Grape phylloxera. These microscopic, pale yellow sap-sucking insects, related to aphids, feed on the roots and leaves of grapevines. On Vitis vinifera, the resulting deformations on roots and secondary fungal infections can girdle roots cutting off the flow of nutrients and water to the vine. Nymphs form protective galls on the undersides of grapevine leaves of some Vitis species and overwinter under the bark or on the vine roots. American vine species have evolved to have several natural defenses against phylloxera; the roots of the American vines exude a sticky sap that repels the nymph form when it tries to feed from the vine by clogging its mouth. If the nymph is successful in creating a feeding wound on the root, American vines respond by forming a protective layer of tissue to cover the wound and protect it from secondary bacterial or fungal infections. There is no cure for phylloxera and unlike other grape diseases such as powdery or downy mildew, there is no chemical control or response.
The only successful means of controlling phylloxera has been the grafting of phylloxera-resistant American rootstock to more susceptible European vinifera vines. The phylloxera aphid has a complex life-cycle of up to 18 stages, that can be divided into four principal forms: sexual form, leaf form, root form, winged form; the sexual form begins with male and female eggs laid on the underside of young grape leaves. The male and female at this stage lack a digestive system, once hatched, they mate and die. Before the female dies, she lays one winter egg in the bark of the vine's trunk; this egg develops into the leaf form. This nymph, the fundatrix, climbs onto a leaf and lays eggs parthenogenetically in a leaf gall that she creates by injecting saliva into the leaf; the nymphs that hatch from these eggs may move to other leaves, or move to the roots where they begin new infections in the root form. In this form they perforate the root to find nourishment, infecting the root with a poisonous secretion that stops it from healing.
This poison kills the vine. This nymph reproduces by laying eggs for up to seven more generations each summer; these offspring spread to other roots of the vine, or to the roots of other vines through cracks in the soil. The generation of nymphs that hatch in the autumn hibernate in the roots and emerge next spring when the sap begins to rise. In humid areas, the nymphs develop into the winged form, else they perform the same role without wings; these nymphs start the cycle again by either staying on the vine to lay male and female eggs on the bottom side of young grape leaves, or flying to an uninfected vine to do the same. Many attempts have been made to interrupt this life cycle to eradicate phylloxera, but the aphid has proven to be adaptable, as no one stage of the life cycle is dependent upon another for the propagation of the species. In the late 19th century the phylloxera epidemic destroyed most of the vineyards for wine grapes in Europe, most notably in France. Phylloxera was introduced to Europe when avid botanists in Victorian England collected specimens of American vines in the 1850s.
Because phylloxera is native to North America, the native grape species are at least resistant. By contrast, the European wine grape Vitis vinifera is susceptible to the insect; the epidemic devastated vineyards in Britain and moved to the European mainland, destroying most of the European grape growing industry. In 1863, the first vines began to deteriorate inexplicably in the southern Rhône region of France; the problem spread across the continent. In France alone, total wine production fell from 84.5 million hectolitres in 1875 to only 23.4 million hectolitres in 1889. Some estimates hold that between two-thirds and nine-tenths of all European vineyards were destroyed. In France, one of the desperate measures of grape growers was to bury a live toad under each vine to draw out the "poison". Areas with soils composed principally of sand or schist were spared, the spread was slowed in dry climates, but the aphid spread across the continent. A significant amount of research was devoted to finding a solution to the phylloxera problem, two major solutions emerged: grafting cuttings onto resistant rootstocks and hybridization.
By the end of the 19th century, hybridization became a popular avenue of research for stopping the phylloxera louse. Hybridization is the breeding of Vitis vinifera with resistant species. Most native American grapes are phylloxera resistant but have aromas that are off-putting to palates accustomed to European grapes; the intent of the cross was to generate a hybrid vine, resistant to phylloxera but produced wine that did not taste like the American grape. The hybrids tend not to be resistant to phylloxera, although they are much more hardy with respect to climate and other vine diseases; the new hybrid varieties have never gained
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants for food and beauty. A more precise definition can be given as "The cultivation and sale of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, flowers as well as many additional services", it includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management and garden design and maintenance, arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs, their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, quality, nutritional value, resistance to insects and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, therapists and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden; the word horticulture is modeled after agriculture, comes from the Latin hortus "garden" and cultūra "cultivation", from cultus, the perfect passive participle of the verb colō "I cultivate".
Hortus is cognate with the native English word yard and the borrowed word garden. The major areas of Horticulture include: Arboriculture is the study of, the selection, plant and removal of, individual trees, shrubs and other perennial woody plants. Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure use or amenity use. Floriculture includes the marketing of floral crops. Study of flower cultivation. Landscape horticulture includes the production and maintenance of landscape plants. Olericulture includes the marketing of vegetables. Pomology includes the marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the marketing of grapes. Oenology includes all aspects of winemaking. Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants and animals. Horticulture has a long history; the study and science of horticulture dates all the way back to the times of Cyrus the Great of ancient Persia, has been going on since, with present-day horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett and Luther Burbank.
The practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years. The cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at least 6950–6440 cal BP; the origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited during migrations from one area to the next. In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio. In forest areas such horticulture is carried out in swiddens. A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem. Horticulture differs from agriculture in two ways. First, it encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.
Secondly, horticultural cultivations include a wide variety of crops including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, cacao and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans, squash and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended or by women. Since 1804 The Royal Horticultural Society, a UK charity, leads on the encouragement and improvement of the science and practice of horticulture in all its branches and shares this knowledge through its community and learning programmes, world class gardens and shows; the oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in 1768, is the Ancient Society of York Florists. They still have four shows a year in York, UK.
The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland is the Institute of Horticulture. The IOH has an international branch for members outside of these islands; the International Society for Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science. The American Society of Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science in the Americas; the Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in 1990 as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry. The National Junior Horticultural Association was established in 1934 and was the first organisation in the world dedicated to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of, develop skills in, the ever-expanding art and science of horticulture; the New Zealand Horticulture Institute. The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHo
Sherman is a U. S. city in and the county seat of Grayson County, Texas. The city's population in 2010 was 38,521, it is one of the two principal cities in the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of the Texoma region of North Texas and southern Oklahoma. Sherman was named after a hero of the Texas Revolution; the community was designated as the county seat by the act of the Texas legislature which created Grayson County on March 17, 1846. In 1847, a post office began operation. Sherman was located at the center of the county, but in 1848 it was moved about 3 miles east to its current location. By 1850, Sherman had become an incorporated town under Texas law, it had become a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail route through Texas. By 1852, Sherman had a population of 300, it consisted of a public square with a log court house, several businesses, a district clerk's office, a church along the east side of the square. During the 1850s and 1860s, Sherman continued to participate in regional politics.
The first flour mill was built in 1861. Because many residents of North Texas had migrated from the Upper South and only a low percentage were slaveholders, there was considerable Unionist sentiment in the region. E. Junius Foster, the publisher of Sherman's anti-secessionist Whig newspaper, the Patriot, circulated a petition to establish North Texas as an independent free state. Following Confederate passage of a conscription law, there was resistance in North Texas to conscription as large slaveholders were exempted. Slaveholders in nearby Cooke County feared that some Unionists might ally with others, in October 1862, state militia captured and arrested 150-200 suspects from the area on suspicion of insurrection. In the Great Hanging at Gainesville, the county seat, 42 men were murdered hanged by a mob, with several men sentenced by a so-called "Citizens' Court". While the court was operating, Col. William Young had been killed by unknown assailants, he had organized the jury for the court and by the time of his death, it was responsible for more than 20 deaths.
After Foster "applauded" Young's death in his newspaper, he was murdered by Capt. Jim Young, son of the colonel. Anti-Unionist state militia rounded up more suspects in Sherman, but Confederate Brigadier General James W. Throckmorton intervened, saving all but five men, lynched. During and after the Civil War, north Texas outlaw bands led by Jesse James and William Quantrill were seen in Sherman. Years James spent at least part of his honeymoon in Sherman, where he was photographed on horseback. Education developed in north Texas during this time; the Sherman Male and Female High School started accepting students during 1866, under the patronage of the North Texas Methodist Conference. It was one of three private schools in Sherman at the time; this school operated under several names until 1935. It lost Methodist support, after the opening of Southern Methodist University in 1915 in Dallas. In 1876, Austin College, the oldest continuously operating college in Texas, relocated from Huntsville to Sherman.
Sherman Female Institute known as Mary Nash College, opened in 1877 under sponsorship of the Baptist Church. It continued operation until 1901. Carr–Burdette College, a women's college affiliated with the Disciples of Christ, operated there from 1894 to 1929. Jews have had a long history in Sherman, settling in the area and meeting for the High Holidays by 1873. While there was general depression and lawlessness during Reconstruction, Sherman remained commercially active. During the 1870s Sherman's population reached 6,000. In 1875, two fires destroyed many buildings east of the square, they were rebuilt with superior materials. This included a new Grayson County Courthouse built in 1876. In 1879, the Old Settlers' Association of North Texas met near Sherman; the Old Settlers' Association of Grayson County incorporated in 1898 and completed purchase of Old Settlers' Park in 1909. On May 15, 1896, a tornado measuring F5 on the Fujita scale struck Sherman; the tornado had a damage path 400 yards wide and 28 miles long, killing 73 people and injuring 200.
About 50 homes were destroyed, with 20 of them being obliterated. In 1901 the first electric "Interurban" railway in Texas, the Denison and Sherman Railway, was completed between Sherman and Denison; the Texas Traction Company completed a 65-mile interurban between Sherman and Dallas in 1908, it purchased the Denison and Sherman Railway in 1911. Through the connections in Dallas and Denison, it was possible to travel to the Texas destinations of Terrell, Waco, Fort Worth and Denton, as well as to Durant, Oklahoma, by interurban railways. One popular destination on the Interurban between Sherman and Denison was Wood Lake Park, a private amusement park at the time. By 1948, all interurban rail service in Texas had been discontinued. During the Sherman Riot of May 9, 1930, Sherman's elegant 1876 courthouse was burned down by arson during the trial of an African American man, George Hughes. During the riot, Hughes was died in the fire. After rioters retrieved Hughes' body from the vault, it was dragged behind a car and set afire.
The black business section was destroyed. Texas Ranger Frank Hamer was in Sherman during this riot and reported the situation to Texas Governor Dan Moody. Governor Moody sent National Guard troops to Sherman on May 9 and more on May 10 to control
Denison Dam known as Lake Texoma Dam, is a dam located on the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma that impounds Lake Texoma. The purpose of the dam is flood control, water supply, hydroelectric power production, river regulation and recreation. Completed in 1943 as a flood control project, it was at the time the "largest rolled-earth fill dam in the world". Only five times has the lake reached the dam's spillway at a height of 640 feet above sea level: 1957, 1990, 2007, twice in 2015, it takes its name from Denison, just downriver from the damface. Denison Dam contains a total of 18.8 million cubic yards of rolled-earth fill. It produces 250,000 megawatt hours of electricity per year, while Lake Texoma provides nearly 125,000 acre feet of water storage for local communities under five permanent contracts. In addition to two federally managed wildlife-refuge areas, Denison Dam has made possible 47 recreational areas managed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, two state parks -- one in Oklahoma and one in Texas -- as well as 80,000 acres of open public land used for hunting.
General Lucius D. Clay was the principal manager of the project. Oklahoma State Highway 91 and, to a lesser extent, Texas State Highway 91 cross over the dam. Army Corp on floodstage, Retrieved July 6, 2007
Sherman–Denison metropolitan area
The Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of one county – Grayson – in North Texas, anchored by the cities of Sherman and Denison. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 120,877; the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area is a component of the Dallas–Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area, which covers a 19-county area and had an estimated population of 6,805,275 as of July 1, 2009. It is a major part of the Texoma region with proximity to both Lake Texoma and the Red River. Grayson Sherman Denison Whitesboro Howe Van Alstyne Pottsboro Collinsville Whitewright Gunter Bells Tom Bean Southmayd Tioga Sadler Knollwood Dorchester Ambrose Gordonville Luella According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 979 square miles, of which 933 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 69 U. S. Highway 75 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 5 State Highway 11 State Highway 56 State Highway 91 State Highway 160 State Highway 289 Spur 503 As of the census of 2000, there were 110,595 people, 42,849 households, 30,208 families residing in the county.
The population density was 118 people per square mile. There were 48,315 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.20% White, 5.85% Black or African American, 1.31% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.90% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. 6.80 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 42,849 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,178, the median income for a family was $45,048. Males had a median income of $32,998 versus $23,414 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,862. About 8.40% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over. Grayson Magazine The Herald Democrat KLAK Adult Contemporary 97.5 KMAD Mad Rock 102.5 KMKT Katy Country 93.1 KDOC Doc FM 107.3 KTEN Channel 10 - KTEN DT Channel 10.2 - KTEN DT Channel 10.3 - KXII Channel 12 - QF KXII DT Channel 12.2 KXII DT Channel 12.3 Also, Southeastern Oklahoma State University in Durant is within a 30-minute drive from the area. SOSU is the closest Public university to the area. A public bus transit called'Taps' serves the Sherman-Denison Metroplex as well as the North Texas Region and extends into part of Oklahoma.
The company is a regional transit agency. Two major routes run through the Sherman-Denison metroplex, one known as the Viking route because it is funded by Grayson County College and the other is known as the Roo Route and is funded by Austin College. In addition to this both Sherman and Denison each are served by a 24-hour cab service. There are North Texas Regional Airport and Sherman Municipal Airport. Both airports serve general aviation; the closest airport with airline service is Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, it is a one-hour road journey south of the area. Lake Texoma is one of the largest reservoirs in the United States, the 12th largest US Army Corps of Engineers' lake, the largest in USACE Tulsa District. Lake Texoma is formed by Denison Dam on the Red River in Bryan County and Grayson County, about 726 miles upstream from the mouth of the river, it is located at the confluence of the Red Washita Rivers. The damsite is 5 miles northwest of Denison, 15 miles southwest of Durant, Oklahoma.
Lake Texoma is the most developed and most popular lake within the USACE Tulsa District, attracting 6 million visitors a year. Diverse recreational opportunities include two wildlife refuges, two state parks, fifty four USACE-managed parks, twelve marinas, twenty-six resorts, hundreds of campgrounds and a variety of excellent golf courses. Power boating, personal watercraft, water skiing and wind surfing are all popular; the lake has become a major sailing center based on its size and miles of sailing shoreline. During the spring break and Fourth of July holidays, many college students home for the holidays will gather in an area called "Fobb Bottom" on the Oklahoma side. Lake Texoma is home to the Lakefest Regatta considered to be the first inland charity regatta in the United States; the event attracts up to 100 keelboats and more than 500 sailors each spring. Since its inception, Lakefest has raised more than $2 million in support of various children's charities in North Texas; the current beneficiary is the Make-A-Wish Foundation® of North Texas.
Former professional Funny Car race driver "Flash" Gordon Mineo organized many "Poker Run" events on Lake Texoma. The lake was stocked with striped b