North Sydney Bears
The North Sydney Bears are an Australian rugby league football club based in North Sydney, New South Wales. They compete in the New South Wales Cup, having exited the National Rugby League following the 1999 NRL season after 90 years in the Sydney competition two in the NRL; the Bears are based on Sydney's Lower North Shore, have played at North Sydney Oval since 1910. There is a bid supporting a resurrection of the club in the NRL as the Central Coast Bears, based in Gosford, New South Wales; the club was established in 1908, making it one of the original founding members of the New South Wales Rugby Football League, one of Australia's first rugby league football clubs. North Sydney continued competing with some success in the first half of the 20th century in the NSWRL, through the ARL and NRL premierships until they merged with Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles to form the Northern Eagles for the 2000 season; the merged club lasted only until 2002 when it split again, with the Bears not returning to first grade and being represented at the highest order in the NSWRL competition the second-tier rugby league competition, where they continue to play today.
North Sydney were in a partnership with the Rabbitohs serving as Souths' reserve grade side from 2007 until the agreement ended in 2018. In total, 247 players, affiliated with Souths played with Norths in The Intrust Super Premiership NSW; until the end of season 2009, Souths were coached by the Bears' record-breaking top points scorer, Jason Taylor. In September 2018, North Sydney announced that they had signed a 5 year deal to become the Sydney Roosters feeder club and reserve grade side with Taylor returning to the club as head coach. North Sydney was formed as a foundation club of the newly arrived rugby league game in 1908 and were known as the Shoremen. Like the other Sydney district clubs, Norths were born from players and officials from the local Rugby Union club, Northern Suburbs Rugby Club; the club struggled to obtain access to North Sydney Oval, but council obstruction was removed and the Shoremen played their first real home game in 1910. Many good players such as Andy Morton, Jimmy Devereaux and Sid Deane were lost to English clubs in the years after making the semi-finals in the season of 1908.
They were nearly dropped from the competition during World War I because of dwindling spectator numbers. Towards the end of the war, Norths' fortunes improved, playing quality and spectators numbers increased and they won 2 premierships in 1921–22 coached by Chris McKivat; these would be their last first grade premierships and their last grand final appearance was in 1943. When an injury riddled North Sydney were beaten by Newtown 34–7. North Sydney's Captain-coach in the Grand Final of 1943 was the future doyen of rugby league broadcasters, Frank Hyde. Hyde, living in Lane Cove at the time, had been forced to switch from Balmain to Norths in 1941 due to the league's residency rules which stated that a player was required to live in their club's district; as Lane Cove was in North Sydney's district, the club protested to the NSWRFL and claimed Hyde from Balmain. The team became known as the North Sydney Bears during the 1950s after accepting a sponsorship from the nearby Big Bear supermarket at Neutral Bay.
The 1952 season saw North Sydney reach the finals for the first time since 1943. Norths went on to make the finals again in 1954 losing to Souths and St George respectively. Norths had to wait 10 years to make the finals again, this time against Balmain where they lost 11-9; the following year North Sydney came 2nd in the regular season but were defeated 47-7 by St George and lost to South Sydney the following week 14-9. During that time, North Sydney produced arguably the greatest winger the game has seen in Ken Irvine. Irvine held the record for most first grade tries for one club until he was overtaken by Melbourne player Billy Slater. New South Wales representative Queenslander, Bruce Walker, captained the Bears in the final of the 1976 Amco Cup, it would be 17 long years before North Sydney made the finals series again when they finished 3rd in the 1982 season. North Sydney were coached that year by the great Ron Willey. Norths were knocked out of the finals series that year in consecutive games, firstly losing to Manly and Eastern Suburbs the following week.
In 1986, North Sydney made the finals series again, this time they were eliminated by Balmain in the first week. The nineties saw finals appearances and near misses in 1991, 1994–1998, In that time period Norths made the preliminary final 4 times but fell short on each occasion. In 1991, North Sydney finished the regular season in 3rd place and defeated arch rivals Manly in the first week of the finals. In the next match, North Sydney had the chance to make their first grand final in 48 years if they could defeat Penrith. After being behind on the scoreboard 12-0, Norths fought their way back into the match to level the scores at 14-14. A reliable goal kicker, Darryl Halligan missed 4 shots at goal and only kicked 1 from 5 including a penalty miss in the dying minutes. Penrith won the match 16-14 despite the fact. On 14 July 1994, the club was fined $87,000 for breaching the salary cap; that year they lost to Canberra. North Sydney remained loyal to the Australian Rugby League during the Super League war of the mid-1990s.
In the 1996 ARL season Norths came within one match of the Grand Final but lost the game to the St George Dragons 29-12. The following year saw two separate national rugby league championships, confirmation of the club's intention to move north to New South Wales' Central Coast. In the 1997 season, North Sydney again made the preliminary final against Newc
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
New Zealand national rugby union team
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, known as the country's national sport. The team has won the last two Rugby World Cups, in 2011 and 2015 as well as the inaugural tournament in 1987, they have a 77% winning record in test match rugby, are the only international men’s side with a winning record against every opponent. Since their international debut in 1903, they have lost to only six of the 19 nations they have played in test matches. Since the introduction of the World Rugby Rankings in 2003, New Zealand has held the number one ranking longer than all other teams combined; the All Blacks jointly hold the record for the most consecutive test match wins for a tier one ranked nation, along with England. New Zealand competes with Argentina and South Africa in The Rugby Championship; the All Blacks have won the trophy sixteen times in the competition's twenty-three-year history. New Zealand have completed a Grand Slam tour four times – 1978, 2005, 2008 and 2010.
The All Blacks have been named the World Rugby Team of the Year ten times since the award was created in 2001, an All Black has won the World Rugby Player of the Year award ten times over the same period. Fifteen former All Blacks have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; the team's first match was in 1884, their first international test match was in 1903 against Australia in Sydney. The following year, they hosted their first home test, a match against a British Isles side in Wellington; this was followed by a 34-game tour of Europe and North America in 1905, where the team suffered only one defeat – their first test loss, against Wales. New Zealand's early uniforms consisted of a black jersey with a silver fern and white knickerbockers. By the 1905 tour, they were wearing all black, except for the silver fern, the name All Blacks dates from this time; the team perform a Māori challenge or posture dance, before each match. The haka has traditionally been Te Rauparaha's Ka Mate, although since 2005 Kapa o Pango has been performed.
Rugby union – universally referred to only as "rugby" in New Zealand – was introduced to New Zealand by Charles Monro in 1870. The first recorded game in New Zealand took place in May 1870 in Nelson between the Nelson club and Nelson College; the first provincial union, the Canterbury Rugby Football Union, was formed in 1879, in 1882 New Zealand's first internationals were played when New South Wales toured the country. NSW did not face a New Zealand representative team but played seven provincial sides – the tourists won four games and lost three. Two years the first New Zealand team to travel overseas toured New South Wales. A organised British team, which became the British and Irish Lions, toured New Zealand in 1888. No test matches were played, the side only played provincial sides; the British players were drawn from Northern England, but there were representatives from Wales and Scotland. In 1892, following the canvassing of provincial administrators by Ernest Hoben, the New Zealand Rugby Football Union was formed by the majority of New Zealand's provincial unions, but did not include Canterbury, Otago or Southland.
The first sanctioned New Zealand side toured New South Wales in 1893, where the Thomas Ellison captained team won nine of their ten matches. The following year New Zealand played its first home "international" game, losing 8–6 to New South Wales; the team's first true test match occurred against Australia on 15 August 1903 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in front of over 30,000 spectators, resulted in a 22–3 victory. A representative New Zealand team first toured the British Isles in 1905; the side is now known as the "Originals", as the "All Blacks" name emerged during this tour when, according to team member Billy Wallace, a London newspaper reported that the New Zealanders played as if they were "all backs". Wallace claimed that because of a typographical error, subsequent references were to "All Blacks"; this account is most a myth – because of their black playing strip, the side was referred to as the Blacks before they left New Zealand. Though the name All Blacks most existed before the trip, the tour did popularise it.
The Originals played 35 matches on tour, their only loss was a 3–0 defeat to Wales in Cardiff. The match has entered into the folklore of both countries because of a controversy over whether All Black Bob Deans scored a try which would have earned his team a 3–3 draw. In contrast to the success of the Originals on the field, the team did antagonise some in the Home Nations' rugby establishment; this complaint continued to dog New Zealand teams until the 1930s. The success of the Originals had uncomfortable consequences for the amateur NZRFU. In 1907, a party of professional players was assembled to tour the British Isles and play rugby league – a professional offshoot of rugby union, played by clubs that split from England's Rugby Football Union due to disagreements over financial compensation for players; when the "All Golds", as the team came to be known, returned they established rugby league in New Zealand, a large number of players switched to the professional code. English and Welsh authorities were alarmed by the threat of professionalism to rugby in New Zealand, in 1908 an Anglo-Welsh side undertook a tour to New Zealand to help promote the amateu
New Zealand Māori rugby league team
New Zealand Māori rugby league team is a rugby league representative side made up of New Zealand Māori players. The side represents the New Zealand Māori Rugby league. Like its union counterpart, the rugby league team competes in international competitions. With some controversy, the team participated in the 2000 World Cup as Aotearoa Māori; the Super League International Board had agreed to give a place in their World Cup to the New Zealand Māori team as they attempted to gain allies during the Super League war. Despite that World Cup not taking place, the Rugby league International Federation repeated the offer for the 2000 World Cup when it replaced the Super League International Board following the end of the dispute. A New Zealand Māori team first toured overseas in 1908; this tour was a success, was followed by another tour to Australia in 1909 and to Great Britain in 1910. The first game of international rugby league on New Zealand soil was between the Māori and the touring Great Britain Lions of 1910.
A separate body, the Māori Rugby League Board of Control, was formed in 1934 to administer the game in Māori communities. This governing body was renamed the Aotearoa Māori Rugby League and in 1992 it was registered as an incorporated society; the Māori have had a wonderful record of beating international touring teams over the years. In 1983 they visited Britain and a side containing future Kiwis stars like Hugh McGahan, Dean Bell and Clayton Friend proved too strong for the amateur opposition they played. For many years, the Māori have competed in the Pacific Cup alongside other teams with a strong presence of New Zealand-based players—Samoa and the Cook Islands, so they thought it was right they should have the opportunity to follow these teams to the World Cup; the invitation to the Māori to take part in the 2000 World Cup came about as a result of promises made to them by the defunct Super League International Board at the height of the Super League war that tore the game apart in the southern hemisphere.
The Māori team has participated in the Pacific Cup, Super League's 1997 Oceania Cup, Papua New Guinea 50th Anniversary, 2000 World Cup, World Sevens Qualification and Pacific Rim competitions. The Maori competed against Indigenous Dreamtime team on 26 October 2008 as the curtain raiser to the first match of the 2008 World Cup; the Māori team lost 34-26. In 2010, the Maori team played England at Mt. Smart Stadium in Auckland before the 2010 Rugby league Four Nations in New Zealand. After trailing 18-0 at halftime, the Maori came back to draw the match at 18-all. In October 2013, the side faced the touring Murri Rugby League Team in a two-game series; the Maori side, featuring NRL players Charlie Gubb, Sam Rapira and Bodene Thompson, won the first game 48-18 at Davies Park, Huntly. The second game was played at Puketawhero Park and was won by the Maori side, 32-16. In October 2014, the team will travel to Australia to play against the Queensland Maori team at Owen Park and the Murri Rugby League Team at BMD Kougari Oval, Wynnum.
In 2018 they took part in the NRL Festival of Indigenous Rugby League held in Redfern Sydney against the First Nation Goannas, they were beat 22-16 in a thrilling finish. Primary Alternative Team Name Rohe 1. Zebastion Luisi, Tamaki Makaurau - Howick Hornets. 2. Thyme Nikau, Tamaki Makaurau - Howick Hornets 3. Hiwaroa Grant, Te Arawa - Taniwharau 4. Rusty Bristow, Tamaki Makaurau - Papakura Sea Eagles 5. Ryan Gordon, Tauranga Moana - Otumoetai Eels 6. Cruz Rauner, Taranaki - Waitara Bears 7. Cody Walker, Tamaki Makaurau - Mount Albert Lions 8. Chris Fox, Waikato Maori - Taniwharau 9. Zach Tippins, Tamaki Makaurau - Mount Albert Lions 10. Jay Pukepuke, Te Waipounamu - Halswell Hornets 11. Rulon Nutira, Te Waipounamu - Hornby Panthers 12. Arden McCarthy, Tamaki Makaurau - Pt Chevalier Pirates 13. Dylan Moses, Tamaki Makaurau - Pt Chevalier Pirates 14. Chance Tauri, Te Awa Kairangi - Te Aroha Eels 15. Tama Kaha, Te Awa Kairangi - Levin Wolves 16. Tony Tuia, Tamaki Makaurau - Howick Hornets 17. Dominic Bartells, Te Awa Kairangi - Wainuiomata Lions Coach: Darren Pirini, Tamaki Makaurau 1 Steve Waetford - Auckland Vulcan's NSW Cup Auckland 2 Thyme Nikau - Howick Hornets Fox Memorial Auckland 3 Rusty Bristow - Papakura Sea Eagles Fox Memorial Auckland 4 Zebastion Luisi - Howick Hornets Fox Memorial Auckland 5 Tee Mahe - Glenora Bears Fox Memorial Auckland 6 Cody Walker - Mount Albert Lions Fox Memorial Auckland 7 Jody Henry - Brisbane North Devils Queensland Cup Brisbane 8 Sam Rapira - NZ Warriors NRL Auckland 9 Kurt Kara - Newtown Jets NSW Cup Sydney 10 Charlie Gubb - NZ Warriors NRL Auckland 11 Bodene Thompson - West Tigers NRL Sydney/ replaced 12 Rulon Nutira - Hornby Panthers Canterbury Christchurch 13 Scott Jones - Canberra Mounties NSW Cup Canberra 14 Hamiora Mihaka - Taniwharau Waicoa Hamilton 15 Tony Tuia - Howick Hornets Fox Memorial Auckland 16 Jay Pukepuke - Halswell Hornets Canterbury Christchurch 17 Kouma Samson - NZ Warriors Holden Cup Auckland The 2019 All Stars match was the eighth annual representative exhibition All Stars match of Australian rugby league.
The match was played between the Indigenous All Stars and the Māori All Stars for the first time, the match was played in Victoria's AAMI Park. The Indigenous All Stars won 34-14 New Zealand national rugby league team New Zealand national rugby union team New Zealand Māori rugby union team New Zealand Māori cricket team 100 years of Māori rugby league 1908 - 2008 Google Books
A stevedore, docker or dockworker is a waterfront manual laborer, involved in loading and unloading ships, trains or airplanes. After the shipping container revolution of the 1950s, the number of dockworkers required declined by over 90%, the term "stevedore" has come to mean a stevedoring firm that contracts with a port, shipowner, or charterer to load and unload a vessel; the word stevedore originated in Portugal or Spain, entered the English language through its use by sailors. It started as a phonetic spelling of estivador or estibador, meaning a man who loads ships and stows cargo, the original meaning of stevedore. In the United Kingdom, men who load and unload ships are called dockers, in Australia dockers or wharfies, while in the United States and Canada the term longshoreman, derived from man-along-the-shore, is used. Before extensive use of container ships and shore-based handling machinery in the United States, longshoremen referred to the dockworkers, while stevedores, in a separate trade union, worked on the ships, operating ship's cranes and moving cargo.
In Canada, the term stevedore has been used, for example, in the name of the Western Stevedoring Company, Ltd. based in Vancouver, B. C. in the 1950s. Synonyms for "stevedore" include: "docker", "dock laborer", "wharfie",'"wharf rat", "lumper", and/or "longshoreman". Loading and unloading ships requires knowledge of the operation of loading equipment, the proper techniques for lifting and stowing cargo, correct handling of hazardous materials. In addition, workers must be physically able to follow orders attentively. In order to unload a ship many longshoremen are needed. There is only a limited amount of time that a ship can be at a port, so they need to get their jobs done quickly. In earlier days before the introduction of containerization, men who loaded and unloaded ships had to tie down cargoes with rope. A type of stopper knot is called the stevedore knot; the methods of securely tying up parcels of goods is called stevedore stevedore knotting. While loading a general cargo vessel, they use dunnage, which are pieces of wood set down to keep the cargo out of any water that might be lying in the hold or are placed as shims between cargo crates for load securing.
Today, the vast majority of non-bulk cargo is transported in intermodal containers. The containers arrive at a port by truck, rail, or another ship and are stacked in the port's storage area; when the ship that will be transporting them arrives, the containers that it is offloading are unloaded by a crane. The containers either leave the port by truck or rail or are put in the storage area until they are put on another ship. Once the ship is offloaded, the containers it is leaving with are brought to the dock by truck. A crane lifts the containers from the trucks into the ship; as the containers pile up in the ship, the workers connect them to each other. The jobs involved include the crane operators, the workers who connect the containers to the ship and each other, the truck drivers that transport the containers from the dock and storage area, the workers who track the containers in the storage area as they are loaded and unloaded, as well as various supervisors; those workers at the port who handle and move the containers are to be considered stevedores or longshoremen.
Before containerization, freight was handled with a longshoreman’s hook, a tool which became emblematic of the profession. Traditionally, stevedores had no fixed job, but would arrive at the docks in the morning seeking employment for the day. London dockers called this practice standing on the stones, while in the United States it was referred to as shaping or catching the breaks. In Britain, due to changes in employment laws, such jobs have either become permanent or have been converted to temporary jobs. Dock workers have been a prominent part of the modern labor movement. Container handling in Hong Kong - 2005 In Australia, the informal term "wharfie" and the formal "waterside worker", include the variety of occupations covered in other countries by words like stevedore; the term "stevedore" is sometimes used, as in the company name Patrick Stevedores. The term "docker" is sometimes used, however in Australia this refers to a harbor pilot; the Maritime Union of Australia has coverage of these workers, fought a substantial industrial battle in the 1998 Australian waterfront dispute to prevent the contracting out of work to non-union workers.
In 1943 stevedores in Melbourne and Sydney were deliberately exposed to mustard gas while unloading the ship Idomeneus. The result was permanent disability -- all as a result of military secrecy. New Zealand usage is similar to the Australian version; the 1951 New Zealand waterfront dispute, involving New Zealand stevedores, was the largest and most bitter industrial dispute in the country's history. In the United Kingdom, the definition of a stevedore varies from port to port. In some ports, only the skilled master of a loading gang is referred to as a "stevedore". "Docker" is the usual general term used in the UK for a worker who loads or unloads ships and performs various other jobs required at a sea port. In some ports a Stevedore is a person who decides where cargo is stowed on a ship, in order for safe stowage and balance of a ship, it is not a hands-on role. It was once known to refer those working on a ship
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Alexander "Alex" Burdon was a pioneer Australian rugby league and rugby union footballer - a dual-code rugby international. He was one of the founding fathers of rugby league in Australia, representing the Kangaroos in the first two Tests played in 1908 and 1909, he was the fourth captain of the Australian team enjoying that honour in the deciding Test of the inaugural tour. Born in Glebe, New South Wales he played first grade for the district from 1902 and the following year represented Sydney New South Wales, he made his Australian representative test debut as prop, against the All Blacks in the 22-3 victory in Sydney, on 15 August 1903. In 1904 he represented against England toured New Zealand in 1905. Folklore would suggest that Burdon's injury on the 1907 New South Wales Rugby tour of Queensland and the resultant unfairness of him having to pay his medical expenses while suffering a loss of wages, was a catalyst leading to the 1907 split away from rugby union. Similar sentiments in the north of England for working-class players who could not afford time off due to injury had indeed prompted the changes that formed the new "Northern Union" two years earlier.
However the movement to start a rugby league competition in Sydney was well under way before Burdon's injury. Burdon joined the newly formed Glebe Rugby League Club in 1908 and was named the club's foundation captain, he was one of the five selectors for the Pioneer Kangaroo tour of England. He played in 25 tour matches including the second Anglo-Australian Test matches. Eight former Wallabies had debuted for the Kangaroos in the Matches against New Zealand earlier that year, Burdon's league Test debut in the first Test against England with Pat Walsh made them the 9th and 10th Australian dual code internationals, he is listed on the Australian Players Register as Kangaroo No. 29. In The First Kangaroos, a 1988 British–Australian made for TV sports film, Bluey Burdon's role was played by Philip Quast. Club: Glebe Rugby League Club1908-10 20 games, 3 tries Representative: Australia 2 Tests. Whiticker, Alan Captaining the Kangaroos, New Holland, Sydney