University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more known as Wits University or Wits; the university has its roots in the mining industry, as do Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand in general. Founded in 1896 as the South African School of Mines in Kimberley, it is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation; the university has an enrolment of 38,353 students as of 2017, of which 20 percent live on campus in the university's 22 residences. 65 percent of the university's total enrolment is for undergraduate study, with the remaining 35 percent being postgraduate. The 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities places Wits University, with its overall score, as the highest ranked university in Africa. Wits was ranked as the top university in South Africa in the Center for World University Rankings in 2016. According to the CWUR rankings, Wits occupies this ranking position since 2014.
The university was founded in Kimberley in 1896 as the South African School of Mines. It is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation, after the University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University.. Eight years in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute; the school's name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1908, a new campus of the Transvaal University College was established in Pretoria; the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated on 17 May 1910, each becoming a separate institution. The Johannesburg campus was reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, while the Pretoria campus remained the Transvaal University College until 1930 when it became the University of Pretoria. In 1920, the school was renamed Johannesburg. On 1 March 1922, the University College, was granted full university status after being incorporated as the University of the Witwatersrand; the Johannesburg municipality donated a site in Milner Park, north-west of Braamfontein, to the new institution as its campus and construction began the same year, on 4 October.
The first Chancellor of the new university was Prince Arthur of Connaught and the first Principal was Professor Jan Hofmeyr. Hofmeyr set the tone of the university's subsequent opposition to apartheid when, during his inaugural address as Principal he declared, while discussing the nature of a university and its desired function in a democracy, that universities "should know no distinctions of class, race or creed". True to Hofmeyr's words, from the outset Wits was an open university with a policy of non-discrimination on racial or any other grounds. There were six faculties—Arts, Medicine, Engineering and Commerce—37 departments, 73 academic staff, 1,000 students. In 1923, the university began moving into the new campus vacating its former premises on Ellof Street for the first completed building in Milner Park: the Botany and Zoology Block. In 1925, the Prince of Wales opened Central Block; the university's first library, housed at the time in what was meant to be a temporary construction, was destroyed in a fire on Christmas Eve in 1931.
Following this, an appeal was made to the public for ₤80,000 to pay for the construction of a new library, the acquisition of books. This resulted in the rapid construction of the William Cullen Library. During this period, as the Great Depression hit South Africa, the university was faced with severe financial restrictions. Nonetheless, it continued to grow at an impressive rate. From a total enrolment of 2,544 students in 1939, the university grew to 3,100 in 1945; this growth led to accommodation problems, which were temporarily resolved by the construction of wood and galvanised-iron huts in the centre of the campus. During World War II, Wits was involved in South Africa's war efforts; the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research was placed under the Union of South Africa's defence ministry, was involved in important research into the use of radar. Additionally, an elite force of female soldiers was trained on the university's campus. In 1948 the National Party was voted into power by South Africa's white electorate on a platform of "apartheid".
The NP's aim was to create an artificial white majority in most of South Africa by depriving the black majority of their citizenship, making them citizens of the "homelands" associated with their ethnic groups instead. These were, in theory, "self-governing", in four cases were granted "independence", but in reality, their lack of economic infrastructure left the independent homelands as little more than South African puppet states. This policy of "grand apartheid" was accompanied by the extension of racially discriminatory measures within so-called "white South Africa", including the segregation of universities. Wits managed to remain an open institution, but by 1956 the NP government began to push for the full implementation of university apartheid. In response, in 1957, the University of Cape Town, Rhodes University and the University of Natal issued a joint statement entitled "The Open Universities in South Africa", committing themselves to the principles of university autonomy and academic freedom.
In 1959, the apartheid government's Extension of University Education Act forced restricted registrations of black students for most of the aparth
Ingram Micro is an American distributor of information technology products. The company ranked 64th in the 2016 Fortune 500. In December 2016, Tianhai Investment, an associate company of HNA Group, acquired Ingram Micro in an all-cash transaction with an equity value of $6 billion. Ingram Micro's origins trace back to the founding of distributor Micro D, Inc. in July 1979 by husband and wife team, Geza Czige and Lorraine Mecca, who were both teachers. The company started in Southern California and in its first year of business achieved $3.5 million in sales. It expanded nationwide and held its public offering in 1983. Ingram Industries became a majority stockholder of Micro D in February 1986 when it acquired all of the common stock held by the company's founders, followed by the purchase of the remaining Micro D shares in March 1989. Meanwhile in 1982, just three years after the founding of Micro D, entrepreneurs Ronald Schreiber, Irwin Schreiber, Gerald Lippes and Paul Willax founded Software Distribution Services in Buffalo, N.
Y. Ingram Distribution Group, a unit of the held Ingram Industries, acquired Software Distribution Services in the spring of 1985 and renamed it Ingram Software. Ingram Software expanded in December 1985 with the purchase of Softeam, a Compton, Calif.-based distributor. The operation was renamed Ingram Computer in February 1988. After acquiring the remaining publicly traded shares of Micro D in 1989, Ingram Industries merged these two former competitors to create the microcomputer industry's first $1 billion computer products wholesale distribution company, renaming it Ingram Micro D; the new company established headquarters in Santa Ana, Calif. and retained an East Coast operations center for sales, technical support and customer service in Buffalo, N. Y; the "D" was dropped from the company's name in January 1991. In 1996, 17 years after the founding of Micro D, Ingram Micro once again became a public company, listing its shares on the New York Stock Exchange; that year, the company’s revenues totaled more than $12 billion.
In 1989 Ingram Micro called "Ingram Micro-D", was a subsidiary of the owned Ingram Industries group, took over the Belgian Softinvest and its three Softeurop subsidiaries active on the Belgian, the French and the Dutch markets from Brussels and Utrecht. This was Ingram's first foray outside the United States other than a few Ingram Industries subsidiaries; the company embarked on an active merge and foundation strategy in the European market. In August 1993, Ingram Micro Belgium acquired Zaventem Electronic Dealer Distribution and much of its assets, including the right to distribute Hewlett Packard products. In August 2004, multiple individuals were indicted for hacking into Ingram's online ordering system, fraudulent ordering more than $10,000,000 in order equipment. In July 2005 Ingram Micro purchased AVAD, LLC, a wholesale distributor for home automation and A/V gear, it sold this subsidiary in July 2016. The Shared Services Center in Manila, began operations in May 2009. Ingram Micro built a presence in areas adjacent to its traditional distribution business, including enterprise computing, automatic identification and data capture.
Other ventures in 2014 included entry into cloud computing, or software-, platform- and infrastructure-as-a-service. In June 2014, Ingram Micro changed their logo and introduced a new tagline: "Ingram Micro helps businesses realize the promise of technology". In December 2015, Ingram Micro acquired Odin Service Automation platform from Parallels for $163.9 mln. In February 2016, Ingram Micro announced its agreement to be acquired by the Chinese company Tianjin Tianhai Investment, an associate company of mega-conglomerate HNA Group, for $6 billion, it was reported at the time that Ingram's chief executive, would remain in place. Bharat Bhisé, indirect minority owner of HNA Group at that time, as well as HNA Group director Tan Xiangdong, were elected into the 7-men board directors of Ingram Micro; the transaction made Ingram the biggest revenue generator for HNA Group. The strategic reason for the transaction was to better reach "business opportunities in emerging markets, which have higher growth rates and better profitability."
HNA Group's logistics and its presence in China was intended to help Ingram's growth. The acquisition was completed in December 2016. In October 2017, Ingram Micro partnered with DocuSign. In December 2017, Ingram Micro acquired Cloud Harmonics. In May 2018, Ingram Micro formed CloudBlue. Former U. S. Congressman Chris Lee once worked at Ingram Micro. Bülent Ural, who works as a sales consultant for Ingram Micro's German branch, was a member of the German-Turkish musical group Sürpriz, which represented Germany in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1999
Symantec Corporation is an American software company headquartered in Mountain View, United States. The company provides services. Symantec is a member of the S&P 500 stock-market index; the company has development centers in Pune and Bengaluru. On October 9, 2014, Symantec declared it would split into two independent publicly traded companies by the end of 2015. One company would focus on the other on information management. On January 29, 2016, Symantec sold its information-management subsidiary, named Veritas Technologies to The Carlyle Group; the name "Symantec" is a portmanteau of the words "syntax" and "semantics" with "technology". Founded in 1982 by Gary Hendrix with a National Science Foundation grant, Symantec was focused on artificial intelligence-related projects, including a database program. Hendrix hired several Stanford University natural language processing researchers as the company's first employees, among them Barry Greenstein. Hendrix hired Jerry Kaplan as a consultant to build the in-RAM database for Q&A.
In 1984, it became clear that the advanced natural language and database system that Symantec had developed could not be ported from DEC minicomputers to the PC. This left Symantec without a product, but with expertise in natural language database query systems and technology; as a result in 1984 Symantec was acquired by another, smaller software startup company, C&E Software, founded by Denis Coleman and Gordon Eubanks and headed by Eubanks. C&E Software developed a combined file management and word processing program called Q&A for "question and answer."The merged company retained the name Symantec. Eubanks became its chairman, Vern Raburn, the former President of the original Symantec, remained as President of the combined company; the new Symantec combined the file management and word processing functionality that C&E had planned, added an advanced Natural Language query system that set new standards for ease of database query and report generation. The natural language system was named "The Intelligent Assistant".
Turner chose the name of Q&A for Symantec's flagship product, in large part because the name lent itself to use in a short merchandised logo. Brett Walter designed the user interface of Q&A. Q&A was released in November 1985. During 1986, Vern Raburn and Gordon Eubanks swapped roles, Eubanks became CEO and president of Symantec, while Raburn became its chairman. Subsequent to this change, Raburn had little involvement with Symantec, in a few years time, Eubanks added the Chairmanship to his other roles. After a slow start for sales of Q&A in the fall of 1985 and spring of 1986, Turner signed up a new advertising agency called Elliott/Dickens, embarked on an aggressive new advertising campaign, came up with the "Six Pack Program" in which all Symantec employees, regardless of role, went on the road and selling dealer sales staff nationwide in the United States. Turner named it Six Pack because employees were to work six days a week, see six dealerships per day, train six sales representatives per store and stay with friends free or at Motel 6.
A promotion was run jointly with SofSell. This promotion was successful in encouraging dealers to try Q&A. During this time, Symantec was advised by Jim Lally and John Doerr — both were board members of Symantec at that stage — that if Symantec would cut its expenses and grow revenues enough to achieve cash flow break-even KPCB would back the company in raising more venture capital. To accomplish this, the management team worked out a salary reduction schedule where the chairman and the CEO would take zero pay, all vice presidents would take a 50% pay cut, all other employees' pay was cut by 15%. Two employees were laid off. Eubanks negotiated a sizable rent reduction on the office space the company had leased in the days of the original Symantec; these expense reductions, combined with strong international sales of Q&A, enabled the company to attain break-even. The increased traction for Q&A from this re-launch grew Symantec's revenues along with early success for Q&A in international markets following Turner's having placed emphasis on establishing international sales distribution and multiple language versions of Q&A from initial shipment.
In 1985, Rod Turner negotiated the publishing agreement with David Whitney for Symantec's second product, which Turner named NoteIt. It was evident to Turner that NoteIt would confuse the dealer channel if it was launched under the Symantec name, because Symantec had built up interest by that stage in Q&A, because the low price for the utility would not be attractive to the dealer channel until demand had been built up. Turner felt. Turner and Gordon E. Eubanks, Jr. chairman of Symantec Corporation, agreed to form a new division of Symantec, Eubanks delegated the choice of name to Turner. Turner chose the name Turner Hall Publishing, to be a new division of Symantec devoted to publishing third-party software and ha
Delrina was a Canadian software company, founded in 1988 and was subsequently acquired by the American software firm Symantec in 1995. The company sold electronic form products, including PerForm and FormFlow, but was best known for its WinFax software package, which enabled computers equipped with fax modems to transmit copies of documents to standalone fax machines or other equipped computers. Delrina produced a set of screensavers, including one that resulted in a well-publicized lawsuit for copyright and trademark infringement; the case set a precedent in American law whereby satiric commercial software products are not subject to the same First Amendment exemptions as parodic cartoons or literature. It sold online communications software with its WinComm product and produced a Web browser called Cyberjack; the firm was sold to Symantec in 1995. After the company was acquired by Symantec, various divisions were sold off and several of Delrina's former executives went on to found venture capital firms.
Delrina was founded in Toronto in 1988 by Zimbabwean expatriate Bert Amato, South African expatriates Mark Skapinker and Dennis Bennie and American Lou Ryan. Delrina was Bennie's third major entrepreneurial start up after co-founding Mission Electronics, a high-end home entertainment equipment producer, Aviva Software, which became Ingram Micro Canada. Delrina's business strategy was to "establish technical and market leadership in niche markets", which it accomplished with its electronic form and PC-based fax software. A year before the firm was incorporated and Skapinker had quit their jobs to start work on an electronic forms product which would become PerForm. Both would meet with Bennie, the co-founder and CEO of Ingram Micro Canada before becoming CEO of Carolian Systems International, a firm that made business software for Hewlett-Packard. Bennie facilitated an initial seed investment of $1.5 million CAD to finance a new start-up company, "Delrina", to develop this idea. In return, Carolian received 51% of Delrina's shares, Dennis Bennie would become Chairman and CEO, Mark Skapinker President, Bert Amato CTO of newly formed Delrina Technology Inc.
Delrina's initial corporate headquarters was located in a small office on Mount Pleasant St in Toronto. A sales office was set up in San Jose, California which became its worldwide sales center run by co-founder Lou Ryan. From its Toronto headquarters, the company expanded by establishing branch offices in Kirkland, Washington. Other offices were established in the United Kingdom and Germany. Delrina's initial product offering was an electronic forms application called PerForm. Amato and Skapinker came up with the idea for the product while working as consultants that what their clients wanted was a way to fill in forms electronically, rather than an easier way to create paper-based forms from a computer. There was significant and long-term uptake of electronic forms products within governmental agencies both in Canada and the United States, the latter spurred on in particular by the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act to reduce the total amount of paperwork handled by the United States government.
One of the firm's early major software deals included a multi-year agreement to sell PerForm to the U. S. Navy in 1990. Soon after the software was installed on Compaq laptops that accompanied U. S. troops during the First Gulf War, where it was used to requisition "everything from Coca-Cola to privies". Other significant volume sales went to Rockwell International. What helped set apart Delrina's electronic forms from its competitors in product reviews included its easy-to-use interface, its extensive development tools, its comparatively low price, it scored when it came to workflow and routing functions as well as security features. In early 1991 InfoWorld selected PerForm Pro as its "Product of the Year" in the electronic forms category, PC World Magazine gave the product it's "Best Buy" designation. PerForm proved to be successful in its niche capturing the retail market by 1993. In the early 1990s Delrina made deals with value-added resellers like NCR and GE Information Services who had the staff to customize the product to the needs of corporate customers looking to move away from paper-based forms.
The forms products sold well and the annual revenues for the firm grew steadily. Despite the growing revenues, the company struggled to make a profit. Heavy expenditures—primarily marketing along with research and development costs—drove the firm's losses from $500,000 from 1989 to $1.5 million by the end of the following fiscal year. For fiscal 1991 it posted a net loss of $1.7 million. Needing an infusion of funds, in April 1991 Bennie managed to raise $7.7 million in a private placement. The firm subsequently sought to find ways to more distribute its electronic form software, with Bennie saying in May 1992 that "we've scratched the surface of our market". In early 1992 word leaked to the press on a possible merger between WordStar International Inc. and soon after both firms made public the fact that they had signed a letter of intent on a merger deal. However, just over a month word came out that the merger talks had fallen through, at the time cited to differences over "complex legal and management issues".
WordStar, whose share of the word processing market had by that time fallen to 5% was seeking Delrina's advanced technologies while Delrina was hoping to utilize the other firm's established global sales network. Despite the failure of the merge
Rotman School of Management
The Joseph L. Rotman School of Management known as the Rotman School of Management, the Rotman School or just Rotman, is the University of Toronto's graduate business school, located in Downtown Toronto; the University of Toronto has been offering undergraduate courses in commerce and management since 1901, but the school was formally established in 1950 as the Institute of Business Administration, changed to the Faculty of Management Studies in 1972 and subsequently shortened to the Faculty of Management in 1986. The school was renamed in 1997 after its principal benefactor; the school offers undergraduate and doctoral programs in business administration and commerce, including full-time, part-time and executive MBA programs along with a Master of Finance program, a Master of Management Analytics, a Graduate Diploma in Professional Accounting, a doctoral program, the Rotman PhD. Additionally, in collaboration with other schools at the university, it offers combined MBA degrees with the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, the Munk School of Global Affairs.
Out of 113 faculty members, 98% have doctorates. Roger Martin, who served as the school's dean from 1998 to 2013, is considered by Business Week as one of the most influential management thinkers in the world; the school publishes the Rotman Magazine. The programs for which the Joseph L. Rotman School of Management is now responsible had their origins in 1901 when a diploma program in Commerce was inaugurated in the Faculty of Arts; this was transformed into a Bachelor of Arts program in Commerce and Finance in 1909 and into a Bachelor of Commerce program in 1920. These programs had a strong liberal arts emphasis. A Master of Commerce program was started in the Faculty of Arts in 1938 to provide a more professional program. In 1950 the MCom program was transferred into the newly created Institute of Business Administration with a Director as its head; the degree was changed to Master of Business Administration in 1960 and the Institute was renamed the School of Business. It was elevated to the status of a Faculty with a Dean in 1972 and renamed the Faculty of Management Studies.
The name was shortened to Faculty of Management in 1986 and was named the Joseph L. Rotman School of Management in 1997 in honour of its principal benefactor, it still, retains its status as a Faculty in the University of Toronto. A Doctor of Philosophy program was begun in 1969 to develop its research orientation and to provide business school faculty for Canadian universities. In 1982 the School assumed responsibility for teaching the Commerce courses within the BCom program and in 1992 the BCom program became a joint program of the Faculty of Arts and Science and of the Rotman School. In 1983 the School began a financed Executive MBA program. In 1989 a funded MBA in professional accounting was added. In 1996 it was moved to the University of Toronto Mississauga and the degree changed to Master of Management & Professional Accounting; the School offers a variety of non-degree Executive Development Programs and operates a number of research centres which complement its teaching and research activities.
In 1995, the Joseph L. Rotman Centre for Management, funded in part by a 3 million dollar donation made by Joseph Rotman in 1993, was opened and the Faculty of Management shifted its base to its current building after moving locations multiple times; the center was expanded with additions to the upper floors along with a new South Building, with the original building now known as the North Building. The school was renamed as the Joseph L. Rotman School of Management in 1997, in honour of a $15 million donation of its principal benefactor, Joseph Rotman, to be paid out over a period of time ending in 2011. Rotman's donation was controversial, as examined on the cover story of The Varsity January 1997 issue, where the donor agreement included several clauses that could limit the university and faculty of management's academic freedom; the agreement required that “U of T the faculty of management as one of its ‘highest priorities’ for the allocation of university funding, ensuring to its ‘best efforts’ that business education receives continuing focus.”
Bill Graham, then-president of the University of Toronto Faculty Association, was among one of the most vocal opponents of the original agreement, noted “the unqualified support for the ‘vision,’ and it talked about non-qualified support for and commitment to the values and principles underlying the ‘vision’ by the members of the faculty of management, as well as the central administration". The donation agreement underwent some substantial revisions, but the Rotman Foundation retained the right to "bring in an outside expert from the Association of American Universities to recommend policy changes if it was felt that the school of management was failing to live up to the criteria set out in the agreement"; the school, retains its status as a Faculty in the University of Toronto. In 1998, former management consultant Roger Martin was appointed Dean of the School, during his tenure he oversaw the changes mandated by the Rotman Foundation. Martin's high profile and outspokenness caused some conflict with the other University faculties, notwithstanding, he was credited with " what was a small, rather inconsequential regional player in Canada into a world-class institution offering a more differentiated MBA program focused around integrative thinking, self-development and business design".
In the year 2000, Marcel Desautels, president and CEO
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Tucows Inc. is a publicly traded Internet services and telecommunications company, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario and incorporated in Pennsylvania, United States. It is the third-largest domain registrar worldwide and operates Hover, eNom, OpenSRS, a platform for domain resellers. In 2012, Tucows launched Ting, a wireless service provider and fiber Internet provider, continues to operate its namesake directory of shareware and freeware software downloads; the company was formed in Flint, United States, in 1993. The Tucows logo is two cow heads, a play on the homophone "two cows". Scott Swedorski, a Flint native, started working as a computer lab manager at Flint's Mott Community College in 1991. By late 1992, Swedorski left Mott College to work at the Genessee County Library System as a system administrator for FALCON and saw a need to bring shareware reviews to the public. In 1993 he formed TUCOWS leading reviews, HTML programming and scripting. In the early 1990s, Tucows was hosted on public servers.
TUCOWS' mission was to provide users with downloads of both freeware and trial versions of shareware. Internet Direct and operated by John Nemanic, Bill Campbell, Colin Campbell, acquired Tucows in 1996. STI Ventures acquired Tucows in 1999; the company employed 30 employees in Flint, Michigan, in 1998 with additional employees in Canada. For several years Scott Swedorski oversaw day-to-day activity in the Flint office located in the White House building on Beecher Road. In 2000, Tucows acquired Linux Weekly News. In 2001, Tucows became a wholly owned subsidiary of Infonautics, afterwards Infonautics changed its own name to Tucows, a business tactic called a "reverse takeover". On August 26, 2002, Tucows sold eLibrary and Encyclopedia.com, its search and reference services properties inherited from Infonautics, to Alacritude. Internet Archive preserves a full copy of the Tucows Software Library, with thousands of software titles both in the latest versions, as well as in older versions not yet available through Tucows.
In 2004, Tucows acquired a billing software provider. On August 19, 2005 Tucows went public on the American Stock Exchange. In January 2006, Tucows completed its acquisition of certain assets of Critical Path, an outsourced email services provider. In June 2006 Tucows paid $18 million to purchase Mailbank.com Inc, a company that owns over 17,000 domain names for common surnames, such as smith.net and brown.org. Mailbank generates income from ads on its websites and from customers who want e-mail accounts with their surname in the domain name. On June 15, 2006, Noss disclosed that the portfolio of NetIdentity's domain names acquired by Tucows represents at least 68% of surnames in the United States and Europe, that the cost of the acquisition was $18 million. On February 19, 2008 Tucows announced that they were launching a "Personal Names Service" using their portfolio of 39,000 domain names. "The launch of the Personal Names Service marks the complete integration of the surname assets we acquired with NetIdentity into our wholesale channel", said Elliot Noss, President and CEO of Tucows.
On August 26, 2006, Tucows won an eBay auction for the web calendar site Kiko.com. The company planned to roll Kiko's features into their existing email platform. On July 27, 2007, Tucows acquired ItsYourDomain.com, another held ICANN-accredited wholesale registrar offering domain services through a network of over 2,500 affiliates with over 700,000 domains under management, paying US$10.35 million. ItsYourDomain.com managed 699,951 domains compared to Tucows's 5,919,987, at the time of the sale in July 2007 ItsYourDomain.com's monthly growth of 29,181 exceeded Tucows growth of 21,126. By June 2008, Tucows had a total of three domain name registration services called ItsYourDomain, NetIdentity, DomainDirect. Tucows decided to discontinue these three services, merge them into one new domain name registration service, called Hover. Hover is a simple domain name registration service powered by Tucows Inc, that started in July 2008. All IYD, DomainDirect, NetIdentity customers are fulfilled by Hover.com.
On November 6, 2008, Tucows announced that they were launching Butterscotch.com, an online video network with video tutorials to explain Internet technology, starting with 35 video tutorials and plans to reach 500 clips by Spring 2009. On October 14, 2011, Butterscotch.com producer Sean Carruthers stated. In December 2014, Tucows launched RealNames, offering e-mail service using domain names acquired from Mailbank.com Inc. On January 20, 2017, the company acquired eNom for $83.5 million, making Tucows the second-largest domain registrar in the world. In July 2008, Tucows rebranded its wholesale services as "Open SRS"; as of March 2019, Tucows is the third-largest accredited registrar in the world. Tucows has three sources of income from its domain portfolio: 1) Advertising from pages of domains within their domain name portfolio. On November 14, 2007, Tucows disclosed that they offer pay-per-click advertising on the pages of domains within their domain name portfolio; when a user types one of these domain names into the address of the browser, they are presented with dynamically generated links which are pay-per-click advertising.
Every time a user clicks on one of the links listed on a web pa