs from that of the synoptics: only in John do Roman soldiers help to carry out the arrest. Judas leads the arresting party to Jesus, but rather than Judas pointing out Jesus, John has Jesus himself, "knowing all, to happen to him", ask them whom they are looking for; the arrest of Jesus and Judas' role in acting as a guide to those arresting him are subsequently referred to by Peter in Acts 1:16. Chronology of Jesus Life of Jesus in the New Testament Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament Doubleday 1997 ISBN 0-385-24767-2 Brown, Raymond E. et al. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary Prentice Hall 1990 ISBN 0-13-614934-0 Kilgallen, John J.
A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark Paulist Press 1989 ISBN 0-8091-3059-9 Miller, Robert J. Editor The Complete Gospels Polebridge Press 1994 ISBN 0-06-065587-9
Joseph ben Caiaphas known as Caiaphas in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who, according to the gospels, organized a plot to kill Jesus. He famously presided over the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus; the primary sources for Caiaphas' life are the writings of Josephus. Outside of his interactions with Jesus, little else is known about his tenure as high priest; the 1st-century Jewish historian Josephus is considered the most reliable extra-biblical literary source for Caiaphas. His works contain information on the dates for Caiaphas' tenure of the high priesthood, along with reports on other high priests, help to establish a coherent description of the responsibilities of the high-priestly office. Josephus relates, he states that the proconsul Vitellius deposed his father in law, Annas.. Josephus' account is based on an older source in which incumbents of the high priesthood were listed chronologically. According to Josephus, Caiaphas was appointed in AD 18 by the Roman prefect who preceded Pontius Pilate, Valerius Gratus.
Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas the son of Seth. Annas had five sons who served as high priest after him; the terms of Annas and the five brothers are: Ananus the son of Seth Eleazar the son of Ananus Caiaphas - properly called Joseph son of Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas Jonathan the son of Ananus Theophilus ben Ananus Matthias ben Ananus Ananus ben Ananus In November 1990, workers found an ornate limestone ossuary while paving a road in the Peace Forest south of the Abu Tor neighborhood of Jerusalem. This ossuary contained human remains. An Aramaic inscription on the side was thought to read "Joseph son of Caiaphas" and on the basis of this the bones of an elderly man were considered to belong to the High Priest Caiaphas. Since the original discovery this identification has been challenged by some scholars on various grounds, including the spelling of the inscription, the lack of any mention of Caiaphas' status as High Priest, the plainness of the tomb, other reasons.
In June 2011, archaeologists from Bar-Ilan University and Tel Aviv University announced the recovery of a stolen ossuary, plundered from a tomb in the Valley of Elah. The Israel Antiquities Authority declared it authentic, expressed regret that it could not be studied in situ, it is inscribed with the text: "Miriam, daughter of Yeshua, son of Caiaphas, Priest of Ma’aziah from Beth ‘Imri". Based on it, Caiaphas can be assigned to the priestly course of Ma’aziah, instituted by king David. Annas, father-in-law of Caiaphas, had been high-priest from A. D. 6 to 15, continued to exercise a significant influence over Jewish affairs. Annas and Caiaphas may have sympathized with the Sadducees, a religious movement in Judaea that found most of its members among the wealthy Jewish elite; the comparatively long eighteen-year tenure of Caiaphas suggests he had a good working relationship with the Roman authorities. In the Gospel of John 11, the high priests call a gathering of the Sanhedrin in reaction to the raising of Lazarus.
In the parable related in the Gospel of Luke 16:28-30 the reaction of the "five brothers" to the possibility of the return of the beggar Lazarus has given rise to the suggestion by Claude-Joseph Drioux and others that the "rich man" is itself an attack on Caiaphas, his father-in-law, his five brothers-in-law. Caiaphas considers, with "the Chief Priests and Pharisees", what to do about Jesus, whose influence was spreading, they worry that if they "let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, the Romans will come and destroy both our holy place and our nation." In John 18, Jesus is brought before Annas. Annas sent him on to Caiaphas. Caiaphas makes a political calculation, suggesting that it would be better for "one man" to die than for "the whole nation" to be destroyed. In this Caiaphas is stating a rabbinic quotation. Afterward, Jesus is taken to the Roman governor of Judea. Pilate tells the priests to judge Jesus themselves, to which they respond they lack authority to do so. Pilate questions Jesus, after which he states, "I find no basis for a charge against him."
Pilate offers the gathered crowd the choice of one prisoner to release — said to be a Passover tradition — and they choose a criminal named Barabbas instead of Jesus. In the Gospel of Matthew 26:57-67, Caiaphas and others of the Sanhedrin are depicted interrogating Jesus, they are unable to find any. Jesus remains silent throughout the proceedings until Caiaphas demands that Jesus say whether he is the Christ. Jesus replies "I am: and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of power, coming on the clouds of heaven." 14:62 Caiaphas and the other men charge him with order him beaten. Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas by marriage to his daughter and ruled longer than any high priest in New Testament times. For Jewish leaders of the time, there were serious concerns about Roman rule and an insurgent Zealot movement to eject the Romans from Israel; the Romans would not perform execution over violations of Halakha, therefore the charge of blasphemy would not have mattered to Pilate. Caiaphas' legal position, was to establish that Jesus was guilty not on
In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period; the term "old master drawing" is used in the same way. In theory, "Old Master" applies only to artists who were trained, were Masters of their local artists' guild, worked independently, but in practice, paintings produced by pupils or workshops are included in the scope of the term. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the term was understood as having a starting date of 1450 or 1470; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern. A pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries." The first quotation given is from 1696, in the diary of John Evelyn: "My L: Pembroke..shewed me divers rare Pictures of many of the old & best Masters that of M: Angelo..& a large booke of the best drawings of the old Masters."
The term is used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master, a usage datable to 1824. There are comparable terms in Dutch and German. Les Maitres d'autrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, although "vieux maitres" is used in French; the famous collection in Dresden at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister is one of the few museums to include the term in its actual name, although many more use it in the title of departments or sections. The collection in the Dresden museum stops at the Baroque period; the end date is vague – for example, Goya is an Old Master, though he was still painting and printmaking at his death in 1828. The term might be used for John Constable or Eugène Delacroix, but is not; the term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague when discussing paintings, although the terms "Old Master Prints" and "Old Master drawings" are still used. It remains current in the art trade. Auction houses still divide their sales between, for example, "Old Master Paintings", "Nineteenth-century paintings" and "Modern paintings".
Christie's defines the term as ranging "from the 14th to the early 19th century". Artists, most from early periods, whose hand has been identified by art historians, but to whom no identity can be confidently attached, are given names by art historians such as Master E. S. Master of Flémalle, Master of Mary of Burgundy, Master of Latin 757, Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein. Cimabue, frescoes in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi Giotto di Bondone, first Renaissance fresco painter Duccio, Sienese painter Simone Martini, Gothic painter of the Sienese School Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Gothic painter Pietro Lorenzetti, Sienese school Gentile da Fabriano, International gothic painter Lorenzo Monaco, International gothic style Masolino, Goldsmith trained painter Pisanello, International gothic painter and medallist Sassetta, Sienese International Gothic painter Paolo Uccello, schematic use of foreshortening Fra Angelico, noted for San Marco convent frescoes Masaccio, first to use linear perspective thereby giving sense of three-dimensionality plus developed new realism Fra Filippo Lippi, father of Filippino Andrea del Castagno Piero della Francesca, painter who pioneered linear perspective Benozzo Gozzoli Alesso Baldovinetti Vincenzo Foppa Antonello da Messina, painter who pioneered oil painting Cosimo Tura Andrea Mantegna, master of perspective and detail Antonio Pollaiuolo Francesco Cossa Melozzo da Forli Luca Signorelli Perugino, Raphael was his pupil Verrocchio Sandro Botticelli, great Florentine master Domenico Ghirlandaio, prolific Florentine fresco painter Pinturicchio Filippino Lippi, son of Filippo Cima da Conegliano Piero di Cosimo Francesco Francia Leonardo da Vinci, acclaimed oil painter and draughtsman Lorenzo Costa Fra Bartolommeo Michelangelo, acclaimed sculptor and architect Bernardino Luini Raphael, acclaimed painter Il Garofalo Ridolfo Ghirlandaio Andrea del Sarto Correggio, painter from Parma noted for illusionistic frescoes and altarpiece oils Giulio Romano Domenico Veneziano, Early Renaissance Jacopo Bellini (
Life of Jesus in the New Testament
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the narrative of the life of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles which were written within 20–30 years of each other include references to key episodes in his life such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles says more about the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels. The genealogy and Nativity of Jesus are described in two of the four canonical gospels: the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke. While Luke traces the genealogy upwards towards Adam and God, Matthew traces it downwards towards Jesus. Both gospels state that Jesus was begotten not by Joseph, but conceived miraculously in the womb of Mary, mother of Jesus by the Holy Spirit. Both accounts trace Joseph back from there to Abraham; these lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ completely between David and Joseph. Matthew gives Jacob as Joseph’s father and Luke says Joseph was the son of Heli.
Attempts at explaining the differences between the genealogies have varied in nature. Much of modern scholarship interprets them as literary inventions; the Luke and Matthew accounts of the birth of Jesus have a number of points in common. In the Luke account Joseph and Mary travel from their home in Nazareth for the census to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born and laid in a manger. Angels proclaim him a savior for all people, shepherds come to adore him. In Matthew, The Magi follow a star to Bethlehem, where the family are living, to bring gifts to Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod massacres all males under two years old in Bethlehem in order to kill Jesus, but Jesus's family flees to Egypt and settles in Nazareth. Over the centuries, biblical scholars have attempted to reconcile these contradictions, while modern scholarship views them as legendary, they consider the issue of historicity as secondary, given that gospels were written as theological documents rather than chronological timelines.
The five major milestones in the New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Crucifixion and Ascension. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus starts with his Baptism by John the Baptist, when he is about thirty years old. Jesus begins preaching in Galilee and gathers disciples. After the proclamation of Jesus as Christ, three of the disciples witness his Transfiguration. After the death of John the Baptist and the Transfiguration, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem, having predicted his own death there. Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem, there friction with the Pharisees increases and one of his disciples agrees to betray him for thirty pieces of silver. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples; the Gospel of Luke states. A chronology of Jesus has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around 27–29 and the end in the range 30–36.
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and form the core of the early Church as it is believed that the Apostles dispersed from Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees; the Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem. In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea; as Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.
The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. In the gospel accounts, towards the end of the final week in Jerusalem, Jesus has the Last Supper with his disciples, the next day is betrayed and tried; the trial ends in his death. Three days after his burial, he is resurrected and appears to his disciples and a multitude of his followers over a 40-day period, after which he ascends to Heaven. In the New Testament accounts, the principle locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria; the gospel narrative of the ministry of Jesus is traditionally separated into sections that have a geographical nature. Galilean ministry: Jesus' ministry begins when after his baptism, he returns to Galilee, preaches in the synagogue of Capernaum; the first disciples of Jesus encounter him near the Sea of Galilee and his Galilean ministry includes key episodes such as Sermon on the Mount which form the core of his moral teachings.
Jesus' ministry in the Galilee area draws to an end with the death of John the Baptist. Journey to Jerusalem: After the death of the Baptist, about half way through the gospels two key events take place tha
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member
Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was the Roman governor of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism. Ambrose was one of the four original Doctors of the Church, is the patron saint of Milan, he is notable for his influence on Augustine of Hippo. Traditionally, Ambrose is credited with promoting "antiphonal chant", a style of chanting in which one side of the choir responds alternately to the other, as well as with composing Veni redemptor gentium, an Advent hymn. Ambrose was born into a Roman Christian family about 340 and was raised in Gallia Belgica, the capital of, Augusta Treverorum, his father is sometimes identified with a praetorian prefect of Gaul. His mother was a woman of intellect and piety and a member of the Roman family, Aurelii Symmachi and thus Ambrose was cousin of the orator Q.
Aurelius Symmachus. He was the youngest of three children, who included Marcellina and Satyrus venerated as saints. There is a legend that as an infant, a swarm of bees settled on his face while he lay in his cradle, leaving behind a drop of honey, his father honeyed tongue. For this reason and beehives appear in the saint's symbology. After the early death of his father, Ambrose went to Rome, where he studied literature and rhetoric, he followed in his father's footsteps and entered public service. Praetorian Prefect Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus first gave him a place in the council and in about 372 made him governor of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan. In 286 Diocletian had moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Ambrose was the Governor of Aemilia-Liguria in northern Italy until 374, when he became the Bishop of Milan, he was a popular political figure, since he was the Governor in the effective capital in the Roman West, he was a recognizable figure in the court of Valentinian I.
In the late 4th century there was a deep conflict in the diocese of Milan between the Nicene Church and Arians. In 374 the bishop of Milan, Auxentius, an Arian and the Arians challenged the succession. Ambrose went to the church where the election was to take place, to prevent an uproar, probable in this crisis, his address was interrupted by a call, "Ambrose, bishop!", taken up by the whole assembly. Ambrose was known to be Nicene Christian in belief, but acceptable to Arians due to the charity shown in theological matters in this regard. At first he energetically refused the office, for which he was in no way prepared: Ambrose was neither baptized nor formally trained in theology. Upon his appointment, Ambrose fled to a colleague's home seeking to hide. Upon receiving a letter from the Emperor Gratian praising the appropriateness of Rome appointing individuals evidently worthy of holy positions, Ambrose's host gave him up. Within a week, he was baptized and duly consecrated bishop of Milan; as bishop, he adopted an ascetic lifestyle, apportioned his money to the poor, donating all of his land, making only provision for his sister Marcellina.
This raised his popularity further, giving him considerable political leverage over the emperor. Upon the unexpected appointment of Ambrose to the episcopate, his brother Satyrus resigned a prefecture in order to move to Milan, where he took over managing the family's affairs. Ambrose studied theology with a presbyter of Rome. Using his excellent knowledge of Greek, rare in the West, to his advantage, he studied the Old Testament and Greek authors like Philo, Origen and Basil of Caesarea, with whom he was exchanging letters, he applied this knowledge as preacher, concentrating on exegesis of the Old Testament, his rhetorical abilities impressed Augustine of Hippo, who hitherto had thought poorly of Christian preachers. In the confrontation with Arians, Ambrose sought to theologically refute their propositions, which were contrary to the Nicene creed and thus to the defined orthodoxy; the Arians appealed to many high level clergy in both the Western and Eastern empires. Although the western Emperor Gratian supported orthodoxy, the younger Valentinian II, who became his colleague in the Empire, adhered to the Arian creed.
Ambrose did not sway the young prince's position. In the East, Emperor Theodosius I professed the Nicene creed. In this contested state of religious opinion, two leaders of the Arians, bishops Palladius of Ratiaria and Secundianus of Singidunum, confident of numbers, prevailed upon Gratian to call a general council from all parts of the empire; this request appeared so equitable. However, Ambrose feared the consequences and prevailed upon the emperor to have the matter determined by a council of the Western bishops. Accordingly, a synod composed of thirty-two bishops was held at Aquileia in the year 381. Ambrose was elected president and Palladius, being called upon to defend his opinions, declined. A vote was taken, when Palladius and his associate Secundianus were deposed
Lancelot Andrewes was an English bishop and scholar, who held high positions in the Church of England during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. During the latter's reign, Andrewes served successively as Bishop of Chichester, of Ely, of Winchester and oversaw the translation of the King James Version of the Bible. In the Church of England he is commemorated on 25 September with a Lesser Festival. Andrewes was born in 1555 near All Hallows, Barking, by the Tower of London, of an ancient Suffolk family domiciled at Chichester Hall, at Rawreth in Essex. Andrewes attended the Cooper's free school, in Ratcliff, in the parish of Stepney and the Merchant Taylors' School under Richard Mulcaster. In 1571 he entered Pembroke Hall and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree, proceeding to a Master of Arts degree in 1578, his academic reputation spread so that on the foundation in 1571 of Jesus College, Oxford he was named in the charter as one of the founding scholars "without his privity". In 1576 he was elected fellow of Cambridge.
As catechist at his college he read. Once a year he would spend a month with his parents, during this vacation, he would find a master from whom he would learn a language of which he had no previous knowledge. In this way, after a few years, he acquired most of the modern languages of Europe. Andrewes was the elder brother of the scholar and cleric Roger Andrewes, who served as a translator for the King James Version of the Bible. In 1588, following a period as chaplain to Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, Lord President of the Council in the North, he became vicar of St Giles, Cripplegate in the City of London, where he delivered striking sermons on the temptation in the wilderness and the Lord's Prayer. In a great sermon on 10 April 1588, he stoutly vindicated the Reformed character of the Church of England against the claims of Roman Catholicism and adduced John Calvin as a new writer, with lavish praise and affection. Through the influence of Francis Walsingham, Andrewes was appointed prebendary of St Pancras in St Paul's, London, in 1589, subsequently became Master of his own college of Pembroke, as well as a chaplain to John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury.
From 1589 to 1609 he was prebendary of Southwell. On 4 March 1590, as a chaplain of Elizabeth I, he preached before her an outspoken sermon and, in October that year, gave his introductory lecture at St Paul's, undertaking to comment on the first four chapters of the Book of Genesis; these were compiled as The Orphan Lectures. Andrewes liked to move among the people, yet found time to join a society of antiquaries, of which Walter Raleigh, Philip Sidney, Arundel, the Herberts, John Stow and William Camden were members. Elizabeth I had not advanced him further on account of his opposition to the alienation of ecclesiastical revenues. In 1598 he declined the bishoprics of Salisbury, because of the conditions attached. On 23 November 1600, he preached at Whitehall a controversial sermon on justification. In July 1601 he gave much attention to the school there. On the accession of James I, to whom his somewhat pedantic style of preaching recommended him, Andrewes rose into great favour, he assisted at James's coronation, in 1604 took part in the Hampton Court Conference.
Andrewes' name is the first on the list of divines appointed to compile the Authorized Version of the Bible. He headed the "First Westminster Company", he acted, furthermore, as a sort of general editor for the project as well. On 31 October 1605 his election as Bishop of Chichester was confirmed, he was consecrated a bishop on 3 November, installed at Chichester Cathedral on 18 November and made Lord High Almoner. Following the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot Andrewes was asked to prepare a sermon to be presented to the king in 1606. In this sermon Lancelot Andrewes justified the need to commemorate the deliverance and defined the nature of celebrations; this sermon became the foundation of celebrations. In 1609 he published Tortura Torti, a learned work which grew out of the Gunpowder Plot controversy and was written in answer to Bellarmine's Matthaeus Tortus, which attacked James I's book on the oath of allegiance. After moving to Ely, he again controverted Bellarmine in the Responsio ad Apologiam.
In 1617 he accompanied James I to Scotland with a view to persuading the Scots that Episcopacy was preferable to Presbyterianism. He was made dean of the Chapel Royal and translated to Winchester, a diocese that he administered with great success. Following his death in 1626 in his Southwark palace, he was mourned alike by leaders in Church and state, buried beside the high altar in St Saviour's. Two generations Richard Crashaw caught up the universal sentiment, when in his lines "Upon Bishop Andrewes' Picture before his Sermons" he exclaims: This reverend shadow cast that setting sun, Whose glorious course through our horizon ru