Athletics at the 1952 Summer Olympics
At the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, 33 athletics events were contested, 24 for men and 9 for women. There were a total number of 963 participating athletes from 57 countries. During the 1952 Summer Olympic Games, 26 new Olympic records and 8 new world records were set in the athletics events. A total of 57 nations participated in the different Athletics events at the 1952 Summer Olympics. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of athletes representing each nation. 1952 Summer Olympics results: athletics, from https://www.sports-reference.com/. International Olympic Committee results database Athletics Australia
National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark
The National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark is the National Olympic Committee representing Denmark. The following is a list of presidents since its creation in 1905; the Danish National Federations are the organizations that coordinate all aspects of their individual sports. They are responsible for training and development of their sports. There are 32 Olympic Summer and 4 Winter Sport Federations in Denmark. Denmark at the Olympics Official website
1952 Summer Olympics
The 1952 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland from July 19 to August 3, 1952. Helsinki had been earlier selected to host the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II, it is the northernmost city. These were the first games to be held in a non-Indo-European language speaking country, it was the Olympic Games at which the most number of world records were broken until surpassed by the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Israel and Saarland made their Olympic debuts in Helsinki 1952. Helsinki was chosen as the host city over bids from Amsterdam and five American cities at the 40th IOC Session on June 21, 1947, in Stockholm, Sweden. Minneapolis and Los Angeles finished tied for second in the final voting; the voting results in chart below: These were the final Olympic Games organised under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström. Israel made its Olympic debut.
The Jewish state had been unable to participate in the 1948 Games because of its War of Independence. A previous Palestine Mandate team had boycotted the 1936 Games in protest of the Nazi regime. Indonesia made its Olympic debut with three athletes; the newly established People's Republic of China participated in the Olympics for the first time, although only one swimmer of its 40-member delegation arrived in time to take part in the official competition. The PRC would not return to the Summer Olympics until Los Angeles 1984; the Republic of China withdrew from the Games on July 20, in protest of the IOC decision to allow athletes from the People's Republic of China to compete. For the first time, a team from the Soviet Union participated in the Olympics; the first gold medal for the USSR was won by Nina Romashkova in the women's discus throwing event. Only after I had felt a heavy golden circle in my hand, I realized. I am the first Soviet Olympic Champion, you know, the first record-holder of the 15th Olympiad...
Tears were stinging my eyes. How happy I was!... After her win at the 1952 Summer Olympics. In Russian:Только ощутив в руке тяжелый золотой кружок, я осознала, что произошло. Ведь я первая советская олимпийская чемпионка, первая рекордсменка XV Олимпиады... Слезы щипали глаза. Как я была счастлива!... The Soviets turned the athletic competition into a metaphor for political propaganda.“Every record won by our sportsmen, every victory in international contests, graphically demonstrates to the whole world the advantages and strength of the Soviet system.” The first meeting between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in football is still the most famous one. On the political level, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and the Yugoslav leader Josip Tito split in 1948, which resulted in Yugoslavia being excluded from the Communist Information Bureau; the origin of the conflict was Tito’s refusal to submit to Stalin’s interpretations and visions of politics and in process becoming a Soviet satellite state. Before the match, both Tito and Stalin sent telegrams to their national teams, which showed just how important it was for the two head of states.
Yugoslavia led 5 -- 1. The match was replayed, Yugoslavia winning 3–1; the defeat to the archrivals hit Soviet football hard, after just three games played in the season, CDKA Moscow, who had made up most of the USSR squad, was forced to withdraw from the league and disbanded. Furthermore, Boris Arkadiev, who coached both USSR and CDKA, was stripped of his Merited Master of Sports of the USSR title; the Olympic Flame was lit by runners Paavo Nurmi and Hannes Kolehmainen. Nurmi first lit the cauldron inside the stadium, the flame was relayed to the stadium tower where Kolehmainen lit it. Only the flame in the tower was burning throughout the Olympics. Hungary's Golden Team won the football tournament. Germany and Japan were invited after being barred in 1948. Following the post-war occupation and partition, three German states had been established. Teams from the Federal Republic of Germany and the Saarland participated. Though they won 24 medals, the fifth-highest total at the Games, German competitors failed to win a gold medal for the only time.
Rules in equestrianism now allowed non-military officers to compete, including women. Lis Hartel of Denmark became the first woman in the sport to win a medal. Emil Zátopek of Czechoslovakia won three gold medals in 10,000 m and the Marathon; the India national field hockey team won its fifth consecutive gold under captaincy of Kunwar Digvijay Singh Bob Mathias of the United States became the first Olympian to defend his decathlon title with a total score of 7,887 points. Josy Barthel of Luxembourg pulled a major surprise by winning the 1500 m. Eva Perón, the celebrated First Lady of Argentina, died of cancer in July 1952 while the Olympics were taking place, so a memorial was held at the Games for the Argentine team; the 1952 Summer Olympics featured 17 different sports encompassing 23 disciplines, medals were awarded in 149 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Handball Pesäpallo With an annual average temperature of 5.9 °C, Helsinki is one of the coldest cities to have hosted the Summer Olympics.
Hämeenlinna – Modern pentathlon Harmaja – Sailing Helsinki Football Grounds – Football Huopalahti – Shooting Käpylä – Cycling Kotka – Footbal
Paul Bert Elvstrøm was a Danish yachtsman. He won four Olympic gold medals and eleven world titles in eight different types of boat, including Snipe, Star, Flying Dutchman and Finn. Elvstrøm competed in eight Olympic Games from 1948 to 1988, being one of only six persons to win four consecutive individual gold medals, first time in a Firefly, subsequently in Finns. In his last two Olympic games he sailed the Tornado Catamaran class, which, in those days, was sailed by two young men, with his daughter Trine Elvstrøm as forward hand, he is one of only four athletes who have competed in the Olympics over a span of 40 years, along with fencer Ivan Joseph Martin Osiier, sailor Magnus Konow, sailor Durward Knowles. Elvstrøm was noted as a developer of sails and sailing equipment. One of his most successful innovations was a new type of self-bailer; the design is still in production under the Andersen brand and has been copied. The new features were a wedge shaped venturi that closes automatically if the boat grounds or hits an obstruction, a flap that acts as a non return valve to minimise water coming in if the boat is stationary or moving too for the device to work.
Previous automatic bailers would be damaged or destroyed if they met an obstruction, would let considerable amounts of water in if the boat was moving too slowly. Elvstrøm was a early innovator in training techniques. For example, he used the technique of'sitting out' or hiking using toe-straps to a greater degree than getting all his body weight from the knees upwards outside the boat, thus providing extra leverage to enable the boat to remain level in stronger winds and hence go faster than his competitors; this technique required great strength and fitness, so Elvstrøm built a training bench with toe-straps in his garage to replicate the sitting-out position in his dinghy. He proceeded to spend many training hours on dry land sitting out on the bench at home, he popularised the kicking strap, or boom vang. This may take the form of a block and tackle linking a low point on the mast and the boom close to the mast, which allows the boom to be let out when reaching or running without lifting.
This controls the twist of the mainsail from its foot to its head, increasing the sail's power and the boat's speed and controlability. Elvstrøm did not advertise his new invention, leaving his competitors mystified at his superior boat-speed. Investigation of his dinghy revealed nothing as he used to remove the kicking strap before coming ashore, he established a manufacturing company whose products included masts and sails. He has been instrumental in developing several international yacht racing rules. Among the innovative concepts he brought to sailboat racing was the concept of gates instead of a single windward or leeward mark in large regattas; the leeward gate on a windward-leeward course is used. The windward gate is less used due to the difficulties in managing right-of-way around the right gate, the subtleties of which are understood by match racers. In 1996, Elvstrøm was chosen as "Danish Sportsman of the Century."In 2007, Elvstrøm was among the first six inductees into the ISAF Sailing Hall of Fame.
He died on 7 December 2016 after battling Alzheimers for a few years. Elvstrøm won medals at the world championships in eight sailing classes: Finn, 505, Flying Dutchman, 5.5 Metre, Star and Tornado. Elvstrom, Paul. Expert Dinghy and Keelboat Racing, 1967, Times Books, ISBN 0-8129-0054-5 Elvstrom, Paul. Elvström Speaks on Yacht Racing, 1970, One-Design & Offshore Yachtsman Magazine, ISBN 0-8129-0134-7 Elvstrom, Paul. Elvström Speaks -- to His Sailing Friends on His Life and Racing Career, 1970, Nautical Publishing Company, ISBN 0-245-59851-0 Paul Elvström Explains the Yacht Racing Rules, First edition 1969, title updated to Paul Elvstrom Explains the Racing Rules of Sailing: 2005–2008 Rules. Updated four-yearly in accordance with racing rules revisions, various authors and publishers. ISBN 0-07-145626-0 Elvstrøm 717 List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event Most successful athletes at the World Championships Media related to Paul Elvstrøm at Wikimedia Commons Paul Elvstrøm results
Equestrian at the 1952 Summer Olympics
The equestrian events at the 1952 Helsinki Summer Olympics included dressage and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions; the competitions were held from 28 July to 3 August 1952. One of the biggest changes at the 1952 Olympics was the demographics of competitors. Before this, most of the riders were officers, whereas the Helsinki Games saw over 50% of competitors from the civilian ranks. Additionally, women were now allowed to compete for the first time in equestrian events. At the 1952 Games, they were permitted in the dressage competition, although prohibited from the jumping and most not in eventing, considered too dangerous. A total of 4 women competed out of 138 riders. 25 nations competed: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Egypt, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Korea, the Netherlands, Portugal, Soviet Union, Sweden and the USA. This was the first appearance for Canada, Egypt and the Soviet Union. Russia had not competed since; the youngest participant was Walter Staley from the United States, while the oldest rider was the Danish Kristian Jensen.
52 riders from 20 nations competed at the 1952 Games. For the first time and team medals were awarded based on a two-round Prix des Nations. 16 teams rode around Björn Strandell's 786 meter course with a 1 min 57.2 second time allowed and fences up to 1.60 meters in height and a 5-meter water jump. The individual gold was won by Ali Baba. D'Oriola would repeat the feat in 1964 and remains the only rider to win two gold medals in this discipline; the team event was won by Great Britain, anchored by a clear round for Harry Llewellyn and Foxhunter. This gold medal, attained on the last day of competition, was Great Britain's only gold of the 1952 Games, they remain the only nation to have won gold medals in every Summer Olympics since 1896. 27 riders, including for the first time 4 women, from 10 nations rode in the dressage competition. One of these women was Denmark's Lis Hartel, who at age 23, had been paralyzed by polio, she regained muscle function but remained paralyzed below the knee. Amazingly, despite not being able to mount or dismount unassisted, she won individual silver.
5 judges were present with the lowest and highest scores of the panel being dropped. The test reintroduction of the piaffe and passage, was 15 minutes in length; the eventing competition was harder in 1952 than in 1948. Phase A was 7 km at 240m/min, Phase B was 4 km at 600m/min, Phase C 15 km at 240 m/min, Phase D was 9 km at 450 m/min with jumping efforts up to 1.20 meters, followed by the final phase, a 2 km "gallop" at 333m/min. The final stadium jumping round had fences up to 1.20 meters. 59 riders from 21 countries competed. 13 of those teams were officers, while 2 were a mix of officers and civilians and four had civilian-only teams. Of the 12 medals awarded between the individual and team competitions, 7 went to civilians. International Olympic Committee medal database
Denmark at the 1896 Summer Olympics
Three athletes from Denmark competed in five sports at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. Two of the three combined to win a gold medal, two silvers, three bronzes, while Eugen Schmidt earned no medals. Viggo Jensen contributed one of each color, while Holger Nielsen earned the second silver and two bronzes. Shooting and weightlifting were Denmark's most successful sports. Denmark had 15 entries in 12 events. Denmark's three athletes had little success in the 100 metres or the discus throw. Jensen took fourth place in the shot put competition, the closest to an athletics medal the Danish team came. One of Nielsen's two bronzes came in the fencing competition, in which he won half of his four matches. Jensen placed fourth of five competitors in the rope climbing contest, not reaching the top of the 14-metre rope, his actual distance climbed is unknown but it was less than 12.5 metres, the distance of the bronze medallist. Jensen and Nielsen both earned bronze medals in the shooting competitions, with Nielsen winning a silver medal.
Jensen specialized in the rifle events, taking 6th of 3rd of 20 in the two events. Nielsen did not finish his rifle competition, but performed well in the pistol events, in which he won two medals and took 5th place of 16 in the third event. Jensen tied Launceston Elliot for weight lifted in the two handed lift. Prince George of Greece, the judge for the event, determined that Jensen had lifted the 111.5 kilograms in better style than Elliot, awarded the Dane the gold medal. In the second event, the one handed, Jensen's 57 kilograms were not close to Elliot's 71 kilograms and thus Jensen took second place in that event. Lampros, S. P.. G.. J.. The Olympic Games: BC 776 – AD 1896. Athens: Charles Beck. Mallon, Bill; the 1896 Olympic Games. Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0379-9. Smith, Michael Llewellyn. Olympics in Athens 1896; the Invention of the Modern Olympic Games. London: Profile Books. ISBN 1-86197-342-X
Denmark at the 2008 Summer Olympics
Denmark competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, People's Republic of China. This is a list of all of the Danish athletes who qualified for their results; the goal set out by Team Danmark and the Danish Sports' Union was seven medals. The distribution of gold and bronze medals in this goal were not specified. Team Danmark and DIF believed Denmark had the best chances of winning a medal in wrestling, handball, the equestrian events, athletics and sailing, but hoped to see table tennis and triathlon make the podium as well; the entire Danish Olympic squad was announced on June 21, 2008 with final confirmation on July 8. On August 14, placing third in the equestrian team dressage event, Denmark won its first medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round MenWomen MenWomenMixed Qualification Legend: QS = Qualify to semi-final.
Head coach: Ulrik Wilbek Notes Group playQuarterfinalClassification semifinal7th–8th place MenWomenQualification Legend: FA=Final A. PP - Decision by Points - the loser with technical points. PO - Decision by Points - the loser without technical points. Men's Greco-Roman Denmark at the 2008 Summer Paralympics ol.dk – the Danish Olympics Committee's homepage for the Danish Olympic team