Yarmouth is a town in Barnstable County, United States, Barnstable County being coextensive with Cape Cod. The population was 23,793 at the 2010 census; the town is made up of three major villages: South Yarmouth, West Yarmouth, Yarmouth Port. Prior to European colonization, Yarmouth was inhabited by an Algonquian people. In the Wôpanâak language the area was called "Mattacheese". Wampanoag tribes living in Yarmouth at the time of European settlement included the Pawkunnawkuts on both sides of the lower Bass River, the Hokanums in what is now northeastern Yarmouth, the Cummaquids in what is now western Yarmouth. Yarmouth was organized and incorporated as part of the Plymouth Colony on September 3, 1639, following a settlement led by John Crowe, Thomas Howes and Anthony Thacher, is, together with Sandwich, the oldest town on Cape Cod. Yarmouth included what is now the town of Dennis, incorporated as a separate community on June 19, 1793. Yarmouth is named after Great Yarmouth, a town in the county of Norfolk, on the east coast of England, itself at the mouth of the River Yare.
Though none of the initial settlers hailed from that English town, the name was chosen because across the North Sea from Yarmouth is the Netherlands, where a portion of the Mayflower passengers had lived in exile. This group of pilgrims arrived back in England via the port of Yarmouth before heading to the New World. In 1642 and 1645, Yarmouth furnished soldiers for the Plymouth Colony's expeditions against the Narragansett. In 1648, the Plymouth Colony's legislature, the General Court, appointed Myles Standish to adjudicate land disputes among the Yarmouth settlers. Yarmouth soldiers served the Plymouth Colony in King Philip's War: fifteen Yarmouth men participated in the Great Swamp Fight without casualties, but the town did lose five men at Rehoboth. Yarmouth troops saw service in the early years of King William's War. In the early eighteenth century, some of the Yarmouth veterans of King Philip's War were granted lands to settle in Gorham, Maine. Yarmouth was the site of an active group of the Sons of Liberty during the American Revolution.
The town's militia mustered to provide assistance to the minutemen at the Battles of Lexington and Concord, but the militia returned home upon news that the rebels had triumphed on the field. In March 1776, Yarmouth troops served as part of George Washington's forces during the Fortification of Dorchester Heights. A meeting of Yarmouth citizens declared the town's independence from Great Britain on June 20, 1776; as a coastal community, Yarmouth was subject to blockade by the Royal Navy throughout the Revolutionary War. In the early years of the Republic, Yarmouth shared with the rest of New England a strong support for the Federalist Party; the economy of Yarmouth was centered on maritime industries, the townspeople were opposed to the Jefferson Administration's Embargo Act of 1807 and Non-Intercourse Act of 1809. On July 8, 1812, the Yarmouth town meeting voted to protest the recent Congressional declaration of war with Great Britain. Along with much of the rest of coastal New England, Yarmouth was subject to blockade by the Royal Navy beginning in 1814.
Although the people of Yarmouth, including its militiamen, remained intensely opposed to the War of 1812, local militia forces did participate in attempts to counter the blockade. Yarmouth began as a farming community in which the people of the town raised pigs and sheep. Due to livestock pasturage, firewood collection and the construction of the Old Colony Railroad, the old-growth forests of the Wampanoag era had disappeared from Yarmouth by the end of the nineteenth century, not to be replaced with stands of incipient second-growth forest until agriculture declined in the town during the twentieth century. Although agriculture was a prominent part of Yarmouth life, the town's location led its people to make much of their living from the ocean. For centuries, many Yarmouth men worked as whalers. In the early nineteenth century, merchantmen skippered by Yarmouth captains participated in the China Trade between New England and the Cantonese trading center of Whampoa. Captain Ebenezer Sears of Yarmouth was the first American skipper to take a merchant vessel around the Cape of Good Hope.
In 1854, Captain Asa Eldridge of Yarmouth skippered the clipper Red Jacket, a packet ship, between New York and Liverpool in only 13 days, 1 hour, 25 minutes, dock to dock, setting a speed record for fastest trans-Atlantic crossing by a commercial sailing vessel that has remained unbroken since. In 1856, Captain Eldridge skippered the ill-fated steamship SS Pacific, which disappeared at sea on a voyage from Liverpool to New York; the house of another Yarmouth sea captain, Captain Bangs Hallet, is now a museum and home to the Historical Society of Old Yarmouth. Developers began to refashion Yarmouth into a summer resort near the end of the nineteenth century. Hotels and summer cottage communities proliferated in the first half of the twentieth century along what is now Route 28. With the emergence of the car culture in the years just after World War II, these were joined first by many motels and by the denser, suburban pattern of residential housing construction that characterizes Yarmouth today.
The headquarters of the International Fund for Animal Welfare, a global animal welfare and conservation charity founded in 1969, is located in Yarmouth Port. In 1970, the national Christmas Tree Shops retail chain was founded at a location on Route 6A in Yarmouth Port. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 28.2 square miles, of which 24.1 square miles is land and
Plymouth North High School
Plymouth North High School, known informally as Plymouth North or PNHS, is a public high school located in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Its students are residents of the town of Plymouth; the school is one of two high schools in the other being Plymouth South High School. Plymouth North is located south of Plymouth Center, is located adjacent to the Plymouth County Courthouse, the Plymouth County Registry of Deeds, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital; the school colors are Navy Blue, White & Silver and the school mascot is an Eagle. On April 27, 2007, Plymouth North High School was presented with an environmental award at the Massachusetts State House; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs presented the award at their 13th Annual Awards for Excellence in Environmental Education in recognition of Plymouth North's Life Skills program and its recycling efforts. Girls Indoor Track State Champions – 2016 Football State Champions – 1984, 1989 Football State Finalists – 1975, 1993 In 2011 the Plymouth North Eagles won their 2nd state title in 4 years with a 3–1 win over Hudson In 2014 the Plymouth North Boys Tennis Team won their second consecutive A.
C. L Title, they made it to the Semis of States. In the 2013–2014 season, Plymouth North Dance Team placed at competition for the first time in history, they took home first place and grand champions overall at a UDA competition including teams from high schools and colleges around Massachusetts. Stacy Poitras – star of reality TV series Chainsaw Gang Official site
Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months; as defined by the Cape Cod Commission's enabling legislation, Cape Cod is conterminous with Barnstable County, Massachusetts. It extends from Provincetown in the northeast to Woods Hole in the southwest, is bordered by Plymouth to the northwest. Since 1914, most of Cape Cod has been separated from the mainland by the Cape Cod Canal; the canal cuts 7 miles across the base of the peninsula, though small portions of the Cape Cod towns of Bourne and Sandwich lie on the mainland side of the canal. Two highway bridges cross the Cape Cod Canal: the Bourne Bridge. In addition, the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge carries railway freight and limited passenger services onto the Cape. Cape territory is divided into 15 towns with many villages. Like Cape Cod itself, the islands south of the Cape have evolved from whaling and trading areas to become resort destinations, attracting wealthy families and other tourists.
These include the large nearby islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, which have grown in population by 6.8 percent and 10.3 percent between 2000 and 2010 while the year-round population of Barnstable County dropped 3 percent according to the Census. Both islands are famous summer tourist destinations accessed by ferry from several locations on the cape; the phrases Cape Cod and the Islands and the Cape and Islands are used to describe the whole region of Barnstable County, Dukes County, Nantucket County. Several small islands right off Cape Cod, including Monomoy Island, Monomoscoy Island, Popponesset Island, Seconsett Island, are in Barnstable County; the Forbes family-owned Naushon Island was first purchased by John Murray Forbes. Naushon is one of the Elizabeth Islands, many of which are owned. One of the publicly accessible Elizabeths is the southernmost island in the chain, with a year-round population of 52 people. Several prominent families have established compounds or estates on the larger islands, making these islands some of the wealthiest resorts in the Northeast, yet they retain much of the early merchant trading and whaling culture.
Cape Cod in particular is a popular retirement area. And the average age of residents is the highest of any area in New England. By voter registration numbers, Democrats outnumber Republicans by less in the three counties than in the whole of Massachusetts, to varying degrees; the bulk of the land in the area is glacial terminal moraine and represents the southernmost extent of glacial coverage in southeast New England. The name "Cape Cod", as it was first used in 1602, applied only to the tip of the peninsula, it remained that way for 125 years, until the "Precinct of Cape Cod" was incorporated as the Town of Provincetown. No longer in "official" use over the ensuing decades, the name came to mean all of the land east of the Manomet and Scusset rivers – along the line that became the Cape Cod Canal; the creation of the canal separated the majority of the peninsula from the mainland. Most agencies, including the Cape Cod Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, treat the Cape as an island with regard to disaster preparedness, groundwater management, the like.
Cape Codders tend to refer to the land on the mainland side of the canal as "off-Cape", though the legal delineation of Cape Cod, coincident to the boundaries of Barnstable County, includes portions of the towns of Bourne and Sandwich that are located north of the canal. Cape Cod Bay lies in between Cape Cod and the mainland – bounded on the north by a horizontal line between Provincetown and Marshfield. North of Cape Cod Bay is Massachusetts Bay, which contains the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, located 5 miles north of Provincetown; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east of Cape Cod, to the southwest of the Cape is Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal, completed in 1916, connects Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod extends 65 miles into the Atlantic Ocean, with a breadth of between 1–20 miles, covers more than 400 miles of shoreline, its elevation ranges from 306 feet at its highest point, at the top of Pine Hill, in the Bourne portion of Joint Base Cape Cod, down to sea level. One of the biggest barrier islands in the world, Cape Cod shields much of the Massachusetts coastline from North Atlantic storm waves.
This protection erodes the Cape's shoreline at the expense of its cliffs, while protecting towns from Fairhaven to Marshfield. Cape Cod and the Islands are part of a continuous archipelagic region consisting of a thin line of islands stretching west to include Long Island; this region is and collectively known by naturalists as the Outer Lands. Cape Cod incorporates all of Barnstable County, which comprises 15 towns: Bourne, Falmouth, Barnstable, Harwich, Brewster, Orleans, Wellfleet and Provincetown; each of these towns include a number of villages. Barnstable, the most populated municipality on Cape Cod, is the only one to have adopted a city form of government, whose legislative body is an elected 13-member council. However, like other smaller Massa
Great Barrington, Massachusetts
Great Barrington is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 7,104 at the 2010 census. Both a summer resort and home to Ski Butternut, Great Barrington includes the villages of Van Deusenville and Housatonic, it is the birthplace of W. E. B. Du Bois. In 2012, Smithsonian magazine ranked Great Barrington #1 in its list of "The 20 Best Small Towns in America"; the Mahican Indians called the area Mahaiwe, meaning "the place downstream". It lay on the New England Path, which connected Fort Orange near Albany, New York, with Springfield and Massachusetts Bay; the first recorded account of Europeans in the area happened in August 1676, during King Philip's War. Major John Talcott and his troops chased a group of 200 Mahican Natives west from Westfield overtaking them at the Housatonic River in what now Great Barrington. According to reports at the time, Talcott's troops killed twenty-five Indians and imprisoned another twenty.
Today, a plaque for John Talcott marks the spot. On April 25, 1724 Captain John Ashley of Westfield, Massachusetts bought on behalf of himself and a committee of the Massachusetts General Court the land that became the towns of Great Barrington, Egremont, Mount Washington, Boston Corner for £460, three barrels of "sider," and thirty quarts of rum from 21 Native American sachems headed by Conkepot Poneyote; the Konkapot River in southwestern Massachusetts is named after him. The village was first settled by colonists in 1726 and from 1742–1761 was the north parish of Sheffield. In 1761, it was incorporated as Great Barrington, named after the village of Barrington, England. In the summer of 1774, 1,500 men shut down the Berkshire County Court in response to British oppression. In the winter of 1776, Henry Knox passed through Great Barrington while transporting the cannon from Fort Ticonderoga to the Siege of Boston. Due to his time in the area, he established an agricultural interest in the area of Great Barrington.
With the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th century, Great Barrington developed as a Gilded Age resort community for those seeking relief from the heat and pollution of cities. Wealthy families built grand homes called Berkshire Cottages here, as others would in Lenox and Stockbridge. Among the earliest estates was that built by New York City banker and art patron David Leavitt, who built an elaborate 300-acre estate, was soon followed by those of his sons nearby. Leavitt was instrumental in the development of the local Housatonic Railroad, serving as its president. Estates included Searles Castle, commissioned in 1888 by the widow of Mark Hopkins together with her second husband, Edward Francis Searles, "Brookside", built for William Hall Walker. In 1895, Colonel William L. Brown, part owner of the New York Daily News, presented Great Barrington with a statue of a newsboy, now a landmark on the western edge of town. Great Barrington is the birthplace of W. E. B. Du Bois, an African-American academic and civil rights activist, most known for being one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909.
Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, at a house replaced by where present-day Route 23 would run. As a child, Du Bois attended the Congregational Church. Many of these church members donated. Du Bois lived in the town; the W. E. B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite has a walking tour. In November 1885 electrical engineer William Stanley, Jr. a sometime Great Barrington resident working for George Westinghouse, began installing a demonstration transformer based alternating current lighting system. Stanley felt AC was an improvement over the direct current system being used by Thomas Edison, Stanley was trying to get Westinghouse to adopt it. Stanley had developed a series transformer, he built his components at the "Old Rubber Factory" south of Cottage Street and installed a Westinghouse steam engine powering a 500 volt Siemens generator. Stringing the power lines from tree to tree down the street, in March 1886 Stanley powered the system up and was able to expand it to the point where it could light 23 businesses along Main Street with little power loss over 4,000 ft.
The system's 500 AC volt current was stepped down to 100 volts using the new Stanley transformer to power incandescent lamps at each location. This was the world's first practical demonstration of a transformer/alternating current system and the basis of the AC systems that Westinghouse would begin installing that year. Arlo Guthrie's song "Alice's Restaurant," which runs for 18 1⁄2 minutes, is based on true-life events of the late 20th century in Great Barrington and the adjoining towns of Stockbridge and Lee; the Old Trinity Church, the home of Ray and Alice Brock at the time of these incidents, is now owned by Guthrie, is at 4 Van Deusenville Road in Great Barrington. On October 18, 1990, Richard Stanley purchased the old Miller Hotel known as the Barrington House. Stanley started to upgrade the building, evicting tenants, involved in drugs, he removed the 1960s aluminum facade and returned the historic building through renovation to its 1929 appearance. The town was the site of an F4 tornado around 7:00 PM on Memorial Day, May 29, 1995.
The tornado caused damage in the area. On November 15, 1995, Richard Stanley and Joseph Wasserman opened The Triplex Cinema in the heart of Great Barrington; this contributed to further developments in the town, changing the economy and enhanc
Amy Jo Johnson
Amy Jo Johnson is an American-Canadian actress, singer-songwriter, director. Johnson began her acting career in her early twenties, in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, after she left the series, went onto star in Felicity, The Division, Flashpoint while pursuing a career as a musician and a filmmaker. Amy Jo Johnson was born on October 6, 1970 in Hyannis, the daughter of Greig Johnson, Sr. a car salesman, Christine Johnson, a clothing store manager. She has Greig Johnson, Jr. and Julie Johnson-Clary. Though born in Hyannis, Johnson grew up in Dennis and attended Dennis-Yarmouth Regional High School; as a child, she studied gymnastics. Johnson is married to Olivier Giner; the two live in Toronto and have one child together, a daughter born in 2008. She became a Canadian citizen on June 23, 2015, making her a dual-citizen of the United States and Canada. Johnson moved to New York City at 18 to pursue an acting career, she attended the American Musical and Dramatic Academy. She moved to Los Angeles to audition for her first part.
Johnson's breakthrough role came less than a month after she moved to Los Angeles, when she was selected to portray Kimberly Hart, the Pink Ranger, in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, the first installment of the Power Rangers franchise. Despite the series being a huge success and brought Johnson international recognition as an actress, the show brought her little financial security, as she and the others were paid only $600 a week for their work on the show, which included stunt work and public appearances; as a non-union show, physical danger on set presented a real threat to Johnson. Johnson made the decision to leave the show in 1995, passing the role of the Pink Ranger to Australian actress Catherine Sutherland. In an appearance on I Love the'90s, Johnson jokingly stated that having been the Pink Power Ranger was something she would "never live down." In years, Johnson stated that becoming famous from the show was at times overwhelming and had given her nightmares, but that overall, she learned many things and is grateful to the show and her fans.
In all, Johnson's character appeared in 137 episodes in the franchise, her final TV appearance being in a 2014 episode of Power Rangers Super Megaforce. She, alongside former co-star Jason David Frank, made a cameo appearance in the 2017 film Power Rangers, though not as Power Rangers. After she left the series in 1995, Johnson went on to star in Disney Channel's Susie Q and in the Saved by the Bell: The New Class episode "Backstage Pass." In 1997, she starred in NBC's adaptation of Lois Duncan's novel Killing Mr. Griffin and played a gymnast with an eating disorder in Perfect Body. Johnson participated in the film Without Limits, she reprised her role as Kimberly Hart in Turbo: A Power Rangers Movie. In 1998, Johnson was invited to play Julie Emrick in The WB series Felicity, she held a main role on Felicity for three seasons and was a special guest in its fourth and final season. In the early 2000s, Johnson had roles in Interstate 60, Pursuit of Happiness, Infested, as well as television film Hard Ground.
She had guest starring roles on Spin City and ER. In 2004, she starred as Stacy Reynolds in the fourth season of The Division. In the latter half of the decade, she had recurring roles in Wildfire and What About Brian, she starred in television films Magma: Volcanic Disaster on Syfy and Fatal Trust on Lifetime. In addition, Johnson took parts in a few independent films: Prince of Truth and Islander. Beginning in 2008, Johnson became a series regular on Flashpoint as Constable Jules Callaghan, a member of the fictional Strategic Response Unit of the Toronto Police service, she was nominated for a Gemini Award for her performance. The show aired new episodes through 2012. Since 2012, Johnson has had guest roles on a few shows including a recurring role on USA's Covert Affairs. Johnson has produced two acclaimed short films: Bent and Lines, she went on to direct the feature film The Space Between. In 2018, she began working on Tammy's Always Dying, she is a member of Film Fatales. Johnson is a singer-songwriter and has released three albums: The Trans-American Treatment and Never Broken.
She has performed in the Los Angeles area with The Amy Jo Johnson Band. In December 2007, she contributed guest vocals to Koishii & Hush's cover of The Cars track "Since You're Gone", released as a single; some of Johnson's music has been featured on television shows. Johnson's character in Felicity was described as a dancer, but with Johnson's input, the producers rewrote the character as a singer and guitarist; as a result, Johnson was able to perform her own song, "Puddle of Grace," on the show. In Flashpoint, her songs "Dancing In-Between" and "Goodbye" were featured. In 2013, she had performed the song "God" from her movie Bent. In 2014, her song "Lines" had featured in her movie Lines. In 2017, her song "Cracker Jacks" is the theme song from the movie The Space Between. Among other notable recognitions, Johnson received a nomination for Best Performance by an Actress in a Continuing Leading Dramatic Role at the 24th Annual Gemini Awards in 2009, she received two nominations as Best Actress for her role in Flashpoint at the Monte Carlo TV Festival.
The Trans-American Treatment Imperfect Never Broken "Clear Blue Day", "Puddle of Grace" from the serie
Barnstable High School
Barnstable High School is a public high school in the village of Hyannis, United States, Town of Barnstable. It is the largest high school in Barnstable County on Cape Cod. BHS has 2,000 students in grades 8-12; the school's principal is Patrick Clark. Scott Pyy is the assistant principal; the school is operated by the Barnstable Public School District. The school was founded in the 19th century after several attempts of creating a public high school; the school was moved to the High School Road location for about thirty years before being relocated to its present location in 1959. The school has gone through three different major renovations and building additions over the years, with the last one being completed in 1998; the school never had a permanent location until 1905, when a building was erected at the present site of Saint John Paul II High School. In 1930, the building was rebuilt; the building was renovated in 1939, due to the increase of students, but it was decided that a new school should be built using land willed to the town by Enoch Cobb.
The modern high school building was built from 1956–1957. On September 5, 1957, the new building was opened; the original layout included the modern 1200s, 1300s, 1400s, 1500s. The original layout lacked the present library and cafeteria, which were added on; the original library was located near the entrance to the modern library. A unique feature of the building were the two cafeterias. One cafeteria was located near on the site of the weight room and athletic office, the kitchen was located on the site of the present weight room; the field house was absent in the original layout. The high school hosted a vocational school in the modern lower 1200s; the basement of the original building was built as a bomb shelter, not unusual during the Cold War. The completion of the school did not mean an end to the usage of the old building's facilities; when the school was completed, it lacked athletic fields. For at least the first year, sporting events were held at the old building. In 1963, the modern 1600s wing was added.
The school underwent a renovation in 1976, which added the field house, cafeteria and some classrooms nearby. In 1975, the vocational high school closed because of the opening of Cape Cod Regional Technical High School in Harwich; the wing was turned into the art wing for the school. Mechanical drawing was one of the classes offered in the old shop wing. Barnstable High School sports teams are known as the Red Raiders, a name they share with Texas Tech University; the Barnstable High School girls' volleyball team has won at least 13 Division One State Championships in the past 15 years, including the past 6 State Championships. The team holds the state volleyball record for the most consecutive victories, holds the state volleyball record for the most consecutive victories; the team's 110-game winning streak came to a halt on October 6, 2007, when the team played Brentwood and lost. Barnstable football has won 2 State Championships in its history, one in 1995, the other in 1999; the boys' hockey team has won several state championship games.
They have had several undefeated seasons during their history and have been ranked the #1 team in Massachusetts and New England on several occasions. Boys' Hockey - State Champions Girls' Hockey - State Champions Barnstable has traditional baseball and hockey programs, they have smaller sports teams such as Track and Field, swimming and Field Hockey. Demetrius Atsalis, State Representative Nancy Frangione, actor Andy Hallett, singer Siobhan Magnus, American Idol season nine contestant Neal McDonough, actor Marnie Schulenburg, actor Casey Sherman, author Mary Sullivan, victim of the Boston Strangler Michael Tonello, author Eden White, singer Barnstable High School National Center for Education Statistics data for Barnstable High School
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter