Ole Valdemar Henrik Berntsen was a Danish sailor. He competed in the dragon class at the 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1964 Olympics and placed third, fifth and first, respectively, his brothers Carl and William were Olympic sailors. William competed alongside Ole in 1948 and 1952
National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark
The National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark is the National Olympic Committee representing Denmark. The following is a list of presidents since its creation in 1905; the Danish National Federations are the organizations that coordinate all aspects of their individual sports. They are responsible for training and development of their sports. There are 32 Olympic Summer and 4 Winter Sport Federations in Denmark. Denmark at the Olympics Official website
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Paul Bert Elvstrøm was a Danish yachtsman. He won four Olympic gold medals and eleven world titles in eight different types of boat, including Snipe, Star, Flying Dutchman and Finn. Elvstrøm competed in eight Olympic Games from 1948 to 1988, being one of only six persons to win four consecutive individual gold medals, first time in a Firefly, subsequently in Finns. In his last two Olympic games he sailed the Tornado Catamaran class, which, in those days, was sailed by two young men, with his daughter Trine Elvstrøm as forward hand, he is one of only four athletes who have competed in the Olympics over a span of 40 years, along with fencer Ivan Joseph Martin Osiier, sailor Magnus Konow, sailor Durward Knowles. Elvstrøm was noted as a developer of sails and sailing equipment. One of his most successful innovations was a new type of self-bailer; the design is still in production under the Andersen brand and has been copied. The new features were a wedge shaped venturi that closes automatically if the boat grounds or hits an obstruction, a flap that acts as a non return valve to minimise water coming in if the boat is stationary or moving too for the device to work.
Previous automatic bailers would be damaged or destroyed if they met an obstruction, would let considerable amounts of water in if the boat was moving too slowly. Elvstrøm was a early innovator in training techniques. For example, he used the technique of'sitting out' or hiking using toe-straps to a greater degree than getting all his body weight from the knees upwards outside the boat, thus providing extra leverage to enable the boat to remain level in stronger winds and hence go faster than his competitors; this technique required great strength and fitness, so Elvstrøm built a training bench with toe-straps in his garage to replicate the sitting-out position in his dinghy. He proceeded to spend many training hours on dry land sitting out on the bench at home, he popularised the kicking strap, or boom vang. This may take the form of a block and tackle linking a low point on the mast and the boom close to the mast, which allows the boom to be let out when reaching or running without lifting.
This controls the twist of the mainsail from its foot to its head, increasing the sail's power and the boat's speed and controlability. Elvstrøm did not advertise his new invention, leaving his competitors mystified at his superior boat-speed. Investigation of his dinghy revealed nothing as he used to remove the kicking strap before coming ashore, he established a manufacturing company whose products included masts and sails. He has been instrumental in developing several international yacht racing rules. Among the innovative concepts he brought to sailboat racing was the concept of gates instead of a single windward or leeward mark in large regattas; the leeward gate on a windward-leeward course is used. The windward gate is less used due to the difficulties in managing right-of-way around the right gate, the subtleties of which are understood by match racers. In 1996, Elvstrøm was chosen as "Danish Sportsman of the Century."In 2007, Elvstrøm was among the first six inductees into the ISAF Sailing Hall of Fame.
He died on 7 December 2016 after battling Alzheimers for a few years. Elvstrøm won medals at the world championships in eight sailing classes: Finn, 505, Flying Dutchman, 5.5 Metre, Star and Tornado. Elvstrom, Paul. Expert Dinghy and Keelboat Racing, 1967, Times Books, ISBN 0-8129-0054-5 Elvstrom, Paul. Elvström Speaks on Yacht Racing, 1970, One-Design & Offshore Yachtsman Magazine, ISBN 0-8129-0134-7 Elvstrom, Paul. Elvström Speaks -- to His Sailing Friends on His Life and Racing Career, 1970, Nautical Publishing Company, ISBN 0-245-59851-0 Paul Elvström Explains the Yacht Racing Rules, First edition 1969, title updated to Paul Elvstrom Explains the Racing Rules of Sailing: 2005–2008 Rules. Updated four-yearly in accordance with racing rules revisions, various authors and publishers. ISBN 0-07-145626-0 Elvstrøm 717 List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event Most successful athletes at the World Championships Media related to Paul Elvstrøm at Wikimedia Commons Paul Elvstrøm results
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Denmark at the 1912 Summer Olympics
Denmark competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. 152 competitors, 151 men and 1 woman, took part in 46 events in 13 sports. Ejler Allert, Christian Hansen, Carl Møller, Carl Pedersen and Poul Hartmann — Rowing, Men's coxed fours, inriggers Ivan Joseph Martin Osiier — Fencing, Men's Epee Men's Team — Football Men's Team — Gymnastics Steen Herschend, Sven Thomsen and Hans Meulengracht-Madsen — Sailing, Men's 6m class Lars Madsen — Shooting, Men's 300m free rifle, three positions Sofie Castenschiold — Tennis, Women's singles indoor Men's Team, free system — Gymnastics Erik Bisgaard, Rasmus Frandsen, Mikael Simonsen, Poul Thymann and Ejgil Clemmensen — Rowing, Men's coxed fours Niels Larsen — Shooting, Men's 300m free rifle, three positions Ole Olsen, Lars Madsen, Niels Larsen, Niels Andersen, Laurits Larsen and Jens Hajslund — Shooting, Men's Team free rifle Søren Jensen — Wrestling, Greco-Roman heavyweight 14 athletes represented Denmark, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in athletics, which Denmark had competed in each time the nation appeared at the Olympics.
Aage Rasmussen's fourth-place finish in the racewalk was Denmark's best athletics result in 1912. Ranks given are within that athlete's heat for running events. Eight cyclists represented Denmark, it was the first appearance of the nation in cycling. Olaf Meyland-Smith had the best time in the time trial, the only race held; the top four Danish cyclists had a combined time. DressageEventing Six fencers represented Denmark, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in fencing, in which Denmark had competed each time the nation appeared at the Olympics. Ivan Osiier was the only Danish fencer to advance to the final in an event capturing the silver medal in the épée, his second-place finish was the best in Danish Olympic fencing history at the time, as no Danish fencer had gotten to a final since Holger Nielsen won the bronze in the 1896 sabre competition. Quarterfinals Semifinals Final Final rank, it was the third appearance of the nation in gymnastics. Denmark had a team compete in two of the three team competitions.
The Danish teams won the nation's first gymnastics medals, placing third of five in the free system and second of three in the Swedish system. Six Danish gymnasts competed in the individual competition, with Arvor Hansen's 26th-place finish the best of the six. Denmark had four competitors in the first Olympic pentathlon competition; the Danish pentathletes had little success, with three of them not finishing and the fourth coming in last among the finishers, nearly 30 points behind the next nearest competitor. Fifteen rowers represented Denmark, it was the nation's first appearance in rowing. Denmark's debut was successful in the coxed fours events, with the team winning a gold medal in the inriggers competition and a bronze in the outriggers. Three sailors represented Denmark, it was the nation's first appearance in sailing. Denmark sent only one boat. Fourteen shooters represented Denmark, it was the nation's fourth appearance in shooting, in which Denmark had competed each time the nation appeared at the Olympics.
Madsen and Niels Larsen took second and third in the 300 metre free rifle from three positions to take the nation's only individual shooting medals in 1912. They were the first medals won by Denmark in shooting since 1900. One swimmer competed for Denmark at the 1912 Games, it was the third time. Hedegaard was unable to advance out of the first round in either of his two events. Ranks given for each swimmer are within the heat. Men Ten tennis players, including one woman, represented Denmark at the 1912 Games, it was the nation's debut appearance in tennis. The lone Danish woman was the lone Danish medalist, taking the silver medal in the indoor singles. She, along with Larsen, advanced to the quarterfinals in the indoor mixed doubles event as well. None of the other players advanced past the round of 16. MenWomenMixed Denmark sent nine wrestlers in 1912, it was the nation's second Olympic wrestling appearance. Two of the three Danish bronze medalists returned in 1912. Andersen, the middleweight, was not as successful as four years earlier.
Jensen, on the other hand, matched his prior bronze with another. He won his first three matches before taking his first loss to Saarela. In a loser-out fifth round match against Backenius, Jensen advanced to the medal round. There, he again faced Saarela; the winner of this match would face Saarela in the final while the loser would take the bronze medal. Olin turned out to be too much for Jensen. Four other Danes advanced to the fifth round before receiving their second elimination; the team overall went 15-17 in 0-2 in the medal round. Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database