World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Winnemucca is the only incorporated city in and is the county seat of Humboldt County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 7,396, up 3.1 percent from the 2000 census figure of 7,174. Interstate 80 passes through the city, where it meets U. S. Route 95; the town was named for the 19th-century Chief Winnemucca of the local Northern Paiute tribe, who traditionally lived in this area. He and his band had a camp near here. Winnemucca, loosely translated, means "one moccasin." The chief's daughter, Sarah Winnemucca, was an advocate for education and fair treatment of the Paiute and Shoshone tribes in the area. Their family all learned to speak English, Sarah worked as an interpreter and messenger for the United States Army during the Bannock War of 1878. In 1883 Sarah Winnemucca published the first autobiography written by a Native American woman, based on hundreds of lectures she'd given in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic, it has been described as "one of the most enduring ethno-historical books written by an American Indian."On September 16, 1868, the Central Pacific Railroad reached Winnemucca, was opened on October 1 of that year.
It was on the First Transcontinental Railroad. It was part of the transcontinental line. Basque immigrants worked as sheep-herders starting in the mid-19th century. In honor of this heritage, Winnemucca hosts an annual Basque Festival. On September 19, 1900, Butch Cassidy's gang robbed the First National Bank of Winnemucca of $32,640. Winnemucca's brothel district, while smaller now than in the 1980s, is known as "The Line" or "The Ring Circle", based on the layout of the street where the brothels are located. Sex workers in the town must register their vehicles with the local police. According to a billboard along State Route 140, Winnemucca styles itself "The City of Paved Streets". Winnemucca is home to the Buckaroo Hall of Heritage Museum, it is the headquarters of the Flawedcast Network. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Winnemucca had a vibrant Chinatown; the Chinese came to the area as workers on the transcontinental Central Pacific Railroad, which reached Winnemucca in 1868. Some returned to settle.
During the 1890s, around 400 Chinese formed a community in the town. Among their prominent buildings was the Joss House on Baud Street, a place of worship and celebration. In 1911 the community was visited by Sun Yat-Sen to become Chinese president, he was on a fund-raising tour of the United States to help the Xinhai Revolution. The Joss House, the last structure associated with Chinatown, was demolished on March 8, 1955, by order of the Winnemucca City Council. Winnemucca is located at 40°58′6″N 117°43′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.4 square miles, all land. Winnemucca's climate is semi-arid. Summer days tend to be hot, but the temperature drops at night. Winters are cold with light snow, with 20.9 in falling during a typical year. The highest recorded temperature in Winnemucca was 109 °F, on July 11, 2002, the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F on December 22, 1990. Freezing temperatures have been observed in every month of the year; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,174 people, 2,736 households, 1,824 families residing in the city.
The population density was 867.5 people per square mile. There were 3,280 housing units at an average density of 396.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.41% White, 2.23% African American, 0.89% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.60% from other races, 3.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 20.74% of the population. There were 2,736 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.2% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $46,699, the median income for a family was $53,681. Males had a median income of $47,917 versus $26,682 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,441. About 7.5% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under the age of 18 and 8.1% of those 65 and older. The Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada has its headquarters in Winnemucca, it is a federally recognized tribe of Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute Indians in northwestern Nevada. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Winnemucca; the California Zephyr provides a daily service in both directions between San Chicago. The Winnemucca passenger rail station, at 209 West Railroad Street, is now unstaffed. Amtrak tickets for railway transportation in Winnemucca can be purchased online. Since 1867, Winnemucca has been a station on the Transcontinental Railroad.
Winnemucca is near the half-way point between Salt Lake City and San Francisco along Interstate 80, which passes through town. US Route 95 goes through Winnemucca. Local aviation needs are served by
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge
The Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge is a 573,504-acre national wildlife refuge on the northern border of the U. S. state of Nevada. A small part extends northward into Oregon, it is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service as the Nevada component of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, headquartered in Lakeview, Oregon. The Sheldon Refuge is noted for its population of wild horses, now all removed and The Virgin Valley Mining District for Black Precious Opals,the State Gemstone, still active with multiple fee dig mines. A point within the refuge is the farthest place in the continuous US from a McDonald's restaurant, at just 115 miles. In 1931, the refuge was established under executive order to carry out three central goals: First, the refuge was to provide a habitat for the "antelope", an animal whose population was in decline during the early 1900s. Second, conservation efforts were put forth to protect native fish and plants; the refuge contains the active and popular Virgin Valley Opal Mining District and was grandfathered in with all rights.
The refuge was to serve as an inviolate migratory bird sanctuary. Advocates characterize Sheldon as one of the few intact sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the Great Basin, one that hosts a variety of wildlife endemic to the unique environment. Desert fishes, greater sage-grouse, migratory birds, mule deer and the pygmy rabbit are all residents; the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge occupies an arid zone of volcanic terrain. Opal miners have been active in the valley since 1906. Rockhounds search for precious opal, petrified wood, obsidian, jasper, hyalite opal, psilomelene. Geothermal hot springs provide some water to a swimming shower house in the camp ground; the dominant ecosystem plant life consists of drought-tolerant species such as sagebrush, mountain mahogany and aspen. The elevation ranges from 4,100 feet to 7,200 feet above sea level. In this forbidding landscape lives a large population of free-range fauna, with the pronghorn - North America's fastest land mammal - being the best known and numbering around 3,500.
There are large herds of mustang, mule deer, a small but self-sustaining population of bighorn sheep. The bighorn are not native to the Sheldon Refuge, having been extirpated there during the frontier era and reintroduced about 1930; the pronghorn "antelope" played a key role in the refuge's history, as 94 percent of the current protected land area was set aside as the Charles Sheldon Antelope Range in 1936. The refuge is the home of an endemic fish species of limited geographic distribution, the Alvord chub; the population of Sheldon horses are the descendants of horses used by the U. S. Army. Harry Wilson was one of the ranchers that sold horses to the U. S. cavalry. When the Wilsons owned the Virgin Valley Ranch, they worked with the Army, which provided thoroughbred stallions that were bred with the Wilsons' standardbreds. Nevada State Route 140 traverses the refuge from east to west and is the only paved road within the refuge; the nearest community of any size is 14 miles from the refuge's eastern boundary.
The nearest divided highway is Interstate 80 in Winnemucca, Nevada 100 miles to the south. County Road 8A connects to Cedarville Ca. Proposals to cull some of the alleged excess population of mustang in the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge were drawing public concern as of 2008; the official USFWS position, as stated on their refuge's website, was "horses and burros are not native to Sheldon Refuge. They are descended from domestic stock turned loose around the turn of the twentieth century, they are grass eaters, their grazing can devastate native vegetation and cause severe damage to riparian habitat." Some private-sector advocates, such as the Sierra Club, agree with the USFWS position. In response, the American Wild Horse Preservation Campaign has accused the USFWS of conducting "helicopter round-ups during foaling season" in the Sheldon Refuge; the recent history of roundups at the refuge are controversial with indications many animals ended up at slaughterhouses. Due to the negative impact horses and burros have riparian areas and the resulting strain on native wildlife, Sheldon NWR officials announced a decision to remove all horses from the refuge by 2014 and they all were removed
Amateur geology is the recreational study and hobby of collecting rocks and mineral specimens from the natural environment. The first amateur geologists were prospectors looking for valuable minerals and gemstones for commercial purposes. However, more people have been drawn to amateur geology for recreational purposes for the beauty that rocks and minerals provide. One reason for the rise in popularity of amateur geology is that a collection can begin by picking up a rock. There are many clubs and groups that search for specimens and compare them in groups as a hobby. Information on where to find such groups can be found at libraries, "gem and mineral shows". Tourist information centers and small-town chambers of commerce can supply valuable local information; the Internet can be a useful search tool as it can help find other amateur geologists. The amateur geologist's principal piece of equipment is the geologist's hammer; this is a small tool with a pick-like point on one end, a flat hammer on the other.
The hammer end is for breaking rocks, the pick end is used for prying and digging into crevices. The pick end of most rock hammers can dull if struck onto bare rock. Rock collectors may bring a sledgehammer to break hard rocks. Good places for a collector to look are quarries, road cuts, rocky hills and mountains, streams. There are many different laws in place regarding the collection of rocks and minerals from public areas, so it is advisable to read up on local laws before prospecting. Rock and mineral collecting is prohibited in most if not all national parks in the United States. Since October 2000, mindat.org has been an irreplaceable resource for all geology related fields. Its original purpose was to share information about minerals, their properties and where they are found. Today, it is the world's largest public database of mineral information supported worldwide by volunteers adding and verifying new information daily. Avid rock collectors use their specimens to learn about petrology and geology as well as skills in the identification and classifying of specimen rocks, preparing them for display.
The hobby can lead into lapidary projects, the cutting and mounting of gemstones and minerals. The equipment needed to do this includes rock polishers. Many beautiful crystal varieties are found in small samples which requires a good microscope for working with and photographing the specimen; the hobby can be as simple as finding pretty rocks for a windowsill or develop into a detailed and comprehensive museum quality display. John Sinkankas was a gemologist, lapidary enthusiast and author, he was a fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America. In 1982, he was awarded the "Distinguished Associate Award" from the Gemological Institute of America. George Frederick Kunz assembled numerous important mineral collections throughout his life, such as a research collection for Thomas Edison, he assembled the Morgan-Tiffany collection of gems which went to the American Museum of Natural History. He was self-taught in regards to mineralogy and gemology, but his skills and knowledge landed him a position as a gem expert with Tiffany & Company at the age of 23.
In 1903 the newly discovered violet pink variety of spodumene was named kunzite in his honor after his death. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Distinguished German author, a skilled amateur scientist with a great interest in minerals; the iron mineral goethite is named after him. James Smithson is well known as the benefactor of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C; the Smithsonian now houses the finest collection of gems in the world. John Ruskin was an Englishman and art critic who gained an interest early in his life for minerals, he authored a small volume of ten lectures on mineralogy titled "Ethics of the Dust". He gave numerous specimens to the British Natural History Museum including the well known Edwardes Ruby and yellow Colenso diamond; this octahedral diamond was on display at the museum for 70 years. In 1965 the diamond was stolen and to this day has never been recovered. Fossil collecting Lapidary List of fossil sites Mineral collecting Collector's Corner, The Mineralogical Society of America Mindat Mineralogy Database The American Federation of Mineral Societies Southeast Federation of Mineralogical Societies Eastern Federation of Mineralogical and Lapidary Societies South Central Federation of Mineral Societies Midwest Federation Of Mineralogical and Geological Societies Rocky Mountain Federation of Mineralogical Societies California Federation of Mineralogical Societies Northwest Federation of Mineralogical Societies Gemological Institute of America
Harney County, Oregon
Harney County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,422, making it the fifth-least populous county in Oregon; the county seat is Burns. Established in 1889, the county is named in honor of William S. Harney, a military officer of the period, involved in the Pig War and popular in the Pacific Northwest. Harney County is a rural county in southeastern Oregon, it is a five hours' drive from Oregon. The county is bordered by Malheur County. At 10,228 square miles in size, the county is the largest in Oregon, one of the largest in the United States. S. states. The county is sparsely populated, with a population of about 7,700; the county has just two incorporated cities: Burns, the county seat and the larger city, with 40 percent of the population, Hines, with 20 percent of the county's population. About 75 percent of the county's area is federal land, variously managed by the Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.
S. Forest Service. About 10 percent of Harney County's area is part of the Ochoco National Forest and Malheur National Forest; the county contains the Burns Paiute Indian Reservation within and north of the City of Burns. Harney County has a "high desert" topography, with low levels of precipitation. About 500 ranches and farms producing cattle, dairy products and hay operate within the county. Besides ranching and farming, forestry are important industries in the county; the county is of ecological as well as recreational importance. Along with neighboring Grant County, Harney County has the nation's largest Ponderosa pine forest; the county was a focus of recent efforts to conserve the sage grouse. Visitors are attracted to the county for its hunting and camping activities. According to the website of the Harney County Sheriff's Office, the sheriff has a staff of six law enforcement officers. Burns has a separate police department but, as of 2008, did not employ enough officers to provide "24-hour" coverage.
The Native Americans living in this region at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were the Northern Paiute, who fought with the Tenino and Wasco peoples. Peter Skene Ogden was the first known European to explore this area in 1826 when he led a fur brigade for the Hudson's Bay Company. Harney County was carved out of the southern two-thirds of Grant County on February 25, 1889. A fierce political battle, with armed "night riders" who spirited county records from Harney to Burns, ended with Burns as the county seat in 1890; the Malheur River Indian Reservation was created by executive order on March 14, 1871, the Northern Paiute within the Oregon state boundaries were settled there. The federal government "discontinued" the reservation after the Bannock War of 1878. Descendants of these people form a federally recognized tribal entity, the Burns Paiute Tribe, which had 341 members in 2008. Fewer than 35.5% of the tribal members live on the Burns Paiute Indian Colony near Burns. The tribe earned revenue from a small casino, the Old Camp Casino, before its closure in 2012, renting out communal tribal lands for grazing rights to local ranchers.
On January 2, 2016, the headquarters building of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge was seized by armed protesters related to the Bundy standoff. The group protested the prison sentences of two ranchers convicted of arson in wildfires set in 2001 and 2006, which the ranchers claimed spread from their land into the wildlife reserve. Militia leaders, including Ammon Bundy and Jon Ritzheimer, were arrested on January 26, 2016, in an event that included the shooting of militant LaVoy Finicum; the following day, only four militants remained, they surrendered on February 11, 2016. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,226 square miles, of which 10,133 square miles is land and 93 square miles is water, it is the largest county in the tenth-largest county in the United States. Steens Mountain is the county's most prominent geographical feature, rising 9,700 feet above sea level and spanning many miles across a region, otherwise flat. To its southeast is the Alvord Desert—the driest place in Oregon—and the Trout Creek Mountains, which extend south into Nevada.
South of Steens Mountain, the Pueblo Mountains are another remote range in Nevada. North of Steens Mountain lies the Harney Basin, which contains Harney Lake. Grant County - north Malheur County - east/Mountain Time Border Humboldt County, Nevada - south Washoe County, Nevada - southwest Lake County - west Deschutes County - northwest Crook County - northwest Although the county is in the Pacific Time Zone, unincorporated Drewsey, just west of the Malheur County line unofficially observes the Mountain Time Zone. Malheur National Forest Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Ochoco National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 7,609 people, 3,036 households, 2,094 families residing in the county; the population density was 1 people per square mile. There were 3,533 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the raci