Newry is a city in Northern Ireland, divided by the Clanrye river in counties Armagh and Down, 34 miles from Belfast and 67 miles from Dublin. It had a population of 26,967 in 2011. Newry was founded in 1144 alongside a Cistercian monastery, although there are references to earlier settlements in the area, is one of Ireland's oldest towns; the city is an entry to the "Gap of the North", 5 miles from the border with the Republic of Ireland. It grew as a market town and a garrison and became a port in 1742 when it was linked to Lough Neagh by the first summit-level canal built in Ireland or Great Britain. A cathedral city, it is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dromore. In 2002, as part of Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee celebrations, Newry was granted city status along with Lisburn; the name Newry is an anglicization of An Iúraigh, an oblique form of An Iúrach, which means "the grove of yew trees". The modern Irish name for Newry is An tIúr, which means "the yew tree". An tIúr is an shortening of Iúr Cinn Trá, "yew tree at the head of the strand", the most common Irish name for Newry.
This relates to an apocryphal story. The Irish name Cathair an Iúir appears on some bilingual signs around the city. There is strong evidence of continual human habitation in the area from early times, where it is seen during the Bronze Age that Newry had a factory-type community who were producing in abundance detailed jewellery for garments. Three of these Newry Clasps can be found in the Ulster Museum, a massive arm clasp from the same period was found in Newry. In recent times the survey for the new bypass revealed a number of standing stones on a central area down the Omeath Road. These, like many other finds, such as that of an ancient cave at the top of the Dublin Road area, have been noted and forgotten about, it is estimated. Among them three Neolithic homesteads were discovered. At the time all were noted, left to be destroyed by the new road. Standing stones were seen on at least one of these sites, but they stand no more. In AD 820, the Danes made one of their "earliest irruptions at Newry abbey, from whence they proceeded to Armagh, taking it by storm, plundering and desolating the country around."In AD 835 the Danes again made a sudden incursion into Newry, with a large body of Danes landing at Inbher-Chin-Tra-gha, or Newry, raided the area before attacking Armagh, where they set fire to the churches and university, plundering gold and other items from them and killing an estimated one thousand people in the city and surrounding area.
The Victorian era historian James Henthorn Todd goes into further detail in his 1867 Volume, recording that the abbey was attacked in AD 824. A small medieval town was on the site to the north and south of the abbey, rebuilt in 1142 by King O Carroll of the Oriel at the request of Saint Malachi; the landing stage of the abbey was situated close to the western bank of the Newry River in what is now Kilmorey Street. From these early times it was the main port of the town; the abbey was converted to a collegiate church in 1543, before being surrendered to the Crown in 1548. The abbey is seen to be giving its earnings to the Crown 200 years before this date, it is described as being one of the largest in Ireland. The Vikings attacked the Abbey many times; the town was granted its first charter between 1157 by High King of Ireland Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn. In 1162 the monastery was raided by Irish clans. De Courcy's lordship ensured a safe spell for the abbey after he had built several castles in and around Newry, These were typical Norman affairs, of motte-and-bailey construction.
In 1539 an English mercenary, Nicholas Bagenal, fled to Ireland after murdering a man in Leek, Staffordshire with the aid of his two brothers. After some time in the employment of the O Neill he reached a high status, was granted a pardon in 1543, became Marshal of the army. During his early years in the Louth area he lived at Carlingford. Lord Bingham is seen sending Oriel labourers to Newry in 1546 at which time Bagenal is seen restoring the castle of Newry which belonged to Hugh O Neill being first built by John De Courcy in 1186 Not long after this the Marshal, in 1552, secured a 21-year lease on the Newry property, confiscated from the Cistercians; the castle was razed to the ground by Shane O Neill, who banished Bagenal from Newry in 1566. The nearby convent was part of the Abbey, is mentioned in the Bagenal patent. A small medieval church can be found in its grounds; the abbey site is mentioned in the rent rolls of 1575, said to consist of a church, a steeple, a cemetery, a chapterhouse and hall, two orchards and one garden, containing one acre, within the precincts of a monastic college.
During the 1689 Raid on Newry Williamite forces under Toby Purcell repulsed an attack by the Jacobites under the Marquis de Boisseleau. At the period of the Battle of the Boyne, the Duke of Berwick set fire to the parts of the town which he had restructured to defend it, see Berwicks Journal, Schomberg sent troops in during the early hours of the mornings when seeing the flames, they extinguished them. While it is believed that King William may have stayed at a Newry Castle, the story is a far-fetched one. Kin
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
Doctor of Law
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor juris, Doctor of Philosophy, Juris Doctor, Legum Doctor. In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence. To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.. The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow: Doctorate in Law Doctorate in Criminal Law Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences Doctorate in Juridical Sciences Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences Doctorate in Private Law Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available. In some of the country's most important universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries.
However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title, that applies within the institution granting it. In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; the doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência. Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are required to earn a minimum number of credits. Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution's library.
Doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title. If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees. Admission to doctoral courses is universally reserved to holders of a master's degree. Therefore, a bachelor of Laws, seeking the degree of doctor must complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws, only after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course. There are, however, a few universities that allow "direct" admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master's course in exceptional circumstances.
Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws, can be admitted directly to a doctoral course. One is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a "direct" doctorate, he is allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course. Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain an original contribution to the field of Law under study. In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws; the Doctor of Jurisprudence is the professional doctorate degree, required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. The first law degree was known until as the Bachelor of Laws. However, since law schools in Canada insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.
B. degrees awarded by programs abroad. The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL. B.. B. with a J. D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL. B. is equivalent to the J. D. All Canadian J. D. programs are three years, all have similar mandatory firs
1874 United Kingdom general election
The 1874 United Kingdom general election saw the incumbent Liberals, led by William Ewart Gladstone, lose decisively though it won a majority of the votes cast. Benjamin Disraeli's Conservatives won the majority of seats in the House of Commons because they won a number of uncontested seats, it was the first Conservative victory in a general election since 1841. Gladstone's decision to call an election surprised his colleagues, for they were aware of large sectors of discontent in their coalition. For example, the nonconformists were upset with education policies; the Conservatives were making gains in the middle-class, Gladstone wanted to abolish the income tax, but failed to carry his own cabinet. The result was a disaster for the Liberals, who went from 387 MPs to only 242. Conservatives jumped from 271 to 350. For the first time the Irish Nationalists gained seats, returning 60. Gladstone himself noted: "We have been swept away in a torrent of gin and beer"; the election saw Irish nationalists in the Home Rule League become the first significant third party in Parliament.
This had been the first general election that used a secret ballot following the 1872 Secret Ballot Act. The Irish Nationalist gains could well be attributed to the effects of the Secret Ballot Act as tenants faced less of a threat of eviction if they voted against the wishes of their landlords; this is the only time since the introduction of the secret ballot that a party has been defeated despite receiving an absolute majority of the popular vote. This was because over 100 Conservative candidates were elected unopposed; this meant. The election saw 652 MPs elected: 6 fewer than at the prior election. Following allegations of corruption the Conservative held constituencies of Beverley and Sligo Borough, the Liberal held constituencies of Bridgwater and Cashel, had been abolished
Fenian was an umbrella term for the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood, fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent Irish Republic in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Originating in Irish mythology with the Fianna, the term derives from groups of legendary warrior bands following Fionn mac Cumhail, with their associated mythological tales, known as the Fenian Cycle; the term Fenian today is seen as a derogatory sectarian term in Ireland to refer to Irish nationalists and/or Catholics in Northern Ireland. The term has been used in Scotland as a slur to refer to Scottish Catholics or Scots with Irish ancestry. Fenianism, according to O'Mahony, is symbolised by two principles: firstly, that Ireland has a natural right to independence, secondly, that this right could be won only by an armed revolution; the term Fenianism was sometimes used by the political establishment in the 1860s for any form of mobilisation among the Irish or those who expressed any Irish nationalist sentiments, or questioned the Protestant Ascendancy such as by advocating for the rights of tenant farmers.
In this sense the term was applied inaccurately by the political establishment to the unrelated Tenant Right League, Irish National Land League and Irish Parliamentary Party who did not advocate explicitly for an independent Irish Republic or the use of force. The establishment warned people about this perceived threat to turn what they saw as "decent civilised" society on its head by movements such as trade unionism seeking to change the existing social order in the United Kingdom. James Stephens, one of the "Men of 1848," had established himself in Paris, was in correspondence with John O'Mahony in the United States and other advanced nationalists at home and abroad; this would include the Phoenix National and Literary Society, with Jeremiah O'Donovan among its more prominent members, formed at Skibbereen. Along with Thomas Clarke Luby, John O'Leary and Charles Kickham he founded the Irish Republican Brotherhood on 17 March 1858 in Lombard Street, Dublin; the Fenian Rising in 1867 proved to be a "doomed rebellion," poorly organised and with minimal public support.
Most of the Irish-American officers who landed at Cork, in the expectation of commanding an army against England, were imprisoned. In the aftermath, Fenian assassination circles were active in Cork and in Dublin and were responsible for shooting two officers of the Dublin Metropolitan Police while on duty in October 1867. In 1882, a breakaway IRB faction calling itself the Irish National Invincibles assassinated the British Chief Secretary for Ireland Lord Frederick Cavendish and his Permanent Under-secretary, in an incident known as the Phoenix Park Murders; the Fenian Brotherhood, the Irish Republican Brotherhood's US branch, was founded by John O'Mahony and Michael Doheny, both of whom had been "out" in 1848. In the face of nativist suspicion, it established an independent existence, although it still worked to gain Irish American support for armed rebellion in Ireland. O'Mahony ran operations in the US, sending funds to Stephens and the IRB in Ireland, disagreement over O'Mahony's leadership led to the formation of two Fenian Brotherhoods in 1865.
The US chapter of the movement was sometimes referred to as the IRB. After the failed invasion of Canada, it was replaced by Clan na Gael. In Canada, Fenian is used to designate a group of Irish radicals, a.k.a. the American branch of the Fenian Brotherhood in the 1860s. They made several attempts to invade some parts of the British colonies of New Brunswick and Canada, with the raids continuing after these colonies had been confederated; the ultimate goal of the Fenian raids was to hold Canada hostage and therefore be in a position to blackmail the United Kingdom to give Ireland its independence. Because of the invasion attempts, support and/or collaboration for the Fenians in Canada became rare among the Irish. Francis Bernard McNamee, the man who started the Fenian movement in Montreal, was a case in point. In public, he proclaimed his loyalty to the queen and called for an Irish militia company to defend Canada against the Fenians. In private, he wrote that the real purpose of an Irish militia company would be to assist the Fenian invasion, adding for good measure that if the government denied his request he would raise the cry of anti-Irish Catholic discrimination and bring more of his aggrieved countrymen into the Fenian Brotherhood.
A suspected Fenian, Patrick J. Whelan, was hanged in Ottawa for the assassination of Irish Canadian politician, Thomas D'Arcy McGee in 1868, a member of the Irish Confederation in the 1840s; the danger posed by the Fenian raids was an important element in motivating the British North America colonies to consider a more centralised defence for mutual protection, realised through Canadian Confederation. The Fenians in England and the Empire were a major threat to political stability. In the late 1860s the IRB control centre was in Lancashire. In 1868 the Supreme Council of the IRB, the provisional government of the Irish Republic, was restructured; the four Irish provinces: Connacht, Leinster and Munster had representatives on the council, along with Scotland, the north and south of England and London, had representatives on the Council. Four honorary members were co-opted
The Basilica of St Gregory the Great at Downside known as Downside Abbey, is a Benedictine monastery in England and the senior community of the English Benedictine Congregation. Its main apostolate is the Downside School, for the education of children aged eleven to eighteen. Both the abbey and the school are located at Stratton-on-the-Fosse between Westfield and Shepton Mallet in Somerset, South West England. In 2017, the abbey was home to fourteen monks. From 1 September 2018 Rev Dom Nicholas Wetz from the Belmont Abbey serves as its Prior Administrator. Downside Abbey has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. Sir Nikolaus Pevsner described the Abbey as "the most splendid demonstration of the renaissance of Roman Catholicism in England"; the community was founded in 1607 at Douai in Flanders part of the Spanish Netherlands, under the patronage of St Gregory the Great. The founder was the Welshman St John Roberts, who became the first prior and established the new community with other monks from Britain who had entered various monasteries within the Spanish Benedictine Congregation, notably the principal monastery at Valladolid.
In 1611 Dom Philippe de Caverel, abbot of St. Vaast's Abbey at Arras and endowed a monastery for the community; the Priory of St Gregory was therefore the first English Benedictine house to renew conventual life after the Reformation. For nearly 200 years the monastery trained monks for the English mission and six of these men were beatified by Pope Pius XI in 1929. Two of them, Saints John Roberts and Ambrose Barlow, were among the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970. French troops invaded Flanders during the French Revolution; the monastic community was expelled by them, after a period of imprisonment, in March 1795 the community was permitted to proceed to England. They settled for some 20 years as guests of Sir Edward Smythe at Acton Burnell, before settling at Mount Pleasant, Downside, in Somerset, in 1814; the monastery was completed in 1876. Downside was granted Abbey status in October 1899 and Prior Edmund Ford was elected the first Abbot in 1900; the building of Downside abbey church was begun in 1873 with the Lady Chapel.
The foundation stone was laid on 1 October 1873 and the ceremony was reported in the Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette on 9 October 1873: Yesterday week the foundation stones of the new church and collegiate and monastic buildings were laid amidst much ceremonial. Archbishop Manning presided at the ceremony, he was accompanied by Bishop Clifford of Clifton, The Bishop of Newport and Menevia, the Cicstercian Abbot of Mount St Bernard’s, Monsignor Capel, Monsignor Parfitt, Dr. Neve, the Vicar-General of the Diocese, Dr. Williams, President of Prior Park College, among the Benedictine clergy, to which Order Downside belongs, was the Very Revd. Dr. Sweeney, of Bath; the ceremony commenced with Pontifical High Mass, celebrated by Dr. Clifford. After the Gospel the Archbishop preached, taking as his text, “One body and one spirit”, Eph iv 4. After Mass, the music of, strict Gregorian, a procession was formed and moved through the grounds of the college to the spot where the stones to be laid were prepared.
The chief stone, forming the base of the north transept of the church, was laid by Archbishop Manning. At the end of the ceremony about £100 were laid upon the stone, but in addition to that promises of contributions were liberal. At the conclusion of the religious part of the day’s proceedings the Benedictine Fathers entertained the visitors, numbering about 200, at a luncheon laid out in the exhibition room of the college; the style of the new building, the architects of which are Messrs. Dunn and Hansom, of Newcastle, is mediaeval Gothic; the church, it is said, will be exceptionally grand, with its lofty tower and spire will be a striking object to all the neighbourhood. The building is to be constructed of stone from the neighbouring quarries at Doulting, which it may be mentioned furnished the material of the structure of Wells Cathedral and Glastonbury Abbey; the present Benedictine community purchased about 70 acres of land at Downside in the year 1814, removed thither from Acton Burnell in Shropshire.
By degrees they have increased their property to some 350 acres, are known to have the best cultivated farms in their part of the county of Somerset. In 1925 the unfinished nave was dedicated to those old boys of the school killed in World War I; the abbey church was consecrated in 1935. At the same time it was raised to the rank of a minor basilica by Pope Pius XI; the consecration was reported in the Wells Journal for 13 September 1935. To-day, with the full solemnity of Catholic ritual, Downside Abbey, commenced more than a half-a-century ago, was consecrated by the Cardinal Prince-Primate of Hungary, Monsignor Seredi, one of the Benedictine Members of the Sacred College; the ceremony was attended by Cardinal MacRory from Ireland, seven Archbishops, twelve Bishops and fifteen Abbots. Over 500 priests accepted invitations to attend and among the lay guests were the Lord Mayor of London and leading members of the Roman Catholic community throughout Great Britain. In honour of the occasion the Abbey Church has been raised by the Pope to the dignity of the Minor Basilica - the first in England - and this confers upon the Abbot the right to wear the Cappa Magna, a long black cloack.
Cardinal Seredi, who directly represented the Pope, consecrated the High Altar and performed the greater part of the consecration of the church, the b