The Final Countdown (song)
"The Final Countdown" is a song by Swedish rock band Europe, released in 1986. Written by Joey Tempest, it was based on a keyboard riff he made in the early'80s, inspired by David Bowie's "Space Oddity". Made to just be a concert opener, it is the first single from the band's third studio album named The Final Countdown; the song reached number one in 25 countries, including the United Kingdom, was certified gold in that country in 1986. In the United States, the song peaked at number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 18 on the Billboard Album Rock Tracks chart. A music video by Nick Morris was made to promote the single that features footage from the band's two concerts at the Solnahallen in Solna, as well as extra footage of the sound checks at those concerts; the song was based on a keyboard riff which Joey Tempest had written, as early as 1981 or 1982, on a Korg Polysix keyboard which he had borrowed from keyboardist Mic Michaeli. In 1985, bassist John Levén suggested. Tempest played it for the other band members.
At first, the members expressed mixed reactions to it, including guitarist John Norum, put off by the synth intro but said that he was glad they didn't listen to him. Tempest described their uncertainty: "Some of the guys in the band thought it was too different for a rock band, but in the end I fought hard to make sure it got used."The song's lyrics were inspired by David Bowie's song "Space Oddity". The sound of the keyboard riff used in the recording was achieved by using a Yamaha TX-816 rack unit and a Roland JX-8P synthesizer, as described by Michaeli: "I made a brassy sound from the JX-8P and used a factory sound from the Yamaha, just layered them together."When it was time to choose the first single from the album The Final Countdown, Tempest suggested the song "The Final Countdown". The band had not planned to release the song as a single, some members wanted "Rock the Night" to be the first single. "The Final Countdown" was written to be an opening song for concerts, they never thought it would be a hit.
When their record company Epic Records suggested, that it should be the first single, the band decided to release it. As Tempest stated: It's always a nice feeling. Sometimes you hear it on the streets or someone has it on their mobile phone or something… it's a nice feeling! I did an interview about a year ago with a newspaper from America and they talked about how much it's been used in sports in America… which I didn't know so much about, it has been used a lot and it was nice to hear. The ironic thing, though, is that the song was written for the fans, it was never meant to be a hit or anything like that. It was meant to be an opening for the'live' show. We were putting out our third album and we wanted a really'grand' opening for the show. So, I had that'riff' tucked away in a drawer since my college years and I took it out, found a tempo for it, wrote lyrics, it turned out to be a great opening for that album and for the show, as well. Nowadays, we don't rehearse it, but when we play it live, it is still just so amazing!
It does communicate so well with the audience and we love playing it. In 2009, Tempest told the BBC's Liam Allen, "I can trace bands like UFO in it, sort of a galloping theme like Iron Maiden had on The Number of the Beast album on quite a few songs. I wanted to make a combination of keyboards; that was a statement on that and it sort of worked out nicely." "The Final Countdown" became an instant success on the charts worldwide upon its release, reaching number one in 25 countries, is regarded as the band's most popular and recognizable song. The single reached number 8 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, is the most successful song from the album on the Album Rock Tracks chart, peaking at number 18; the song is the band's highest charting single in Australia and Canada, peaking at number 2 and number 5 respectively. The music video, directed by Nick Morris, contains footage from two concerts the band did at Solnahallen in Solna, Sweden on 26 and 27 May 1986, as well as some extra footage filmed at the sound checks for those concerts.
The song has been a regular in Europe concerts since its live debut on the premiere of their Final Countdown Tour in April 1986. One of the most memorable performances of the song took place in Stockholm, Sweden on 31 December 1999, as part of the Millennium celebrations, as it was the first, to date only, Europe performance with both of the band's lead guitarists, the original guitarist John Norum and his replacement, Kee Marcello. Joey Tempest – lead vocals John Norum – guitar, backing vocals John Levén – bass guitar Mic Michaeli – keyboards, backing vocals Ian Haugland – drums, backing vocals In 1999, the dance remix "The Final Countdown 2000" was released, it was produced by Brian Rawling, who had had success with "Believe" by Cher. The band's reaction to the remix was less than enthusiastic. "That remix was a disaster," drummer Ian Haugland said, "I wouldn't pass water on it if it was on fire!" In a 2013 interview with The National, Joey Tempest commented on the remix, saying, "The band were not happy with it.
We were trying to get some other people to do the remix and it just didn’t pan out so it ended up becoming a last-minute thing." The song is a favorite at sporting events being played to rally crowds. It has become a staple of high school and college pep bands for the same purpose. On 2 October 1990 just a few hours before the German reunification, the English segment of international radio
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Los Angeles Dodgers
The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. Established in 1883 in Brooklyn, New York, the team moved to Los Angeles before the 1958 season, they played for four seasons at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before moving to their current home of Dodger Stadium in 1962. The Dodgers as a franchise have won 23 National League pennants. 11 NL MVP award winners have played for the Dodgers. The team has produced 18 Rookie of the Year Award winners, twice as many as the next closest team, including four consecutive from 1979 to 1982 and five consecutive from 1992 to 1996. In the early 20th century, the team known as the Robins, won league pennants in 1916 and 1920, losing the World Series both times, first to Boston and Cleveland. In the 1930s, the team changed its name to the Dodgers, named after the Brooklyn pedestrians who dodged the streetcars in the city.
In 1941, the Dodgers captured their third National League pennant, only to lose to the New York Yankees. This marked the onset of the Dodgers–Yankees rivalry, as the Dodgers would face them in their next six World Series appearances. Led by Jackie Robinson, the first black Major League Baseball player of the modern era. Following the 1957 season the team left Brooklyn. In just their second season in Los Angeles, the Dodgers won their second World Series title, beating the Chicago White Sox in six games in 1959. Spearheaded by the dominant pitching style of Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale, the Dodgers captured three pennants in the 1960s and won two more World Series titles, sweeping the Yankees in four games in 1963, edging the Minnesota Twins in seven in 1965; the 1963 sweep was their second victory against the Yankees, their first against them as a Los Angeles team. The Dodgers won four more pennants in 1966, 1974, 1977 and 1978, but lost in each World Series appearance, they went on to win the World Series again in 1981, thanks in part to pitching sensation Fernando Valenzuela.
The early 1980s were affectionately dubbed "Fernandomania." In 1988, another pitching hero, Orel Hershiser, again led them to a World Series victory, aided by one of the most memorable home runs of all time, by their injured star outfielder Kirk Gibson coming off the bench to pinch hit with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning of game 1, in his only appearance of the series. The Dodgers won the pennant in 2017 and 2018, but lost the World Series to the Houston Astros and Boston Red Sox respectively; the Dodgers share a fierce rivalry with the San Francisco Giants, the oldest rivalry in baseball, dating back to when the two franchises played in New York City. Both teams moved west for the 1958 season; the Brooklyn Dodgers and Los Angeles Dodgers have collectively appeared in the World Series 20 times, while the New York Giants and San Francisco Giants have collectively appeared 20 times. The Giants have won two more World Series. Although the two franchises have enjoyed near equal success, the city rivalries are rather lopsided and in both cases, a team's championships have predated to the other's first one in that particular location.
When the two teams were based in New York, the Giants won five World Series championships, the Dodgers one. After the move to California, the Dodgers have won five in Los Angeles, the Giants have won three in San Francisco; the Dodgers were founded in 1883 as the Brooklyn Atlantics, taking the name of a defunct team that had played in Brooklyn before them. The team joined the American Association in 1884 and won the AA championship in 1889 before joining the National League in 1890, they promptly won the NL Championship their first year in the League. The team was known alternatively as the Bridegrooms, Superbas and Trolley Dodgers before becoming the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1930s. In Brooklyn, the Dodgers won the NL pennant several times and the World Series in 1955. After moving to Los Angeles, the team won National League pennants in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1974, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1988, 2017, 2018, with World Series championships in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1981 and 1988. In all, the Dodgers have appeared in 11 in Los Angeles.
For most of the first half of the 20th century, no Major League Baseball team employed an African American player. Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play for a Major League Baseball team when he played his first major league game on April 15, 1947, as a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers; this was due to general manager Branch Rickey's efforts. The religious Rickey's motivation appears to have been moral, although business considerations were a factor. Rickey was a member of The Methodist Church, the antecedent denomination to The United Methodist Church of today, a strong advocate for social justice and active in the American Civil Rights Movement; this event was the harbinger of the integration of professional sports in the United States, the concomitant demise of the Negro Leagues, is regarded as a key moment in the history of the American Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was an exceptional player, a speed
A grass skirt is a costume and garment made with layers of plant fibres such as grasses and leaves, fastened at the waistline. Grass skirts were introduced to Hawaii by immigrants from the Gilbert islands around the 1870s to 1880s although their origins are attributed to Samoa as well. According to DeSoto Brown, historian at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, it is Hawaiian dancers began wearing them during their performances on the vaudeville circuit of the United States mainland. Traditional Hawaiian skirts were made with fresh ti leaves which were not available in the United States. By the turn of the century Hawaiian dancers in both Hawaii and the U. S. were wearing grass skirts. Today some Hawaiian style hula dancers still wear them; the traditional costume of Hawaiian hula kahiko includes kapa cloth skirts and men in malo however, during the 1880s hula ‘auana was developed from western influences. It is during this period that the grass skirt began to be seen everywhere although hula ‘auana costumes included more western looking clothing with fabric-topped dresses for women and pants for men.
The use of the grass skirt was present in the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago where Hawaiian hula dancers played into American stereotypes by wearing the costume. From the late 19th-century and into World War II, grass skirts in Polynesia became a "powerful symbol of South Sea sexuality". In the Pacific theater, grass skirts were sought after souvenirs by servicemen abroad; the end of the war saw many sailors returning from their duties in the Pacific. Polynesian culture had begun to take root in the US through such things as James A. Michener's Tales of the South Pacific and its subsequent musical and film adaption, as well as Don the Beachcomber opening in Hollywood; the war had helped to create a national interest in Polynesian décor. The tiki culture continued, spurred on by Hawaii's statehood in 1959 and Disney's opening of the Enchanted Tiki Room in 1963 as well as popular film and television shows like "Hawaiian Eye" in 1959 and Elvis Presley's Blue Hawaii in 1961. In Fijian culture, both women and men traditionally wore skirts called the liku made from hibiscus or root fibers and grass.
In Maori culture, the traditional skirt-like garment made up of numerous strands of prepared flax fibres, woven or plaited, is known as a piupiu. In Nauru culture the native dress of both sexes consists of a ridi, a bushy skirt composed of thin strips of pandanus palm-leaf that can be both short, knee- and foot-long. In Tonga, the grass skirt were worn in dance performances; the Sotho people traditionally wore. Kiekie, from Tonga Brawley, S.. Hollywood's South Seas and the Pacific War: Searching for Dorothy Lamour, Palgrave Macmillan US, p. 114, ISBN 978-1-137-09067-6 Hix, Lisa, "How America's Obsession With Hula Girls Almost Wrecked Hawaiʻi", Collectors Weekly, retrieved May 18, 2017 Lukas, Scott A. A Reader In Themed and Immersive Spaces, Lulu.com, ISBN 978-1-365-38774-6, OCLC 1004748897 Oxford University, Complete Oxford Dictionary 11: Complete Oxford Dictionary 11, Oxford University Press, p. 1342, GGKEY:3XX5FQGNP71 Picken, Mary Brooks, A Dictionary of Costume and Fashion: Historic and Modern, Courier Corporation, p. 153, ISBN 978-0-486-14160-2 Starr, Golden Dreams: California in an Age of Abundance, 1950–1963, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-992430-1, OCLC 261177770
Tang Soo Do
Tang Soo Do is a karate-based Korean martial art incorporating fighting principles from subak, as well as northern Chinese martial arts. The techniques of what is known as Tang Soo Do combine elements of shotokan karate, subak and kung fu. "Tang Soo Do" is the Korean pronunciation of the Hanja 唐手道, translates to "The Way of the Tang Hand." The same characters can be pronounced "karate-dō" in Japanese. In the early 1930s 55 years after Japan's annexation of Okinawa, Gichin Funakoshi in coordination with others changed the first character, 唐, which referred to the Chinese Tang Dynasty, to 空, signifying "empty". Funakoshi ostensibly wanted to avoid confusion with Chinese Kenpō. Funakoshi claimed Okinawan Karate could "now be considered a Japanese martial art" and found the China reference "inappropriate" and "in a sense degrading"; the Chinese pronunciation of 空手道 is kōng-shǒu-dào, the Korean is pronounced. Outside of the Far East, the term "Tang Soo Do" has become synonymous with the Korean martial art promoted by grandmaster Hwang Kee.
Beyond Won Kuk Lee, several other practitioners formed kwans in the area. By the 1960s, there were nine major kwans, which were based on an original five: 1) the Chung Do Kwan, 2) Moo Duk Kwan, 3) Song Moo Kwan, 4) Chang Moo Kwan, 5) Jidokwan. Chun's original style, Yun Mu Kwan karate became "Jidokwan" when his students found new teachers after his disappearance in the Korean War and the new name was adopted; the history of the Moo Duk Kwan can be traced to a single founder: Hwang Kee, who learned Chinese martial arts while in Manchuria. During the late 1930s, Hwang Kee had mastered the native Korean martial arts of Taekkyeon, it was during this time that the Japanese occupied Korea, the resident general, in an attempt to control the population, banned the practice of native martial arts, setting the penalty at imprisonment. In 1936, Hwang Kee attracted the attention of the Japanese secret police, forcing him to pack his bags and set out on foot for Manchuria,where he experienced scenes of lawlessness and destruction whilst working as a railroad worker.
As a result, Hwang Kee decided to enter China. He entered China at night from the southern end of the Great Wall of China, which he scaled and descended into China on the other side. "I climbed the wall at night, I was in excellent physical condition at the time and there were parts of the Great Wall that were lower than others. I ran up the side of the wall two or three steps and grabbed at the top. Once on top, I distracted the soldiers guarding the other side by throwing rocks away from where I climbed down."- Hwang Kee in an interview with Bob Liedke, translated by his son H. C. Hwang At this time in China, it was hard for any martial artist to find a master willing to take them on as a student. Despite this, Hwang Kee became acquainted with Master Yang, who taught Hwang Kee the northern style Yang kung-fu, a stronger and more passive art than the southern style that can be used at close quarters. Following the conclusion of World War II, Hwang Kee returned to Korea. Between 1944 and the Liberation of Korea in 1945, the original schools or kwans of Tang Soo Do were founded in Korea by practitioners who had studied karate and had some exposure to kung-fu.
Together, these original five schools and their teachers became the foundation of Tang Soo Do: Ro Byung Jik – Song Moo Kwan Won Kuk Lee – Chung Do Kwan Chun Sang Sup – Jidokwan Lee Nam Suk and Kim Soon Bae – Chang Moo Kwan Hwang Kee – Moo Duk KwanShortly after the Korean War and in 1953, four more offshoot schools formed. These second-generation kwans and their principal founders were Choi Hong Hi and Nam Tae Hi's Oh Do Kwan, Lee Kyo Yoon's Han Moo Kwan, Park Chul Hee and Hong Jong Pyo's Kang Duk Won, Lee Young Woo's Jung Do Kwan. In 1960, Jhoon Rhee was teaching. After receiving the ROK Army Field Manual from General Choi, Rhee began using the name "Taekwondo". There are still a multitude of contemporary Taekwondo schools in the United States that teach what is known as "Moo Duk Kwan Taekwondo"; this nomenclature reflects this government-ordered kwan merger. In 1964, the Korean Tae Soo Do Association was formed which, in 1965, became the Korean Tae Kwon Do Association; because of its political influence, the Tae Kwon Do group, led by its second president, General Choi Hong Hi, tried to unify it with the Korean Soo Bahk Do Association.
Kwanjangnim's organization was the largest martial arts system in Korea at the time. Grandmaster Hwang Kee agreed to discuss unification but, when it became clear that he would not be in charge of the new organization, he refused; the result was a weakening of the Moo Duk Kwan as the Tae Kwon Do movement grew in strength, absorbing many Moo Duk Kwan members in the process. To restore national identity after the protracted occupation of Korea by Japanese forces, the Korean government ordered a single organization to be created. On September 16, 1961, most kwans agreed to unify under the name "Korea Tae Soo Do Association"; the name was changed back to the "Korea Taekwondo Association" when General Choi became its president in August
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Europe is a Swedish rock band formed in Upplands Väsby in 1979, by vocalist Joey Tempest, guitarist John Norum, bassist Peter Olsson, drummer Tony Reno. They got a major breakthrough in Sweden in 1982 by winning the televised competition "Rock-SM": it was the first time this competition was held, Europe became a larger success than the competition itself. Since their formation, Europe has released eleven studio albums, three live albums, three compilations and twenty-four music videos. Europe rose to international fame in the 1980s with their third album, 1986's The Final Countdown, which has sold over 3 million copies in the United States and 15 million copies worldwide. Europe have sold over 25 million records worldwide; the band has had two top 20 albums on the Billboard 200 chart and two top 10 singles on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Europe went on hiatus in 1992, reunited temporarily for a one-off performance in Stockholm on New Year's Eve 1999 and announced an official reunion in 2003.
Since the band has released six albums, Start from the Dark, Secret Society, Last Look at Eden, Bag of Bones, War of Kings and Walk the Earth. Europe has achieved new attention in the US due to being featured in a GEICO Insurance cable television commercial campaign viewed for many months across the US in 2015-16; the band is influenced by Whitesnake, Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Thin Lizzy, UFO and Michael Schenker Group. The first incarnation of the band was named Force and came together in 1979, in Upplands Väsby and was integrated by vocalist Joey Tempest, guitarist John Norum, bass guitarist Peter Olsson, drummer Tony Reno. "I remember when we started the band Force we were playing covers in the rehearsal room, because we just wanted to learn our instruments, like all bands," Tempest said, "Then one day I said maybe we should do our own stuff. Nobody had any ideas, so I brought mine into the rehearsal room, and, when we started writing our own stuff."The band sent several demos to record companies, but were told that in order to be published they had to cut their hair and sing in Swedish.
Two years Olsson left the band and was replaced by John Levén. Just a couple of months Levén joined Yngwie Malmsteen's band Rising Force, Malmsteen's former bassist, Marcel Jacob, joined Force; this only lasted for three months, though. In 1982, Tempest's girlfriend entered Force in the Swedish rock talent contest Rock-SM. Competing against 4000 bands, they won the contest thanks to two songs, "In the Future to Come" and "The King Will Return"; the reward was a record deal with Hot Records. Tempest won the individual award for Best Lead Singer, Norum won the award for Best Guitarist. Just before the contest, Force changed their name to Europe. Tempest came up with the name; the self-titled debut album was released the following year, sold well both in Sweden and Japan. The album charted at number 8 in the band's home country and the single "Seven Doors Hotel" became a Top 10 hit in Japan; the second album Wings of Tomorrow was released one year and the single "Open Your Heart" got interest from CBS Records who offered them an international contract in 1985.
"I think one of the most important albums for the band was Wings of Tomorrow," Tempest said, "We were learning how to write songs and John started playing some cool stuff on the guitar. We became a better band and, a good period for the band." Keyboardist Mic Michaeli was soon recruited to play in live concerts, became an official member of the band shortly after. At the same time, Tony Reno was fired because of his lack of motivation and alleged slacking off on rehearsals. Bassist Peter Olsson claims that Reno was replaced on the albums by a drum machine, his replacement was Ian Haugland. In 1985 Europe recorded the soundtrack for the film On the Loose, which gave them the hit "Rock the Night". Several months Joey Tempest was asked to write a song for the charity project Swedish Metal Aid, he wrote "Give a Helping Hand", which would feature the biggest stars of Swedish metal. The income from the sales of the single, produced by Easy Action guitarist Kee Marcello, was donated to the starving people of Ethiopia.
In September 1985, Europe was approached by an executive from Epic Records. They helped; the result was The Final Countdown. Released on 26 May 1986, the album gave the band its international breakthrough, was certified Triple Platinum in the USA and reached number 8 on the Billboard 200 chart; the title track, based on a keyboard riff composed by Tempest as early as 1981-82, was released as the first single and became a worldwide success, peaking at number 1 in 25 countries, such as the UK, France and Germany. The power ballad "Carrie", which peaked at number 3 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, "Cherokee" and a re-recorded "Rock the Night" were other hits from the album. Not satisfied with the album's keyboard-dominated production nor the band's commercialized image, John Norum decided to leave Europe in November 1986 to pursue a solo career. "I didn't like the direction the band was going in," Norum said, "We became this teeny-bopper, bubblegum band and I hated that whole image, the spandex, poodle-rock type of thing.
I was more into the heavier, guitar-oriented stuff and it seemed like the keyboards were taking over more and more, we were becoming more commercial. So I decided to leave. I just wanted to move on and do something else."Kee Marcello was asked to