Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. It has won 13 League titles, a record 13 FA Cups, two League Cups, the League Centenary Trophy, 15 FA Community Shields, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893, they reached the First Division in 1904. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, have won the second-most top-flight matches in English football history. In the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970 -- 71, they won their first FA Cup Double. Between 1989 and 2005, they won five FA Cups, including two more Doubles, they completed the 20th century with the highest average league position. Herbert Chapman died prematurely, he helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, added the white sleeves and brighter red to Arsenal's kit.
Arsène Wenger won the most trophies. He won a record 7 FA Cups, his title-winning team set an English record for the longest top-flight unbeaten league run at 49 games between 2003 and 2004, receiving the nickname The Invincibles, a special gold Premier League trophy. In 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the club crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, becoming close neighbours of Tottenham Hotspur, creating the North London derby. In 2006, they moved to the nearby Emirates Stadium. In terms of revenue, Arsenal is the ninth highest-earning football club in the world, earned €487.6m in 2016–17 season. Based on social media activity from 2014 to 2015, Arsenal's fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the third most valuable in England, with the club being worth $2.24 billion. In October 1886, Scotsman David Danskin and his fellow 15 munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with each member contributing sixpence and Danskin adding another three shillings to help form the club.
Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the whole complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C.'s first home was Plumstead Common, though they spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead, at the Manor Ground. Royal Arsenal won Arsenal's first trophies in 1890 and 1891, these were the only football association trophies Arsenal won during their time in South East London. In 1891, Royal Arsenal became the first London club to turn professional. Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893, they registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year. Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers and the arrival of more accessible football clubs elsewhere in the city, led the club close to bankruptcy by 1910.
Businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall became involved in the club, sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, North London; this saw their third change of name: the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to The Arsenal. In 1919, The Football League voted to promote The Arsenal, instead of relegated local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, into the newly enlarged First Division, despite only listing the club sixth in the Second Division's last pre-war season of 1914–15; some books have speculated. That year, The Arsenal started dropping "The" in official documents shifting its name for the final time towards Arsenal, as it is known today. With a new home and First Division football, attendances were more than double those at the Manor Ground, Arsenal's budget grew rapidly, their location and record-breaking salary offer lured star Huddersfield Town manager Herbert Chapman in 1925. Over the next five years, Chapman built a new Arsenal.
He appointed enduring new trainer Tom Whittaker, implemented Charlie Buchan's new twist on the nascent WM formation, captured young players like Cliff Bastin and Eddie Hapgood, lavished Highbury's income on stars like David Jack and Alex James. With record-breaking spending and gate receipts, Arsenal became known as the Bank of England club. Transformed, Chapman's Arsenal claimed their first national trophy, the FA Cup, in 1930. Two League Championships followed, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. Chapman presided over multiple off the pitch changes: white sleeves and shirt numbers were added to the kit. In the middle of the 1933–34 season, Chapman died of pneumonia, his work was left to Joe Shaw and George Allison, who saw out a hat-trick with the 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles, won the 1936 FA Cup and 1937–38 title. World War II meant The Football League was suspended for seven years, but Arsenal returned to win it in the second post-war season, 1947–48; this was Tom Whittaker's first season as manager, after his promotion to succeed Allison, the club had equalled the champions of England record.
They won a third FA Cup in 1950, won a record-breaking seven
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Huddersfield Town A.F.C.
Huddersfield Town Association Football Club is a professional football club in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, which competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Huddersfield became the first English club to win three successive English League titles in 1926, a feat which only three other clubs have matched; the first two league titles were won under legendary manager and pioneer Herbert Chapman, who led the club to an FA Cup win in 1922. In the late 1950s the club was managed by featured Denis Law and Ray Wilson. Following relegation from the First Division in 1972, Huddersfield spent 45 years in the second and fourth tiers of English football, before returning to the top flight in 2017. Nicknamed The Terriers, the club plays in white shorts, they play their home games at the Kirklees Stadium. In 1910, just three years after being founded, Huddersfield entered the Football League for the first time. In November 1919 a fund-raising campaign was needed to avoid a move to Leeds.
Citizens of Huddersfield were asked to buy shares in the club for £1 each, the club staved off the proposed merger. The team went on to win promotion to Division One. Huddersfield became the first English team to win three successive English League titles in 1926 – a feat that only three other clubs have been able to match – and was achieved under the leadership of legendary manager and pioneer Herbert Chapman and his successor Cecil Potter. Huddersfield Town won the FA Cup in 1922 and the Charity Shield the same year and have been runners-up on four other occasions in the FA Cup. During the club's heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, they achieved a record attendance of 67,037 on 27 February 1932 during their FA Cup 6th round tie against Arsenal at Leeds Road; this attendance has been bettered by only 13 other clubs in the history of the Football League. After the Second World War, the club began a gradual decline, losing its First Division status in 1952, they were relegated again three seasons later.
Before the start of the 1969–70 season, Huddersfield Town adopted the nickname "The Terriers". They won the Second Division title that season. After that they moved down through the lower three divisions for 45 years. In 1998, the club attracted the attention of local businessman Barry Rubery and, after protracted takeover talks, he took over the running of the club, promising significant investment as the club sought Premiership status. However, the club fell two divisions; the club was sold by Rubery to David Taylor and under Taylor's ownership, slipped into administration. In the summer of 2003, the Terriers came out of administration under the new ownership of Ken Davy. In 2010–11, Huddersfield went 43 games unbeaten, the second-highest in the league after Arsenal's 49-match run of 2003–04. On 26 May 2012, following a penalty shoot-out in the 2012 Football League One play-off Final victory over Sheffield United, Huddersfield were promoted to the Championship; the shoot-out was the longest contested in the current League One play-offs format.
After eleven rounds, the final score was 8–7 to Huddersfield, with the winning goal being scored by goalkeeper Alex Smithies. In November 2015, German-born ex-US international David Wagner was appointed head coach, becoming the first person born outside the British Isles to manage the club in their 107-year history. On 29 May 2017, the club earned promotion to the Premier League for the first time and the English top flight for the first time since 1972, beating Reading 4–3 on penalties following a 0–0 draw after extra time in the Championship play-off Final. On 9 May 2018, the club secured safety from relegation, earning another season in the Premier League, following a 1–1 draw against Chelsea and went on to place 16th. However, the club suffered a poor start to the following season - with them taking just 2 wins in 22 matches. With the team rooted to the bottom of the table with just 11 points on the board, Wagner left the club by mutual consent on 14 January 2019, he was replaced with former Borussia Dortmund II manager Jan Siewert on a 2 year deal.
However, he couldn't prevent Huddersfield suffering relegation from the Premier League on 30 March 2019 following a defeat to Crystal Palace, with the club joining Derby County and Ipswich Town as the only clubs in the league's history to be relegated with six matches left to play. The club spent over five years debating, it ranged from salmon pink to all-blue to white with blue yoke. In 1913, the club adopted the blue-and-white jersey that remains to this day; the club badge is based on the coat of arms of Huddersfield. Town first used a badge on its shirts for the 1920 FA Cup Final based on the local Huddersfield Corporation coat of arms, it appeared again with a Yorkshire Rose for the 1922 FA Cup Final and again for the finals of 1928, 1930 and 1938. The club's main colours are evident throughout the badge both in the mantling and in the shield, in the form of stripes. Two Yorkshire White Roses and Castle Hill form part of the history of the club and the area. Town stuck with the same principal design until 1966, when Scottish manager Tom Johnston introduced all-blue shirts.
The next badge did not feature until the 1966–67 season, when the simple "HTFC" adorned the Town's all-blue shirts. When the club adopted the nickname "The Terriers" for the 1969–70 season, the blue and white stripes returned and with it a red terrier with the words "The Terriers", just in time for their promot
Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C.
Wolverhampton Wanderers Football Club known as Wolves, is a professional football club in Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England. Formed as St Luke's F. C. in 1877, they have played at Molineux Stadium since 1889 and compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, after winning the 2017–18 EFL Championship. Wolves were one of the founding members of the Football League in 1888; the club spent 33 years in the top flight from 1932 to 1965, their longest continuous period at that level. In the 1950s, they were League champions three times, under the management of Stan Cullis. Wolves finished League runners-up on five occasions, most in 1959–60. Wolves have won the FA Cup four times, most in 1960, finished runners-up on a further four occasions; the club has won the Football League Cup twice, in 1974 and 1980. In 1953, Wolves was one of the first British clubs to install floodlights, taking part in televised "floodlit friendlies" against leading overseas club sides between 1953 and 1956 before the creation of the European Cup in 1955.
Wolves reached the quarter-finals of the 1959–60 European Cup and the semi-finals of the 1960–61 European Cup Winners' Cup, were runners-up to Tottenham Hotspur in the inaugural 1972 UEFA Cup Final. Wolves' traditional kit consists of gold shirts and black shorts and the club badge one or more wolves. Wolves have long-standing rivalries with other West Midlands clubs, the main one being with West Bromwich Albion, against whom they contest the Black Country derby, although the two clubs have not met in a League fixture since 2011–12, the last season they competed in the same division. In the 2000 edition of "The Rough Guide to English Football", the history section on the Wolves page begins: "The name Wolves thunders from the pages of English football history"; as with several other clubs, Everton for example, Wolves had humble beginnings shaped by the twin influences of cricket and the church. The club was founded in 1877 as St Luke's F. C. by John Baynton and John Brodie, two pupils of St Luke's Church School in Blakenhall, presented with a football by their headmaster Harry Barcroft.
The team played its first-ever game on 13 January 1877 against a reserve side from Stafford Road merging with the football section of a local cricket club called Blakenhall Wanderers to form Wolverhampton Wanderers in August 1879. Having played on two different strips of land in the town, they relocated to a more substantial venue on Dudley Road in 1881, before lifting their first trophy in 1884 when they won the Wrekin Cup, during a season in which they played their first-ever FA Cup tie. Having become professional, the club were nominated to become one of the twelve founder members of the Football League in 1888, in which they played the first Football League match staged, they ended the inaugural season in third place, as well as reaching their first FA Cup Final, losing 0–3 to the first "Double" winners, Preston North End. At the conclusion of the campaign the club relocated for a final time when they moved to Molineux a pleasure park known as the Molineux Grounds. Wolves lifted the FA Cup for the first time in 1893 when they beat Everton 1–0, made a third FA Cup Final appearance in 1896.
The club added a second FA Cup Final triumph to their 1893 success in 1908, two years after having dropped into the Second Division for the first time. After struggling during the years either side of the First World War to regain their place in the top division, the club suffered a further relegation in 1923, entering the Third Division, which they won at the first attempt. Eight years after returning to the Second Division, Wolves regained their top-flight status as Second Division Champions under Major Frank Buckley after twenty-six years away. With Buckley at the helm the team became established as one of the leading club sides in England in the years leading up to the Second World War, as they finished runners-up in the league twice in succession, as well as reaching the last pre-war FA Cup Final, in which they suffered a shock defeat to Portsmouth. In 1937–38 Wolves came within a whisker of winning the club's first English league title: a win in the side's last game away to Sunderland would have clinched things, but in the event Wolves lost 0–1 and thus ended the campaign one point behind the eventual champions, Arsenal.
One of the things Major Buckley and his Wolves side attracted a lot of attention for in the last two full seasons prior to the outbreak of the Second World War was Buckley's insistence that his players be injected with monkey gland extract to enhance their stamina and performance, a practice that the Football League elected not to sanction. When league football resumed after the Second World War, Wolves suffered yet another final day failure in the First Division. Just as in 1938, victory in their last match would have won the title but a 2–1 loss to title rivals Liverpool gave the championship to the Merseysiders instead; this game had been the last in a Wolves shirt for Stan Cullis, a year he became manager of the club. In Cullis's first season in charge, he led Wolves to a first major honour in 41 years as they beat Leicester City to lift the FA Cup, a year only goal average prevented Wolves winning the league title; the 1950s were by far the most successful period in the club's history.
Captained by Billy Wright, Wolves claimed the league championship for the first time in 1953–54, overhauling local rivals West Bromwich Albion late in the season. Two further titles were soon won in successive years, as Wolves
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Luton Town F.C.
Luton Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Luton, England, that competes in League One, the third tier of the English football league system. Founded in 1885, it is nicknamed "the Hatters" and affiliated to the Bedfordshire County Football Association; the team plays its home matches at Kenilworth Road, where it has been based since 1905. The club's history includes major trophy wins, several financial crises, numerous promotions and relegations, some spells of sustained success, it was most prominent between 1982 and 1992, when it was a member of English football's top division, at that time the First Division. The club was the first in southern England to turn professional, making payments to players as early as 1890 and turning professional a year later, it joined the Football League before the 1897–98 season, left in 1900 because of financial problems, rejoined in 1920. Luton reached the First Division in 1955–56 and contested a major final for the first time when playing Nottingham Forest in the 1959 FA Cup Final.
The team was relegated from the top division in 1959–60, demoted twice more in the following five years, playing in the Fourth Division from the 1965–66 season. However, it was promoted back to the top level by 1974–75. Luton Town's most recent successful period began in 1981–82, when the club won the Second Division, thereby gained promotion to the First. Luton defeated Arsenal 3–2 in the 1988 Football League Cup Final and remained in the First Division until relegation at the end of the 1991–92 season. Between 2007 and 2009, financial difficulties caused the club to fall from the second tier of English football to the fifth in successive seasons; the last of these relegations came during the 2008–09 season, when 30 points were docked from Luton's record for various financial irregularities. Luton thereafter spent five seasons in non-League football before winning the Conference Premier in 2013–14, securing promotion back into the Football League. Luton Town Football Club was formed on 11 April 1885.
Before this there were many clubs in the town, the most prominent of which were Luton Wanderers and Luton Excelsior. A Wanderers player, George Deacon, came up with the idea of a "Town" club which would include all the best players in Luton. Wanderers secretary Herbert Spratley seized upon Deacon's idea and arranged a secret meeting on 13 January 1885 at the St Matthews school rooms in High Town; the Wanderers committee resolved to rename the club Luton Town—which was not well received by the wider community. The local newspapers referred to the club as "Luton Town"; when George Deacon and John Charles Lomax arranged a public meeting with the purpose of forming a "Luton Town Football Club", Spratley protested, saying there was a Luton Town club. The meeting, attended by most football lovers in the town, heard about Spratley's secret January meeting and voted down his objections; the motion to form a "Luton Town Football Club", put forward by G H Small and seconded by E H Lomax, was carried. A club committee was elected by ballot and the team colours were agreed to be pink and dark blue shirts and caps.
Based at Excelsior's Dallow Lane ground, Luton Town began making payments to certain individual players in 1890. The following year, Luton became the first club in southern England to be professional; the club was a founder member of the Southern Football League in the 1894–95 season and finished as runners-up in its first two seasons. It left to help form the United League and came second in that league's inaugural season before joining the Football League for 1897–98, concurrently moving to a new ground at Dunstable Road; the club continued to enter a team to the United League for two more seasons, won the title in 1897–98. Poor attendance, high wages and the high travel and accommodation costs that resulted from Luton's distance from the northern heartlands of the Football League crippled the club financially, made it too expensive to compete in that league. A return to the Southern League was therefore arranged for the 1900–01 season. Eight years after arriving at Dunstable Road, Luton moved again, settling at their current ground, Kenilworth Road, in 1905.
Captain and left winger Bob Hawkes became Luton's first international player when he was picked to play for England against Ireland on 16 February 1907. A poor 1911–12 season saw Luton relegated to the Southern League's Second Division. After the First World War broke out, Luton took part in The London Combination during 1915–16, afterwards filled each season with friendly matches. A key player of the period was Ernie Simms, a forward. Simms was invalided back to England after being wounded on the Italian front, but recovered enough to regain his place in the Luton team and scored 40 goals during the 1916–17 season; the Luton side first played in the white and black colours which it has retained for much of its history during the 1920–21 season, when the club rejoined the Football League. Such was the quality of Luton's team at this time that despite playing in the third tier, a fixture between Ireland and England at Windsor Park on 22 October 1921 saw three Luton players on the pitch—Louis Bookman and Allan Mathieson for Ireland, the club's top goalscorer, for England.
However, after Luton finished fourth in the division, the squad was broken up as Simms, Bookma
Old Swan is an inner-city area of Liverpool, England, bordered by Knotty Ash, Broadgreen and Wavertree. At the 2011 Census, the population was 16,461. Old Swan is centred on the road junction between Prescot Road, running east to west, Derby Lane St Oswald Street and Broadgreen Road, it is named after a public house called the Three Swans, which served the pack-horse route along Prescot Lane in the 18th century. The name was derived from the coat of arms of the Walton family; the inn stood at the corner of Pettycoat Lane. The junction acquired two more pubs, the Swan Vaults and the Cygnet, while the original pub was replaced by another, the Red House; the A57 road passes through Kensington and Fairfield before running through Old Swan and through Knotty Ash, towards Prescot and on to St Helens. Housing in the district is in densely packed terraced houses, though there are exceptions. Doric Park is tucked away behind rows of terraced houses; the Edge Lane retail park runs parallel to Old Swan. The retail park is being improved and phase 1 will open late 2017.
In the area there is an NHS walk-in health centre, along with an emergency surgery, a GP practice on Derby Lane. There are three dental surgeries on Derby Lane that deal with a mixture of NHS and private patients. Old Swan has an emergency ambulance station, located on St. Oswalds Street. Old Swan's representation on Liverpool City Council is through the Old Swan ward, though parts lie in Tuebrook and Stoneycroft ward; the elected councillors for Old Swan ward are Councillor Peter Brennan, Councillor Joanne Calvert and former Lord Mayor Gary Millar. Old Swan is represented by Luciana Berger MP and is in the parliamentary constituency of Liverpool Wavertree. Old Swan has a library, managed by Liverpool City Council; the library was built with Victorian black and white features, now has its own designated garden area, the entrance to, located on the A57 road. Old Swan has its own One Stop Shop, located on Derby Lane. Old Swan has a varied collection of clothes and food shops situated along Prescot Road serving local residents.
In addition, the area is served by a large Tesco supermarket this has been joined by an Aldi facing it across St. Oswald Street. Further down Prescot Road, away from the city centre is a Sainsbury's supermarket. During 2011, Asda took over the Netto premises, it is now an Asda supermarket. In July 2015, work began refurbishing the Red House pub and a Costa Coffee store was opened the same month. Regular bus routes 7, 8, 9 and 10/10A/10B connect Old Swan to Liverpool City Centre and in the opposite direction to Huyton, Prescot, St Helens and Warrington. Old Swan has other bus links - routes 60, 61, 62, 68/68A, 81/81A and 102, which do not serve Liverpool City Centre but provide important links to other areas of Liverpool including Aigburth, Bootle, Clubmoor, Fazakerley, Hunt's Cross, Mossley Hill, Norris Green, Orrell Park, Toxteth, Walton, West Derby and Liverpool John Lennon Airport. There is a bus depot in Old Swan on Green Lane, it is owned by Arriva North West. The M62 motorway starts at the end of Broadgreen Road out of the city, is the east gateway into the city via Edge Lane Drive.
The nearest railway stations to Old Swan are Broad Green railway station and Wavertree Technology Park railway station. Both are served by local stopping trains to and from Liverpool Lime Street; the Merseytram System was due to run through Old Swan but this has now been cancelled after funding from the British Government was denied. In 2015, a CityBike station was installed. There are six schools in Old Swan, including Broadgreen Primary School, St Anne's Stanley C of E Primary, St Oswald's Catholic Primary, Corinthian Avenue Primary, St Cuthbert Catholic Primary and Broadgreen International School, a specialised sixth form and technology college. There are three nurseries in the area. Old Swan offers a refurbished library opened in 1913 as a reading room. Former Manchester United manager Ron Atkinson was born in Old Swan. Alan Caldwell, known as Rory Storm, rock'n' roll singer of the late 1950s and early 1960s, he was born in Old Swan in 1939, was a member of Old Swan Boys' Club and attended St Margaret's Anfield School.
Dennis Evans, former captain of Arsenal F. C. was born in Old Swan. Tommy Scott, lead singer with 1990s band Space lived in Old Swan at the height of their fame; the parents of Hollywood actor Mike Myers Jazz Saxophonist Ken Stubbs, leader of First House, was born in Old SwanMerseyside Producer and actor Richard Cottier lived here Old Swan History Liverpool City Council, Ward Profile: Old Swan Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 13 Old Swan and surrounding area - History - Pics