In geography, a sound is a large sea or ocean inlet, deeper than a bight and wider than a fjord. There is little consistency in the use of "sound" in English-language place names. A sound is formed by the seas flooding a river valley; this produces a long inlet where the sloping valley hillsides descend to sea-level and continue beneath the water to form a sloping sea floor. The Marlborough Sounds. Sometimes a sound is produced by a glacier carving out a valley on a coast receding, or the sea invading a glacier valley; the glacier produces a sound that has steep, near vertical sides that extend deep under water. The sea floor is flat and deeper at the landward end than the seaward end, due to glacial moraine deposits; this type of sound is more properly termed a fjord. The sounds in Fiordland, New Zealand, have been formed this way. A sound connotes a protected anchorage, they can be part of most large islands. In the more general northern European usage, a sound is a strait or the most narrow part of a strait.
In Scandinavia and around the Baltic Sea, there are more than a hundred straits named Sund named for the island they separate from the continent or a larger island. In contrast, the Sound is the internationally recognized, short name for the Øresund, the narrow stretch of water that separates Denmark and Sweden, is the main waterway between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, it is a colloquial short name, among others, for Plymouth Sound, England. In areas explored by the British in the late 18th Century the northwest coast of North America, the term "sound" was applied to inlets containing large islands, such as Howe Sound in Vancouver and Puget Sound in Washington State, it was applied to bodies of open water not open to the ocean, such as Caamaño Sound or Queen Charlotte Sound in Canada, or broadenings or mergings at the openings of inlets, like Cross Sound in Alaska and Fitz Hugh Sound in British Columbia. In the United States, Long Island Sound separates Long Island from the eastern shores of the Bronx, Westchester County, southern Connecticut, but on the Atlantic Ocean side of Long Island, the body of water between Long Island and its barrier beaches is termed the Great South Bay.
Pamlico Sound is a similar lagoon that lies between North Carolina and its barrier beaches, the Outer Banks, in a similar situation. The Mississippi Sound separates the Gulf of Mexico from the mainland, along much of the gulf coasts of Alabama and Mississippi. On the West Coast, Puget Sound, by contrast, is a deep arm of the ocean; the term sound is derived from the Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse word sund, which means "swimming". The word sund is documented in Old Norse and Old English as meaning "gap"; this suggests a relation to verbs meaning "to separate", such as absondern and aussondern, söndra, sondre, as well as the English noun sin, German Sünde, Swedish synd. English has the adjective "asunder" and the noun "sundry', Swedish has the adjective sönder. In Swedish and in both Norwegian languages, "sund" is the general term for any strait. In Swedish and Nynorsk, it is part of names worldwide, such as in Swedish "Berings sund" and "Gibraltar sund", in Nynorsk "Beringsundet" and "Gibraltarsundet".
Broad Sound near Clairview, Queensland Camden Sound at Kuri Bay, Western Australia Cockburn Sound, Western Australia Denham Sound, part of Shark Bay in Western Australia King George Sound at Albany, Western Australia King Sound at Derby, Western Australia Montague Sound, near Bigge Island, Western Australia Noosa Sound, Queensland York Sound, Western Australia Exuma Sound, bordered by Eleuthera, Cat Island and Great Exuma, among others Millars Sound, New Providence North Sound, Bimini Rock Sound, Eleuthera Great Sound, towards the island's northwest end Harrington Sound, towards the northeast end Little Sound, part of Great Sound North Sound, Virgin Gorda South Sound, Virgin Gorda Amet Sound on the northern coast of Nova Scotia on the Northumberland Strait Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia Baynes Sound between Denman Island and Vancouver Island, British Columbia Chatham Sound, off the North Coast of British Columbia Clayoquot Sound in Vancouver Island, British Columbia Cumberland Sound in Baffin Island's east coast Desolation Sound between the Discovery Islands and the coast of British Columbia Eclipse Sound between Baffin Island and Bylot Island in Nunavut Eureka Sound between Ellesmere Island and Axel Heiberg Island in Nunavut Fitz Hugh Sound on the Central Coast of British Columbia Hamilton Sound between Fogo Island and the Island of Newfoundland Howe Sound, an inlet northwest of Vancouver, British Columbia Jones Sound between Devon Island and Ellesmere Island in Nunavut Kyuquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia Lancaster Sound between Devon Island and Baffin Island in Nunavut Massey Sound between Amund Ringnes Island and Axel Heiberg Island in Nunavut Nansen Sound between Ellesmere Island and Axel Heiberg Island in Nunavut Newman Sound in Terra Nova National Park and Labrador Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia Northumberland Sound between Maclean Strait and Norwegian Bay, Nunavut Owen Sound in Ontario Parry Sound in Ontario Peel Sound between Prince of Wales Island and Somerset Island in Nunavut Quatsino Sound on northern Vancouver Island Queen Charlotte Sound off British Columbia Random Sound near Clarenville in Newfoundland and Labrador Roes Welcome Sound between Southampton Island and Hudson Bay's west shore in Nunavut Severn Sound in O
The Laptev Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the northern coast of Siberia, the Taimyr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands, its northern boundary passes from the Arctic Cape to a point with co-ordinates of 79°N and 139°E, ends at the Anisiy Cape. The Kara Sea lies to the East Siberian Sea to the east; the sea is named after the Russian explorers Dmitry Khariton Laptev. The sea has a severe climate with temperatures below 0 °C over more than 9 months per year, low water salinity, scarcity of flora and human population, low depths, it is frozen most of the time, though clear in August and September. The sea shores were inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous tribes of Yukaghirs and Evens and Evenks, which were engaged in fishing and reindeer husbandry, they were settled by Yakuts and by Russians. Russian explorations of the area started in the 17th century, they came from the south via several large rivers which empty into the sea, such as the prominent Lena River, the Khatanga, the Anabar, the Olenyok, the Omoloy and the Yana.
The sea contains several dozen islands. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Laptev Sea as follows: On the West; the eastern limit of Kara Sea. On the North. A line joining Cape Molotov to the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island. On the East. From the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island – through Kotelni Island to Cape Madvejyi. Through Malyi Island, to Cape Vaguin on Great Liakhov Island. Thence to Cape Sviatoy Nos on the main land. Using current geographic names and transcription this definition corresponds to the area shown in the map; the sea's border starts at Arctic Cape on Komsomolets Island at 81°13′N 95°15′E and connects to Cape Rosa Luxemburg, the southeastern cape of the island. The next segment crosses Red Army Strait and leads to Cape Vorochilov on October Revolution Island and afterwards through that island to Cape Anuchin at 79°39′37″N 100°21′22″E. Next, the border crosses Shokalsky Strait to Cape Unslicht at 79°25′04″N 102°31′00″E on Bolshevik Island.
It goes further through the island to Cape Yevgenov at 78°17′N 104°50′E. From there, the border goes through Vilkitsky Strait to Cape Pronchishchev at 77°32′57″N 105°54′4″E on the Tamyr peninsula; the southern boundary is the shore of the Asian mainland. Prominent features are the delta of the Lena River. In the east, the polygon crosses the Dmitry Laptev Strait, it connects Cape Svyatoy Nos at 72.7°N 141.2°E / 72.7. Next, the Laptev Sea border crosses Eterikan Strait to Little Lyakhovsky Island at 74.0833°N 140.5833°E / 74.0833. There is a segment through Kotelny Island to Cape Anisy, its northernmost headland 76°10′N 138°50′E; the last link reaches from there back to Arctic Cape. The Lena River, with its large delta, is the biggest river flowing into the Laptev Sea, is the second largest river in the Russian Arctic after Yenisei. Other important rivers include the Khatanga, the Anabar, the Olenyok or Olenek, the Omoloy and the Yana; the sea shores are form gulfs and bays of various sizes. The coastal landscape is diverse, with small mountains near the sea in places.
The main gulfs of the Laptev Sea coast are the Khatanga Gulf, the Olenyok Gulf, the Buor-Khaya Gulf and the Yana Bay. There are several dozens of islands with the total area of 3,784 km2 in the western part of the sea and in the river deltas. Storms and currents due to the ice thawing erode the islands, so the Semenovsky and Vasilievsky islands which were discovered in 1815 have disappeared; the most significant groups of islands are Severnaya Zemlya, Komsomolskaya Pravda and Faddey, the largest individual islands are Bolshoy Begichev, Maly Taymyr, Stolbovoy and Peschanyy. More than half of the sea rests on a continental shelf with the average depths below 50 meters, the areas south from 76°N are shallower than 25 m. In the northern part, the sea bottom drops to the ocean floor with the depth of the order of 1 kilometer. There it is covered with silt, mixed with ice in the shallow areas; the climate of the Laptev Sea is Arctic continental and, owing to the remoteness from both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is one of the most severe among the Arctic seas.
Polar night and midnight sun last about 3 months per 5 months on the north. Air temperatures stay below 0 ° С 11 months a year on 9 months on the south; the average temperature in January varies across the sea between −31 °C and −34 °C and the minimum is −50 °C. In July, the temperature rises to 0 °С (maximum 4
HMS Prince of Wales (53)
HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. She was involved in several key actions of the Second World War, including the May 1941 Battle of the Denmark Strait against the German battleship Bismarck, operations escorting convoys in the Mediterranean, her final action and sinking in the Pacific in December 1941. Prince of Wales had an extensive battle history, first seeing action in August 1940 while still being outfitted in her drydock, being attacked and damaged by German aircraft, her brief but storied career ended 10 December 1941, when Prince of Wales and battlecruiser HMS Repulse became the first capital ships to be sunk by air power on the open sea, a harbinger of the diminishing role this class of ships was subsequently to play in naval warfare. The wreck lies upside down near Kuantan, in the South China Sea. In the aftermath of the First World War, the Washington Naval Treaty was drawn up in 1922 in an effort to stop an arms race developing between Britain, France and the United States.
This treaty limited the number of ships each nation was allowed to build and capped the tonnage of all capital ships at 35,000 tons. These restrictions were extended in 1930 through the Treaty of London, however, by the mid-1930s Japan and Italy had withdrawn from both of these treaties, the British became concerned about a lack of modern battleships within their navy; as a result, the Admiralty ordered the construction of a new battleship class: the King George V class. Due to the provisions of both the Washington Naval Treaty and the Treaty of London, both of which were still in effect when the King George Vs were being designed, the main armament of the class was limited to the 14-inch guns prescribed under these instruments, they were the only battleships built at that time to adhere to the treaty, though it soon became apparent to the British that the other signatories to the treaty were ignoring its requirements, it was too late to change the design of the class before they were laid down in 1937.
Prince of Wales was named King Edward VIII but upon the abdication of Edward VIII the ship was renamed before she had been laid down. This occurred at Cammell Laird's shipyard in Birkenhead on 1 January 1937, although it was not until 3 May 1939 that she was launched, she was still fitting out when war was declared in September, causing her construction schedule, that of her sister, King George V, to be accelerated. The late delivery of gun mountings caused delays in her outfitting. During early August 1940, while she was still being outfitted and was in a semi-complete state, Prince of Wales was attacked by German aircraft. One bomb fell between the ship and a wet basin wall, narrowly missing a 100-ton dockside crane, exploded underwater below the bilge keel; the explosion took place about six feet from the ship's port side in the vicinity of the after group of 5.25-inch guns. Buckling of the shell plating took place over a distance of 20 to 30 feet, rivets were sprung and considerable flooding took place in the port outboard compartments in the area of damage, causing a ten-degree port list.
The flooding was severe, due to the fact that final compartment air tests had not yet been made and the ship did not have her pumping system in operation. The water was pumped out through the joint efforts of a local fire company and the shipyard, Prince of Wales was dry docked for permanent repairs; this damage and the problem with the delivery of her main guns and turrets delayed her completion. As the war progressed there was an urgent need for capital ships, so her completion was advanced by postponing compartment air tests, ventilation tests and a thorough testing of her bilge and fuel-oil systems. Prince of Wales displaced 36,727 long tons as built and 43,786 long tons loaded; the ship had an overall length of 745 feet, a beam of 103 feet and a draught of 29 feet. Her designed metacentric height was 8 feet 1 inch at deep load, she was powered by Parsons geared steam turbines, driving four propeller shafts. Steam was provided by eight Admiralty boilers which delivered 100,000 shaft horsepower, but could deliver 110,000 shp at emergency overload.
This gave Prince of Wales a top speed of 28 knots. The ship carried 3,542 long tons of fuel oil, she carried 180 long tons of diesel oil, 256 long tons of reserve feed water and 444 long tons of freshwater. During full power trials on 31 March 1941, Prince of Wales at 42,100 tons displacement achieved 28 knots with 111,600 shp at 228 rpm and a specific fuel consumption of 0.73 lb per shp. Prince of Wales had a range of 3,100 nautical miles at 27 knots. Prince of Wales mounted 10 BL 14-inch Mk VII guns; the 14-inch guns were mounted in one Mark II twin turret forward and two Mark III quadruple turrets, one forward and one aft. The guns could be elevated 40 degrees and depressed 3 degrees. Training arcs were: turret "A", 286 degrees. Training and elevating was done by hydraulic drives, with rates of two and eight degrees per second, respectively. A full gun broadside weighed 15,950 pounds, a salvo could be fired every 40 seconds; the secondary armament consisted of 16 QF 5.25-inch Mk I guns which were mounted in eight twin mounts, weighing 81 tons each.
The maximum range of the Mk I guns was 24,070 yards at a 45-degree elevation, the anti-aircraft ceiling was 49,000 feet. The guns could be elevated
Denmark Street is a street on the edge of London's West End running from Charing Cross Road to St Giles High Street. It is near St Giles in the Fields Tottenham Court Road station; the street was named after Prince George of Denmark. Since the 1950s it has been associated with British popular music, first via publishers and by recording studios and music shops. A blue plaque was unveiled in 2014 commemorating the street's importance to the music industry; the street was residential, but became used for commercial purposes in the 19th century. At first, metalwork was a popular trade but it became most famous as Britain's "Tin Pan Alley" housing numerous music publishers' offices; this market declined in the 1960s to be replaced by independent recording studios. The Rolling Stones recorded at Regent Sound Studio at No. 4 and popular musicians, including David Bowie and the Small Faces socialised in the Gioconda café at No. 9. Elton John and Bernie Taupin wrote songs at offices on the street in the 1960s, while the Sex Pistols lived above No.
6, recorded their first demos there. The comic book store Forbidden Planet and the Helter Skelter music bookshop have been based on the street. In the 2010s, the surrounding area was redeveloped. Parts of Denmark Street are listed to protect them, but other parts, away from the street itself, are planned to be demolished. Denmark Street is located at the southern end of the London Borough of Camden, close to its boundary with the London Borough of Westminster, it is close to the St Giles in the Fields Church. The street connects Charing Cross Road with St Giles High Street. Vehicular traffic is now only allowed to travel westbound; the nearest London Underground station is Tottenham Court Road, between two and three minutes' walk away. The land on which Denmark Street stands was part of the grounds of St Giles Hospital, founded as a house for lepers in the early 12th century by Henry I's wife Matilda. In 1612, it was recorded as being owned by Tristram Gibbs; the grounds were laid out for development during the reign of James II and developed by Samuel Fortrey and Jacques Wiseman in the late 1680s.
Historical evidence suggests the street was formed between 1682 and 1687, as it was not shown on Morden and Lea's Map of 1682. It was named after Prince George of Denmark, who had married Princess Anne in 1683. By 1691, 20 houses had been completed. Dr John Purcell, a London physician who published A Treatise on Vapours or Hysteric Fits, lived at No. 10 in 1730, while the Reverend Doctor John James Majendie – who became Canon of Windsor – lived there from 1758 to 1771. The painter Johann Zoffany lived at No. 9. In the late 18th century, the Jacobite Sir John Murray lived there until the day he was "carried off by a party of strange men"; the area around the street was known as the rookery of St Giles, which developed in the 18th century as an unplanned slum to the west of the City, was described as a "Pandora's box of pollution and pestilence". Though much of the area was cleared by the end of the 19th century, Denmark Street is the only street in London to retain 17th-century terraced facades on both sides.
In 2010, a study by Camden London Borough Council suggested that only six other streets in London have a comparable heritage to Denmark Street. A small court connected by passages runs along the back of the north side of the street, connecting to it via an opening at No. 27. The street started being used for commercial purposes at the beginning of the 19th century and houses were converted for this use. Ground floors became used as shops, while upper floors and back rooms were used as workshops for metalwork. Augustus Siebe, the pioneer of the diving helmet and worked on the street, today there is an English Heritage blue plaque commemorating him on the house where he lived. In the 1930s, several Japanese businesses were established in the street, which became known as "Little Tokyo". Azakami and Co. at No. 6 sold books, newspapers and radios. The Tokiwa restaurant and hotel were based at No. 22 having moved from Charing Cross Road in 1927. Other businesses included a hairdresser, jewellers and gift shop.
Lawrence Wright was the first music publisher to set up premises on Denmark Street in 1911. He was based at No. 8 and moved to No. 11 after World War I. He subsequently founded the musicians' journal Melody Maker in 1926; the same year, another music publisher, Campbell Connelly, moved from their original offices in Tottenham Court Road to Denmark Street. The New Musical Express was founded at No. 5 in 1952 and remained there until 1964. By the end of the 1950s, the street had established itself as Britain's "Tin Pan Alley" and housed numerous music publishers and other venues connected with the business. Larry Parnes became a successful manager and entrepreneur of pop singers during the mid-1950s, took material from songwriters and publishers based in Denmark Street. Lionel Bart, writer of the musical Oliver!, started his writing career for publishers and was subsequently known as "the king of Denmark Street". The music publishing trade on Denmark Street began to decline during the 1960s, as the traditional producers lost touch with changing tastes and groups like the Rolling Stones showed it was possible to write their own material.
For example, Paul Simon was based in London at this time but Mills Music, at No. 20, told him that his songs "Homeward Bound" and "The Sound of Silence" were uncommercial. Recording studios began to be operated in
The Archipelago Sea is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Åland, within Finnish territorial waters. By some definitions it contains the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands, although many of the islands are small and clustered; the larger islands are connected by ferries and bridges. The Åland Islands, including the largest islands of the region, form an autonomous region within Finland; the rest of the islands are part of the region of Southwest Finland. The Archipelago Sea is a significant tourist destination; the Archipelago Sea covers a triangular area with the cities of Mariehamn and Hanko at the corners. The archipelago can be divided into inner and outer archipelagos, with the outer archipelago consisting of smaller, uninhabited islands; the total surface area is 8,300 square kilometres. The archipelago has a large number of islands; the exact number depends on the definition of the term "island", as the size of the patches of dry land in the area varies from small rocks peeking out of the water to large islands with several villages or small towns.
The number of the larger islands of over 1 km2 within the Archipelago Sea is 257, whilst the number of smaller isles of over 0.5 ha is about 17,700. If the number of smallest uninhabitable rocks and skerries is accounted, 50,000 is a good estimate. In comparison, the number of islands in Canadian Arctic Archipelago is 36,563. Indonesia has 17,508 islands, according to the Indonesian Naval Hydro-Oceanographic Office; the Philippines have 7,107 islands. The islands began emerging from the sea shortly after the last ice age. Due to the post-glacial rebound the process is still going on, with new skerries and islands being created and old ones enlarged or merged; the current rate of rebound is between 10 millimetres a year. Because the islands are made of granite and gneiss, two hard types of rock, erosion is slower than rebound. However, due to its southern location, the effect of postglacial rebound is smaller than for example than in Kvarken further north; the sea area is shallow, with a mean depth of 23 m.
Most of the channels are not navigable for large ships. There are three crater-like formations in the archipelago. One of them, Lumparn in Åland, is a genuine impact crater; the two other formations are intrusions. The more prominent of these is the Åva Intrusion in the municipality of Brändö, visible in satellite photos and high-resolution maps; the other similar formation is in Fjälskär, between the main islands of Houtskär and Iniö. The islands are divided between the autonomous region of Åland; the border between the regions runs along Skiftet, a open sea area. Together with the islands near the coast of Sweden the area forms a Euroregion; the main ports in the area are Turku on the continent, Mariehamn on the Åland islands. The Åland region is demilitarized, it has Swedish as its sole official language. The regional parliament has power over wide-ranging matters, including health services, education and postal services. Monetary and foreign policy are handled by the Parliament of Finland; the president of Finland has, in theory, right to veto the laws passed by the Åland regional parliament.
The eastern part of the archipelago is defended by the Archipelago Sea Naval Command, which has its main base in Turku. The defence is based on naval mines and coastal artillery. Both are effective in the archipelago, where the dense clusters of islands limit the manoeuvrability of invading vessels; the autonomous region of Åland is demilitarised. The Finnish Defence Forces are not allowed to enter the area in peacetime, its residents are exempt from military service, although they can volunteer to serve in the army; the archipelago is divided into 30 municipalities, grouped in the autonomous region of Åland and in the historical provinces of Varsinais-Suomi and Uusimaa. The municipalities in Åland tend to be quite small, with the municipality of Sottunga having only 100 residents. Island municipalities in Varsinais-Suomi: Coastal municipalities in Varsinais-Suomi which include some islands: Island municipalities in Åland: Coastal municipalities in Uusimaa which include some islands: Hanko RaseborgThe archipelago continues further to the east in Uusimaa, but Hanko is traditionally seen as a dividing point between the Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland.
The number of permanent residents on the islands is 60,000, with 27,000 of them living in Åland. Outside Åland most of the area has been more or less monolingually Swedish-speaking, now bilingual with a Swedish-speaking majority; the northern part of the area is monolingually Finnish-speaking. Throughout its history the population of the Archipelago Sea has varied significantly; the population increased until the first half of the 16th century. After that the population went into decline as the carrying capacity of the environment was reached and wars and pestilence took their toll on the people. In the 19th century the population increased as new, more efficient fishing methods were introduced. In the 20th centur
Battle of the Denmark Strait
The Battle of the Denmark Strait was a naval engagement on 24 May 1941 in the Second World War, between ships of the Royal Navy and the German Kriegsmarine. The British battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser HMS Hood fought the German battleship Bismarck and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen, which were attempting to break out into the North Atlantic to attack Allied merchant shipping. Less than 10 minutes after the British opened fire, a shell from Bismarck struck Hood near her aft ammunition magazines. Soon afterwards, Hood exploded and sank within three minutes, with the loss of all but three of her crew. Prince of Wales continued to exchange fire with Bismarck but suffered serious malfunctions in her main armament; the British battleship had only just been completed in late March 1941, used new quadruple gun turrets that were unreliable. Therefore, the Prince of Wales soon broke off the engagement; the battle was considered a tactical victory for the Germans but its impact was short-lived.
The damage done to Bismarck's forward fuel tanks forced the abandonment of the breakout and an attempt to escape to dry dock facilities in occupied France, producing an operational victory for the British. Incensed by the loss of Hood, a large British force sank Bismarck three days later; the two German ships were expected to break through the Greenland-Iceland-UK gap. While passing neutral Sweden in the Baltic Sea, the ships were spotted and reported by the Swedish cruiser Gotland and patrol planes. Due to cloud and rain, aircraft scheduled to assist in the search could not do so when the German ships attempted their breakout. On the evening of 23 May, despite the advantage of inclement weather to cloak the German's presence, the two ships were spotted steaming at 27 kn, by the British heavy cruisers HMS Norfolk and Suffolk; these cruisers—each carrying eight 8-inch guns—were patrolling the Denmark Strait under the command of Rear-Admiral Frederic Wake-Walker. With the help of Suffolk's newly installed radar the cruisers shadowed the German ships, reporting on their movements throughout the night.
The next morning, at the exit to the Strait between Iceland and Greenland a force of eight British ships was in place, to intercept the Germans. The British fleet included the battleship Prince of Wales, the battlecruiser HMS Hood and a screen of six destroyers, under the command of Vice-Admiral Lancelot Holland in Hood. Prince of Wales was a newly commissioned King George V-class battleship, similar to Bismarck in size and power. Prince of Wales had not yet been properly "shaken down", her crew was inexperienced, she still had mechanical problems with her main armament. The ship had sailed with shipyard workers still aboard working on her. For 20 years after her commissioning in 1920, Hood was the largest and heaviest warship in the world. Combining eight massive BL 15 inch Mk I naval guns with a top speed greater than any battleship on the sea, Hood was the pride of Great Britain's navy, embodied the world dominance of British naval power. Despite this, Hood had one conspicuous flaw as compared to the super-dreadnought battleships she served alongside: as a battlecruiser, much of her bulk was dedicated to extra engine power instead of comprehensive armour coverage.
This was in accordance with the prevailing theory propounded by First Sea Lord Jackie Fisher that "speed is armour". While her 12-inch belt armour was considered sufficient against most capital ships she was to encounter, her 3 inches of deck armour was only rated against shell splinters, leaving her badly unprotected against plunging fire at long range. At the time of her commissioning in World War I, naval gunnery was inaccurate at the ranges necessary to produce plunging fire, Hood's greater speed and maneuverability were seen as an acceptable trade-off. However, as the accuracy of naval gunfire increased in the inter-war period, Hood was scheduled to receive an upgrade in 1939 that would have doubled her deck armour to 6 inches, but the outbreak of World War II meant the upgrade never took place, she thus sortied to war at a marked disadvantage against the new capital ships of the Axis. Aware of Hood's inadequate protective armour, distant to the southeast of where the battle took place, Vice-Admiral Holland's superior deliberated on ordering Vice-Admiral Holland to have Prince of Wales sail ahead of Hood.
With the ships in this position, Admiral Tovey concluded the better-protected Prince of Wales could draw the German battleships' large-shell gunfire. Admiral Tovey did not give the order saying "I did not feel such interference with such a senior officer justified." Vice-Admiral Holland's battle plan was to have Hood and Prince of Wales engage Bismarck while Suffolk and Norfolk engaged Prinz Eugen. He signalled this to Captain John C. Leach of Prince of Wales but did not radio Rear Admiral Wake-Walker, who as Commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron directed Suffolk and Norfolk, for fear of disclosing his location. Instead, he observed radio silence. Holland hoped to meet the enemy at 02:00. Sunset in this latitude was at 01:51. Bismarck and Prinz Eugen would be silhouetted against the sun's afterglow while Hood and Prince of Wales could approach unseen in the darkness, to a range close enough not to endanger Hood with plunging fire from Bismarck; the Germans would not expect an attack from this quarter, giving the British the advantage of surprise.
The plan's success depended on Suffo
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is geologically active; the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle, its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin.
The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century; the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence. In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944; until the 20th century, Iceland relied on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world.
In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has a market economy with low taxes, compared to other OECD countries, it maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, social stability, equality ranking first in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs completely on renewable energy. Hit hard by the worldwide financial crisis, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed in October 2008, leading to a severe depression, substantial political unrest, the Icesave dispute, the institution of capital controls; some bankers were jailed. Since the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism.
A law that took effect in 2018 makes it illegal in Iceland for women to be paid less than men. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects; the country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a armed coast guard; the Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, in the 9th century he named it Snæland or "snow land" because it was snowing. Following Naddodd, the Swede Garðar Svavarsson arrived, so the island was called Garðarshólmur which means "Garðar's Isle". Came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; the sagas say that the rather despondent Flóki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord full of icebergs, which led him to give the island its new and present name.
The notion that Iceland's Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth. According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula. Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880. In 2016, archeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður, dated to as early as 800. Swedish Viking explorer Garðar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island, he built a house in Húsavík. Garðar departed the following summer but one of his men, Náttfari, decided to stay behind with two slaves. Náttfari settled in what is now known as Náttfaravík and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland; the Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in 874.
Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed. Lack of arable land al