Swimming at the 1936 Summer Olympics
At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, eleven swimming events were contested, six for men and five for women. The competitions were held from Saturday August 8, 1936 to Saturday August 15, 1936. There was a total of 248 participants from 29 countries competing. 248 swimmers from 29 nations competed. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-01-30
Rowing at the 1936 Summer Olympics
Rowing at the 1936 Summer Olympics featured seven events, for men only. The competitions were held from 11 to 14 August on a regatta course at Grünau on the Langer See; the competition was dominated by the hosts, who medaled in every event and took five of the seven gold medals. The final race, men's eights, was won by a working-class United States team from the University of Washington who, in what had become their trademark, started slow and outsprinted the competition to an exceedingly close finish, with only one second separating the top three finishers at the end of a six-and-a-half minute race; this event is chronicled in The Boys in the Boat written by Daniel James Brown. A total of 313 rowers from 24 nations competed at the Berlin Games: Six Minutes in Berlin: Broadcast Spectacle and Rowing Gold at the Nazi Olympics by Michael J. Socolow, 2016, University of Illinois Press
Athletics at the 1936 Summer Olympics
At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, 29 athletics events were contested, 23 for men and 6 for women. The program of events was unchanged from the previous Games. There was a total of 776 participants from 43 countries competing. 20 new Olympic records and 6 new world records were set in the athletics events. 1936 Summer Olympics results: athletics, from https://www.sports-reference.com/. International Olympic Committee results database
Ragnhild Tove Hveger was a swimmer from Denmark, who won the silver medal in the women's 400 m freestyle at the 1936 Summer Olympics. From 1936 to 1943 she set 44 world records, at one time she held 19 world records in different distances and disciplines. In 1937 she won three gold medals at the world championships. However, the Olympic Games were not held in 1940 or 1944. Being the daughter of a Nazi, sister of an east front volunteer, married to a German officer, she became unpopular after the war, was barred from the Danish team for the 1948 Olympics, she competed at the 1952 Olympics and finished fourth in the 4 × 100 m and fifth in the 400 m freestyle events. Hveger retired in 1954 after ending fifth in the 100 m freestyle at the European Championships. In 1966 she was inducted to the International Swimming Hall of Fame, 30 years declared sportswoman of the century by Danmarks Idræts-Forbund. World record progression 200 metres freestyle World record progression 400 metres freestyle World record progression 800 metres freestyle World record progression 1500 metres freestyle Pat Besford, Encyclopaedia of Swimming.
David Wallechinsky and Jaime Loucky, The Complete Book of the Olympics
Denmark at the 1912 Summer Olympics
Denmark competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. 152 competitors, 151 men and 1 woman, took part in 46 events in 13 sports. Ejler Allert, Christian Hansen, Carl Møller, Carl Pedersen and Poul Hartmann — Rowing, Men's coxed fours, inriggers Ivan Joseph Martin Osiier — Fencing, Men's Epee Men's Team — Football Men's Team — Gymnastics Steen Herschend, Sven Thomsen and Hans Meulengracht-Madsen — Sailing, Men's 6m class Lars Madsen — Shooting, Men's 300m free rifle, three positions Sofie Castenschiold — Tennis, Women's singles indoor Men's Team, free system — Gymnastics Erik Bisgaard, Rasmus Frandsen, Mikael Simonsen, Poul Thymann and Ejgil Clemmensen — Rowing, Men's coxed fours Niels Larsen — Shooting, Men's 300m free rifle, three positions Ole Olsen, Lars Madsen, Niels Larsen, Niels Andersen, Laurits Larsen and Jens Hajslund — Shooting, Men's Team free rifle Søren Jensen — Wrestling, Greco-Roman heavyweight 14 athletes represented Denmark, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in athletics, which Denmark had competed in each time the nation appeared at the Olympics.
Aage Rasmussen's fourth-place finish in the racewalk was Denmark's best athletics result in 1912. Ranks given are within that athlete's heat for running events. Eight cyclists represented Denmark, it was the first appearance of the nation in cycling. Olaf Meyland-Smith had the best time in the time trial, the only race held; the top four Danish cyclists had a combined time. DressageEventing Six fencers represented Denmark, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in fencing, in which Denmark had competed each time the nation appeared at the Olympics. Ivan Osiier was the only Danish fencer to advance to the final in an event capturing the silver medal in the épée, his second-place finish was the best in Danish Olympic fencing history at the time, as no Danish fencer had gotten to a final since Holger Nielsen won the bronze in the 1896 sabre competition. Quarterfinals Semifinals Final Final rank, it was the third appearance of the nation in gymnastics. Denmark had a team compete in two of the three team competitions.
The Danish teams won the nation's first gymnastics medals, placing third of five in the free system and second of three in the Swedish system. Six Danish gymnasts competed in the individual competition, with Arvor Hansen's 26th-place finish the best of the six. Denmark had four competitors in the first Olympic pentathlon competition; the Danish pentathletes had little success, with three of them not finishing and the fourth coming in last among the finishers, nearly 30 points behind the next nearest competitor. Fifteen rowers represented Denmark, it was the nation's first appearance in rowing. Denmark's debut was successful in the coxed fours events, with the team winning a gold medal in the inriggers competition and a bronze in the outriggers. Three sailors represented Denmark, it was the nation's first appearance in sailing. Denmark sent only one boat. Fourteen shooters represented Denmark, it was the nation's fourth appearance in shooting, in which Denmark had competed each time the nation appeared at the Olympics.
Madsen and Niels Larsen took second and third in the 300 metre free rifle from three positions to take the nation's only individual shooting medals in 1912. They were the first medals won by Denmark in shooting since 1900. One swimmer competed for Denmark at the 1912 Games, it was the third time. Hedegaard was unable to advance out of the first round in either of his two events. Ranks given for each swimmer are within the heat. Men Ten tennis players, including one woman, represented Denmark at the 1912 Games, it was the nation's debut appearance in tennis. The lone Danish woman was the lone Danish medalist, taking the silver medal in the indoor singles. She, along with Larsen, advanced to the quarterfinals in the indoor mixed doubles event as well. None of the other players advanced past the round of 16. MenWomenMixed Denmark sent nine wrestlers in 1912, it was the nation's second Olympic wrestling appearance. Two of the three Danish bronze medalists returned in 1912. Andersen, the middleweight, was not as successful as four years earlier.
Jensen, on the other hand, matched his prior bronze with another. He won his first three matches before taking his first loss to Saarela. In a loser-out fifth round match against Backenius, Jensen advanced to the medal round. There, he again faced Saarela; the winner of this match would face Saarela in the final while the loser would take the bronze medal. Olin turned out to be too much for Jensen. Four other Danes advanced to the fifth round before receiving their second elimination; the team overall went 15-17 in 0-2 in the medal round. Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics
The equestrian events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included dressage and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions; the host country, had a stellar year, winning both individual and team gold in every equestrian event, as well as individual silver in dressage. The competitions were held from 12 to 16 August 1936. Moderately priced tickets meant huge crowds at all equestrian events, with 15,000–20,000 spectators at any time during the dressage competition, 60,000 on the endurance day of eventing, 120,000 for the Nations Cup in jumping. There were 127 riders total from 21 nations. Seven countries fielded 3-person teams for all three disciplines. Of those 127 riders, only two were civilians: a jumper rider from Norway; the majority of horses were German or French-bred, with 25 coming that were either British or Irish-bred, 8/133 US-bred, the Japanese riders using 2 Japanese, 2 Australian, 1 British and 1 French-bred horse. 54 riders from 18 nations competed in the jumping competition, with only 38 riders finishing the first round.
Course designer August Andreae built a 1050 meter long course of 13 fences/20 jumping efforts at 1.30–1.60 meters in height. It included three triple combinations and a 5-meter water jump; the jump-off course raised many fences, widened the water to 5.50 meters, altered some of the distances between fences. Germany won its fifth equestrian gold medal in the Nations Cup; the individual medal placements required two jump-offs: the first to decide gold and silver between 2 riders who had only 1 knockdown up to that point. The second to determine bronze between 3 riders with 2 knock downs each; the dressage competition had 29 riders from 11 nations, with the youngest rider, Heinz Pollay winning individual gold. The 17-minute test had 22 movements, was fought out between the Germans and the French, each with their own views of correct training. Both the individual gold and individual silver medal horses and Absinth were trained by Otto Lörke; the youngest horse was 7-year-old Revue, 5 of the horses competing, including the gold-medal winner Kronos, were only 8 years of age.
There were older horses competing, including 18-year-old Csintalan. 50 riders from 19 nations contested the eventing competition, but only 4 of the 14 nations fielding a team would finish, most with high scores. Germany won both individual and team gold medals, there is some speculation as to whether, as the home nation, they knew some of the pitfalls of the cross-country course that the other teams did not. Three obstacles on the August Andreae-designed course would have been removed under today's standards of competition after the heavy rain that fell the day before Endurance. Germany won with Poland finishing second with 991 points. Britain finished third with 9,195 points, after one of their riders fell on cross-country and his horse had to be caught. Czechoslovakia finished fourth with 18,952 points, after Capt Kawecki fell and loose his horse that had to be caught, while Otomar Bureš took nearly 3 hours to complete the course, resulting in him accruing 18130.70 penalty points. The dressage test was 13 minutes in length.
The 36 km endurance course included a 7 km Roads and Tracks to be completed in 29 min 10 sec, followed by a 12-obstacle, 4 km steeplechase Phase C. The cross-country was an 8 km, 35-obstacle course with an optimum time of 46 seconds. Phase E was a 2 km gallop in 6 minutes; the jumping phase had obstacles with a maximum height of 1.15 meters, width of 1.50 meters, a water jump 3.5 meters wide. The 1936 Olympics produced controversial results, with the Germans winning all 6 gold medals, the only time in Olympic history where one team has made a clean sweep. One incident occurred on the cross-country course in the eventing competition, where the 4th fence, a 3 ft post-and-rail dropping into a pond, produced a great number of falls; the landing was much deeper than the footing underneath did not hold up well. It should be of note that future Lieutenant colonel and 1932 Olympic gold medal holder Takeichi Nishi participated in this event as well but Nishi fell off his horse, mid-course. There is speculation this was intentional and done for the benefit of host country Nazi Germany, with whom Japan would sign the 1940 Tripartite Pact, forming the Axis powers.
Lt. Col. Nishi would go on to command a tank regiment in the Battle of Iwo Jima. Uranus remained alive throughout the war. A total of 127 horse riders from 21 nations competed at the Berlin Games: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Germany Great Britain Hungary Italy Japan Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Switzerland Turkey United States International Olympic Committee medal database Bryant, Jennifer O. Olympic Equestrian, A Century of International Horse Sport. Lexington, KY: Blood-Horse Publications, 2008