Haalderen is a small hamlet near Arnhem and Nijmegen in the Netherlands. The population is quite low, the hamlet belongs to the district of Lingewaard. In Haalderen, there are a significant number of pensioners. Joop Puntman, Dutch ceramist and sculptor
The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, in turn owned by News Corp. Times Newspapers publishes The Times; the two papers were founded independently and have been under common ownership only since 1966. They were bought by News International in 1981; the Sunday Times occupies a dominant position in the quality Sunday market. While some other national newspapers moved to a tabloid format in the early 2000s, The Sunday Times has retained the larger broadsheet format and has said that it will continue to do so, it sells more than twice as many copies as its sister paper, The Times, published Monday to Saturday. The Sunday Times has acquired a reputation for the strength of its investigative reporting – much of it by its award-winning Insight team – and for its wide-ranging foreign coverage, it has a number of popular writers and commentators including Jeremy Clarkson and Bryan Appleyard.
A. A. Gill was a prominent columnist for many years, it was Britain's first multi-section newspaper and remains larger than its rivals. A typical edition contains the equivalent of 450 to 500 tabloid pages. Besides the main news section, it has standalone News Review, Sport and Appointments sections – all broadsheet. There are two tabloid supplements, it has a website and separate digital editions configured for both the iOS operating system for the Apple iPad and the Android operating system for such devices as the Google Nexus, all of which offer video clips, extra features and multimedia and other material not found in the printed version of the newspaper. The paper publishes The Sunday Times Rich List, an annual survey of the wealthiest people in Britain and Ireland, equivalent to the Forbes 400 list in the United States, a series of league tables with reviews of private British companies, in particular The Sunday Times Fast Track 100; the paper produces an annual league table of the best-performing state and independent schools at both junior and senior level across the United Kingdom, entitled Parent Power, an annual league table of British universities and a similar one for Irish universities.
It publishes The Sunday Times Bestseller List of books in Britain, a list of the "100 Best Companies to Work For", focusing on UK companies. It organises The Sunday Times Oxford Literary Festival, held annually, The Sunday Times Festival of Education, which takes place every year at Wellington College; the paper began publication on 18 February 1821 as The New Observer, but from 21 April its title was changed to the Independent Observer. Its founder, Henry White, chose the name in an apparent attempt to take advantage of the success of The Observer, founded in 1791, although there was no connection between the two papers. On 20 October 1822 it was reborn as The Sunday Times, although it had no relationship with The Times. In January 1823, White sold the paper to a radical politician. Under its new owner, The Sunday Times notched up several firsts: a wood engraving it published of the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 was the largest illustration to have appeared in a British newspaper; the paper was bought in 1887 by Alice Anne Cornwell who had made a fortune in mining in Australia and floating the Midas Mine Company of the London Stock Exchange.
She bought the paper to promote her new company, The British and Australasian Mining Investment Company, as a gift to her lover Frederick Stannard Robinson. Robinson was installed as editor and she married him in 1894, she sold it in 1893 to Frederick Beer, who owned Observer. Beer appointed Rachel Sassoon Beer, as editor, she was editor of Observer – the first woman to run a national newspaper – and continued to edit both titles until 1901. There was a further change of ownership in 1903, in 1915 the paper was bought by William Berry and his brother, Gomer Berry ennobled as Lord Camrose and Viscount Kemsley respectively. Under their ownership, The Sunday Times continued its reputation for innovation: on 23 November 1930, it became the first Sunday newspaper to publish a 40-page issue and on 21 January 1940, news replaced advertising on the front page. In 1943, the Kemsley Newspapers Group was established, with The Sunday Times becoming its flagship paper. At this time, Kemsley was the largest newspaper group in Britain.
On 12 November 1945, Ian Fleming, who created James Bond, joined the paper as foreign manager and special writer. The following month, circulation reached 500,000. On 28 September 1958 the paper launched a separate Review section, becoming the first newspaper to publish two sections regularly. In 1959 the Kemsley group was bought by Lord Thomson, in October 1960 circulation reached one million for the first time. In another first, on 4 February 1962 the editor, Denis Hamilton, launched The Sunday Times Magazine; the cover picture of the first issue was of Jean Shrimpton wearing a Mary Quant outfit and was taken by David Bailey. The magazine got off to a slow start, but the advertising soon began to pick up, over time, other newspapers laun
Nijmegen is a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland, on the Waal river close to the German border. Nijmegen is the oldest city in the Netherlands, the first to be recognized as such in Roman times, in 2005 celebrated 2,000 years of existence; the municipality is part of the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban region, a metropolitan area with 736,107 inhabitants in 2011. The municipality is formed by the city of Nijmegen, incorporating the former villages of Hatert and Neerbosch, as well as the urban expansion project of Waalsprong, situated north of the river Waal and including the village of Lent and the hamlet of't Zand, as well as the new suburbs of Nijmegen-Oosterhout and Nijmegen-Ressen; the city lies a few kilometers from the border with Germany, to some extent the westernmost villages in the municipality of Kranenburg, function as dormitories for people who work in the Dutch city of Nijmegen in part due to the immigration of Dutch people from the region who were attracted by the lower house pricing just across the border.
The German city of Duisburg is about 78 km away. The first mention of Nijmegen in history is in the 1st century BC, when the Romans built a military camp on the place where Nijmegen was to appear. By 69, when the Batavians, the original inhabitants of the Rhine and Maas delta, revolted, a village called Oppidum Batavorum had formed near the Roman camp; this village was destroyed in the revolt, but when it had ended the Romans built another, bigger camp where the Legio X Gemina was stationed. Soon after, another village formed around this camp. In 98, Nijmegen was the first of two settlements in what is now the Kingdom of the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights. In 103, the X Gemina was re-stationed to Vindobona, modern day Vienna, which may have been a major blow to the economy of the village around the camp, losing around 5000 inhabitants. In 104 Emperor Trajan renamed the town, which now became known as Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum, Noviomagus for short. Beginning in the second half of the 4th century, Roman power decreased and Noviomagus became part of the Frankish kingdom.
It appeared around this time on the Peutinger Map. It has been contended that in the 8th century Emperor Charlemagne maintained his palatium in Nijmegen on at least four occasions. During his brief deposition of 830, the emperor Louis the Pious was sent to Nijmegen by his son Lothar I. Thanks to the Waal river, trade flourished; the powerful Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor was born at Nijmegen in 1165. In 1230 his son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor granted Nijmegen city rights. In 1247, the city was ceded to the count of Guelders as collateral for a loan; the loan was never repaid, Nijmegen has been a part of Gelderland since. This did not hamper trade; the arts flourished in this period. Famous medieval painters like the Limbourg brothers were educated in Nijmegen; some of Hieronymus Bosch's ancestors came from the city. During the Dutch Revolt, trade came to a halt and though Nijmegen became a part of the Republic of United Provinces after its capture from the Spanish in 1591, it remained a border town and had to endure multiple sieges.
In 1678 Nijmegen was host to the negotiations between the European powers that aimed to put an end to the constant warfare that had ravaged the continent for years. The result was the Treaty of Nijmegen that failed to provide for a lasting peace. In the second half of the 19th century, the fortifications around the city became a major problem. There were too many inhabitants inside the walls, but the fortifications could not be demolished because Nijmegen was deemed as being of vital importance to the defence of the Netherlands; when events in the Franco-Prussian war proved that old-fashioned fortifications were no more of use, this policy was changed and the fortifications were dismantled in 1874. The old castle had been demolished in 1797, so that its bricks could be sold. Through the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, Nijmegen grew steadily; the Waal was bridged in 1878 by a rail bridge and in 1936 by a car bridge, claimed to be Europe's biggest bridge at the time.
In 1923 the current Radboud University Nijmegen was founded and in 1927 a channel was dug between the Waal and Maas rivers. World War IIIn 1940, the Netherlands was invaded by Germany with Nijmegen being the first Dutch city to fall into German hands. On 22 February 1944, Nijmegen was bombed by American planes, causing great damage to the city centre, it was subsequently claimed by the Allies that the American pilots thought they were bombing the German city of Kleve, while the Germans alleged that it was a planned operation authorised by the Dutch government in exile. The Dutch organization for investigating wartime atrocities, the NIOD, announced in January 2005 that its study of the incident confirmed that it was an accident caused by poor communications and chaos in the airspace. Over 750 people died in the bombardment. During September 1944, the city saw heavy fighting during Operation Market Garden; the objective in Nijmegen was to prevent the Germans from destroying the bridges. Capturing the road bridge allowed the British Army XXX Corps to attempt to reach the 1st British Airborne Division in Arnhem.
The bridge was defended by over 300 German troops on both the north and south sides with close to 20 anti-tank guns and two anti-aircraft guns, supported with artillery. The
Field marshal (United Kingdom)
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the Royal Air Force. A Field Marshal's insignia consists of two crossed batons surrounded by yellow leaves below St Edward's Crown. Like Marshals of the RAF and Admirals of the Fleet, Field Marshals traditionally remain officers for life, though on half-pay when not in an appointment; the rank has been used sporadically throughout its history and was vacant during parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. After the Second World War, it became standard practice to appoint the Chief of the Imperial General Staff to the rank on his last day in the post. Army officers occupying the post of Chief of the Defence Staff, the professional head of all the British Armed Forces, were promoted to the rank upon their appointment. In total, 141 men have held the rank of field marshal; the majority led careers in the British Army or the British Indian Army, rising through the ranks to become a field marshal.
Some members of the British Royal Family—most Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Charles, Prince of Wales—were promoted to the rank after shorter periods of service. Three British monarchs—George V, Edward VIII, George VI— assumed the rank on their accessions to the throne, while Edward VII was a field marshal, two British consorts—Albert, Prince Consort and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh—were appointed by their respective queens. Other ceremonial appointments were made as diplomatic gestures. Twelve foreign monarchs held the honour, though three were stripped of it when their countries became enemies of Britain and her allies in the two world wars. Awarded the rank were one Frenchman and one Australian, honoured for their contributions to World War I and World War II and one foreign statesman. A report commissioned by the Ministry of Defence in 1995 made a number of recommendations for financial savings in the armed forces' budget, one of, the abolition of the five-star ranks. Part of the rationale was that these ranks were disproportionate to the size of the forces commanded by these officers and that none of the United Kingdom's close allies, such as the United States, used such ranks.
The recommendation was not taken up in full, but the practice of promoting service chiefs to five-star ranks was stopped and the ranks are now reserved for special circumstances. Sir Peter Inge was, in the last active officer to be promoted to the rank. Inge relinquished the post of Chief of the Defence Staff in 1997 and his successor, Sir Charles Guthrie, was the first officer not to be promoted upon appointment as CDS; the most recent promotions to field marshal came in 2012, eighteen years after the moratorium on routine promotions to the rank, when Queen Elizabeth II promoted Prince Charles, her son and heir apparent, to the five-star ranks in all three services, in recognition of support provided for her in her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. At the same time, who relinquished the post of CDS and retired from active service in 2001, was promoted to honorary field marshal. In June 2014 former Chief of the Defence Staff Lord Walker of Aldringham was promoted to honorary field marshal.
Although the rank of field marshal is not used in the Royal Marines, the insignia is used on the uniform of the Captain General, the ceremonial head of the corps. The rank insignia of a field marshal in the British Army comprises two crossed batons in a wreath of oak leaves, with a crown above. In some other countries under the sphere of British influence, an adapted version of the insignia is used for field marshals with the crown being replaced with an alternative cultural or national emblem. On appointment, British field marshals are awarded a gold-tipped baton which they may carry on formal occasions; the vast majority of officers to hold the rank of field marshal were professional soldiers in the British Army, though eleven served as officers in the British Indian Army. At least fifty-seven field marshals were wounded in battle earlier in their careers, of whom 24 were wounded more than once, eight had been prisoners of war. Fifteen future field marshals were present at the Battle of Vitoria, where the Duke of Wellington earned the rank, ten others served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo.
However, only thirty-eight held independent commands in the field, just twelve served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces or Chief of the Imperial General Staff during a major war. Four field marshals—Sir Evelyn Wood, Sir George White, Earl Roberts, Lord Gort—had received the Victoria Cross, the United Kingdom's highest and most prestigious award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy". Wood, a famously injury-prone officer, was awarded the VC for two actions in 1858 in which he first attacked a group of rebels in India and rescued an informant from another group of rebels. White, a cavalry officer, led two charges on enemy guns in Afghanistan in 1879, while Gort, of the Grenadier Guards, commanded a series of attacks while wounded during the First World War in 1918. Roberts received his VC for actions during the Indian Mutiny. Wellington, 44 at the time of his promotion, was the youngest non-royal officer to earn the ra
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, of other parts of the Commonwealth, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime in actual combat. Since 1993 all ranks have been eligible. Instituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in The London Gazette on 9 November, the first DSOs awarded were dated 25 November 1886; the order was established to reward individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war. It was a military order, until for officers only, awarded to officers ranked major or higher, with awards to ranks below this for a high degree of gallantry, just short of deserving the Victoria Cross. While given for service under fire or under conditions equivalent to service in actual combat with the enemy, a number of awards made between 1914 and 1916 were under circumstances not under fire to staff officers, causing resentment among front-line officers.
After 1 January 1917, commanders in the field were instructed to recommend this award only for those serving under fire. From 1916, ribbon bars could be authorised for subsequent awards of the DSO, worn on the ribbon of the original award. In 1942, the award was extended to officers of the Merchant Navy who had performed acts of gallantry while under enemy attack. A requirement that the order could be given only to someone mentioned in despatches was removed in 1943. Since 1993, reflecting the review of the British honours system which recommended removing distinctions of rank in respect of operational awards, the DSO has been open to all ranks, with the award criteria redefined as'highly successful command and leadership during active operations'. At the same time, the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross was introduced as the second highest award for gallantry. Despite some fierce campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, the DSO has yet to be awarded to a non-commissioned rank; the DSO had been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by the 1990s most, including Canada and New Zealand, were establishing their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours.
Recipients of the order are known as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DSO". All awards are announced in the London Gazette; the medal signifying the award of the DSO is a silver-gilt cross with curved ends, 1.6 in wide, enamelled white and edged in gilt. It is manufactured by the Crown Jewellers. In the centre of the obverse, within a green enamelled laurel wreath, is the imperial crown in gold upon a red enamelled background; the reverse has the royal cypher of the reigning monarch in gold within a similar wreath and background. A ring at the top of the medal attaches to a ring at the bottom of a gilt suspension bar, ornamented with laurel. Since 1938 the year of award engraved on the back of the suspension bar. At the top of the ribbon is a second gilt bar ornamented with laurel; the medals are issued unnamed but some recipients have had their names engraved on the reverse of the suspension bar. The red ribbon is 1.125 in wide with narrow blue edges.
The bar for an additional award is plain gold with an Imperial Crown in the centre. Since about 1938, the year of the award has been engraved on the back of the bar. A rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress uniform to signify the award of each bar. From 1918 to 2017 the insignia of the Distinguished Service Order has been awarded 16,935 times, in addition to 1,910 bars; the figures to 1979 are laid out in the table below, the dates reflecting the relevant entries in the London Gazette: In addition, between 1980 and 2017 90 DSOs have been earned, including awards for the Falklands and the wars in the Gulf and Afghanistan, in addition to three second-award bars. The above figures include awards to the Commonwealth:In all, 1,220 DSOs have gone to Canadians, plus 119 first bars and 20 second bars. From 1901 to 1972, when the last Australian to receive the DSO was announced, 1,018 awards were made to Australians, plus 70 first bars and one second bar; the DSO was awarded to over 300 New Zealanders during the two World Wars.
Honorary awards to members of allied foreign forces include at least 1,329 for World War I, with further awards for World War II. The following received the DSO and three bars: Archibald Walter Buckle, rose from naval rating in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve to command the Anson Battalion of the Royal Naval Division during the First World War William Denman Croft, First World War army officer William Robert Aufrere Dawson, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment during the First World War, wounded nine times and mentioned in despatches four times Basil Embry, Second World War Royal Air Force officer Bernard Freyberg awarded the Victoria Cross Edward Albert Gibbs, Second World War destroyer captain Arnold Jackson, First World War British Army officer and 1500 metres Olympic gold medal winner in 1912 Douglas Kendrew, served as a brigade commander in Italy and the Middle East between 1944 and 1946. Subsequently appointed Governor of Western Australia. Robert Sinclair Knox, First World War British Army officer Frederick William Lumsden, British First World War Army officer awarded the Victoria Cross Paddy Mayne, Special Air Service commander in the Second World War and Irish rugby player Sir Richard George Onslow, Second World War destroyer captain and admiral Alastair Pearson, a British Army officer who received his four awards within the space of two years during the Second World War James Brian Tait, RAF pilot awarded the DFC and bar, completed
The Territorial Decoration was a military medal of the United Kingdom awarded for long service in the Territorial Force and its successor, the Territorial Army. This award superseded the Volunteer Officer's Decoration when the Territorial Force was formed on 1 April 1908, following the enactment of the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907, a large reorganisation of the old Volunteer Army and the remaining units of militia and Yeomanry. However, the Militia were transferred to the Special Reserve rather than becoming part of the Territorial Force. A recipient of this award is entitled to the letters "TD" after their name; the original criterion was for a minimum of 20 years service in the Territorial Force and Territorial Army, with war service counting double and service in the ranks counting half. In 1930 the new Efficiency Decoration was introduced to be awarded to all three services; when the ED was awarded to a Territorial Army officer it continued to be known as the Territorial Decoration and the recipient still used the letters TD after their name.
It was replaced in 1999 by the Volunteer Reserves Service Medal, awarded to all ranks in all services. For members of the Honourable Artillery Company the ribbon differed, being a half blue, half scarlet ribbon, with yellow edges; this distinction was bestowed by King Edward VII for the Volunteer Long Service And Good Conduct Medal and the honour extended to the same medals under the Territorial designations. The HAC ribbon colours were the household colours of King Edward VII. Note that this medal is separate from the Territorial Force Imperial Service Badge; the equivalent award for the ranks was the Territorial Force Efficiency Medal, the Territorial Efficiency Medal, the Efficiency Medal. J M A Tamplin, The Territorial Decoration, 1908-1930, Queens Royal Surrey regiment - Territorial Decorations and Medals On Churchill being awarded a TD