Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Townsville is Australia's largest urban centre north of the Sunshine Coast, with a population of 173,815 as of the 2016 Australian census. Considered the unofficial capital of North Queensland by locals, Townsville hosts a significant number of governmental and major business administrative offices for the northern half of the state, it is in the dry tropics region of Queensland, adjacent to the central section of the Great Barrier Reef. The city is a major industrial centre, home to one of the world's largest zinc refineries, a nickel refinery and many other similar activities; the Port of Townsville is being expanded to allow much larger cargo ships from Asia and the world's largest passenger ships to visit. It is an important port due to its proximity to Asia and major trading partners such as China. Popular attractions include "The Strand", a long tropical beach and garden strip; such indigenous groups as the Wulgurukaba, Girrugubba and Nawagi, among others inhabited the Townsville area.
The Wulgurukaba claim to be the traditional owner of the Townsville city area. James Cook visited the Townsville region on his first voyage to Australia in 1770, but did not land there. Cook named Cleveland Bay and Magnetic Island. In 1819, Captain Phillip Parker King and botanist Alan Cunningham were the first Europeans to record a local landing. In 1846, James Morrill was shipwrecked from the Peruvian, living in the Townsville area among the Bindal people for 17 years before being found by white men and returned to Brisbane; the Burdekin River's seasonal flooding made the establishment of a seaport north of the river essential to the nascent inland cattle industry. John Melton Black of Woodstock Station, an employee of Sydney entrepreneur and businessman Robert Towns, dispatched Andrew Ball, Mark Watt Reid and a detachment of 8 troopers of the Native Police under the command of John Marlow to search for a suitable site. Ball's party reached the Ross Creek in April 1864 and established a camp below the rocky spur of Melton Hill, near the present Customs House on The Strand.
Edward Kennedy, a member of the surveying party, recalls the Native Police chasing local tribesmen into the ocean and'pumping lead' at them. On the return journey to Port Denison, the group'dispersed' another aboriginal clan, rounding up fifteen women'who remained at the scene of combat' and abducted them back to the barracks. No mention is made of the fate of any children; the first party of settlers, led by W. A. Ross, arrived at Cleveland Bay from Woodstock Station on 5 November of that year. In 1866 Robert Towns visited for his first and only visit, he agreed to provide ongoing financial assistance to the new settlement and Townsville was named in his honour. Townsville was declared a municipality in February 1866, with John Melton Black elected as its first Mayor. Townsville developed as the major port and service centre for the Cape River, Ravenswood and Charters Towers goldfields. Regional pastoral and sugar industries expanded and flourished. Townsville's population was 4,000 people in 1882 and grew to 13,000 by 1891.
In 1901 Lord Hopetoun made a goodwill tour of northern Australia and accepted an invitation to open Townsville's town hall, occasioning the first vice-regal ceremonial unfurling of the Australian national flag. With Brisbane, in 1902 Townsville was proclaimed a City under the Local Authorities Act; the foundation stone of the Townsville Cenotaph was laid in Strand Park on 19 July 1923. It was unveiled on 25 April 1924 by Sir Matthew Nathan; the rural land surrounding the city was managed by the Thuringowa Road Board, which became the Shire of Thuringowa. The shire ceded land several times to support Townsville's expansion. In 1986 the Shire became incorporated as a city, governed by the Thuringowa City Council; the cities of Townsville and Thuringowa were amalgamated into the "new" Townsville City Council in March 2008, as part of the Queensland state government's reform program. In 1896, Japan established its first Australian consulate in Townsville to serve some 4,000 Japanese workers who migrated to work in the sugar cane, trochus, beche de mer, pearling industries.
With the introduction of the White Australia policy, the demand for Japanese workers decreased, causing the consulate to close in 1908. During the Second World War, the city was host to more than 50,000 American and Australian troops and air crew, it became a major staging point for battles in the South West Pacific. A large United States Armed Forces contingent supported the war effort from seven airfields and other bases around the city and in the region; the first bombing raid on Rabaul, in Papua New Guinea, on 23 February 1942 was carried out by six B-17s based near Townsville. Some of the units based in Townsville were: No. 3 Fighter Sector RAAF, Wulguru & North Ward 1 Wireless Unit, Pimlico & Stuart & Roseneath North Eastern Area Command HQ, Sturt Street Castle H
ISM Raceway is a 1-mile, low-banked tri-oval race track located in Avondale, near Phoenix. The motorsport track opened in 1964 and hosts two NASCAR race weekends annually. ISM Raceway has hosted the CART, IndyCar Series, USAC and the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship; the raceway is owned and operated by International Speedway Corporation. The raceway was constructed with a 2.5 miles road course that ran on both the inside and the outside of the main tri-oval. In 1991 the track was reconfigured with the current 1.51 miles interior layout. ISM Raceway has an estimated grandstand seating capacity of around 51,000. Lights were installed around the track in 2004 following the addition of a second annual NASCAR race weekend. ISM Raceway is home to two annual NASCAR race weekends, one of 13 facilities on the NASCAR schedule to host more than one race weekend a year. Phoenix International Raceway was built in 1964 around the Estrella Mountains on the outskirts of Avondale; because of the terrain and the incorporation of a road course and drag strip, designers had to build a "dogleg" into the backstretch.
The original roadcourse was 2 miles in length and ran both inside and outside of the main oval track. The hillsides adjacent to the track offer a unique vantage point to watch races from. "Monument Hill", located alongside turns 3 and 4, is a favorite among race fans because of the unique view and lower ticket prices. At the top of this hill lies a USGS bench marker known as Gila and Salt River Meridian, now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Long before Phoenix Raceway existed, this spot was the original land survey point for all of what became the state of Arizona. Phoenix International Raceway was built with the goal of being the western home of open wheel racing. Sports cars and USAC began racing at the track in 1964, the track became a favorite of drivers and soon replaced the old track at the Arizona State Fairgrounds. In 1977, the first Copper World Classic was held, a marque event for USAC midget and Silver Crown cars. NASCAR began racing at Phoenix International Raceway in 1978.
However, it was not until 1988 when NASCAR's premier series, now the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, began racing at the track. Following the announcement of NASCAR being added to the track schedule, Phoenix International Raceway built a 3-story suite building outside of turn 1 and increased grandstand capacity to 30,000. A year prior, the track's main grandstand was struck by lightning and burned to the ground, reconstruction was finished in time for the first NASCAR cup race; that first race was won by Alan Kulwicki where in his celebration he performed the first "Polish Victory Lap". In 1991, the old 2.5 miles road course was replaced by a 1.51 miles infield road course. In 1996 the grandstand capacity was increased to 65,000. International Speedway Corporation took ownership of Phoenix International Raceway from Emmett "Buddy" Jobe in April 1997. Racing at Phoenix International Raceway began to change in 2003. Turn 2 was reconstructed by pushing back the outside wall to make racing safer.
The wall came to an end where the old road course crossed the oval track. At the same time, an access tunnel was built under turn 4. Vehicles had to use crossover gates and pedestrians used a crossover bridge. In 2004, NASCAR announced it would give a second annual race weekend to Phoenix International Raceway starting with the 2005 season. Following the announcement, the track installed lights to allow the newly scheduled NASCAR race to be run in the evening; the addition of a second NASCAR racing weekend had dramatic effects on the economy of the state of Arizona. A study at Arizona State University estimated that Phoenix International Raceway brings in nearly $473 million annually to the state. 2005 would become the last year that a major open-wheel racing series would race at PIR, until it was announced that the track will return to the schedule for the 2016 IndyCar season. Despite the 2006 departure from the schedule, the track was still used by IndyCar for testing purposes. In 2006, the Allison Grandstand was expanded from turn 1 to turn 2, increasing the reserved seating to 76,800.
Included with the expansion is "Octane", an exclusive lounge on top of the grandstands overlooking turn 1. In 2008 Phoenix International Raceway added the SPEED Cantina, a one-of-a-kind at-track sports bar and grill, outside turn 2. In early 2010, some of the grandstands along the backstretch were removed to allow additional room for recreational vehicles, thus the seating capacity dropped to around 67,000. In November 2010, ISC and the Avondale City Council announced plans for a $100 million long-term development for Phoenix International Raceway. $15 million would go towards repaving the track for the first time since 1990 and building a new media center. The plans include a reconfiguration of the track; the front stretch was widened from 52 feet to 62 feet, the pit stalls were changed from asphalt to concrete, the dogleg was moved outward by 95 feet, tightening the turn radius of the dogleg from 800 feet to 500 feet. Along with the other changes, progressive banking was added to the turns: Turns 1 and 2, which had 11 degrees of banking, changed to 10 degrees on the bottom and 11 degrees on the top.
Turns 3 and 4, which had 9 degrees of banking, changed to 8 degrees on 9 on the top. Project leader Bill Braniff, Senior Director of Construction for North American Testing Corporation, a subsidiary of Phoenix International Raceway’s parent company International Speedway Corporation, said "A
Champ Car was the trade name for Open Wheel Racing Series Inc. a sanctioning body for American open-wheel car racing that operated from 2003 to 2008. It was the successor to Championship Auto Racing Teams, founded in 1979 by United States Auto Club Championship Division team owners who disagreed with the direction and leadership of USAC, with the then-novel idea of car owners sanctioning and promoting their own series collectively instead of relying on a neutral body to do so. Starting in 1979, CART sanctioned the Indy Car World Series, which through the 1980s evolved into the pre-eminent open-wheel auto racing series in North America, featuring street circuits, road courses, oval track racing. CART drivers continued to compete at the USAC-sanctioned Indianapolis 500; as the series prospered, concerns about costs and revenue sharing began to create opposition to CART's organizational structure. Attempts at reform, which saw the company rebranded as IndyCar in 1992 and a compromise board formed, failed.
In 1996, an open wheel "split" saw the newly created Indy Racing League take full control over the Indianapolis 500 and start a competing oval-based open-wheel series. CART ceased using the IndyCar name but continued its series without participating in the Indianapolis 500; the "split" saw a dramatic fall in sponsorship and general interest for open wheel racing, compounded by the growing popularity of NASCAR. After a series of setbacks in the early 2000s saw the departure of major racing teams and engine manufacturers to the IRL, CART went bankrupt at the end of the 2003 season. A trio of team owners acquired the assets of the series renamed it the Champ Car World Series. Continuing financial difficulties caused Champ Car to file for bankruptcy before its planned 2008 season. Champ Cars were open-wheel racing cars, with mid-mounted engines. Champ cars had sculpted undersides to create prominent wings to create downforce; the cars would use different aerodynamic kits depending on whether they were racing on an oval or a road-course.
Teams purchased chassis constructed by independent suppliers such as Lola, Swift and March, with some owners, such as Dan Gurney and Roger Penske, constructing their own. The series used Goodyear tires until 1995, when Firestone entered, creating a spirited competition between the brands. Firestone became the exclusive supplier in 2000, with their parent company Bridgestone taking over the role in 2003 and maintained it until 2007. Champ Cars used turbocharged engines. Cosworth and Buick engines were common until the mid-1990s, which saw Mercedes-Benz take over as Ilmor's branding and Honda and Toyota enter factory efforts; until 2003 engines were leased from manufacturers, who conducted research and development during the racing season. The exclusive availability of more advanced versions of engines to certain teams in the early-1990s became a major source of contention within the organization, manufacturers fiercely resisted proposals to have engines be purchased by teams. Starting in 2003, after the withdrawal of Honda and Toyota, Champ Car purchased a series of identical engines from Cosworth and leased them to teams under Ford branding.
In 2007, Champ Car was a "spec" series, with all teams running a Panoz DP01 chassis and a Cosworth engine. Champ Cars were visually similar, compared to, Formula 1 cars, which featured wings, mid-engines, an open-wheel design. Due to their use on ovals, Champ Cars weighed more and were more substantial in size, but had more powerful engines. Both series tended to downplay comparisons for commercial reasons, but 2002 saw a rare occurrence in both series running the same track within a month of each other. Juan Pablo Montoya won the pole position for the Formula One race with a lap time of 1'12.836, with the slowest being Alex Yoong's 1'17.34. In 1905 the AAA established a national driving championship and became the first sanctioning body for auto racing in the United States; the AAA ceased sanctioning auto racing in the general outrage over motor racing safety that followed the 1955 Le Mans disaster. In response, Indianapolis Motor Speedway president Tony Hulman formed the United States Auto Club to take over the sanctioning of what was called "championship" auto racing, or open wheel racing, whose biggest event was the annual Indianapolis 500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
USAC sanctioned the championship until 1978. A group of activist car owners coalesced around Dan Gurney who had grown disenchanted with what they saw as an amateur, hobby organization sanctioning their events and not properly promoting them or compensating teams. Notable incidents included the loss of a lucrative sponsorship by Marlboro in 1971 after USAC failed to enforce the brand's exclusivity at events and purses that teams said would result in a loss in money if the team was successful. In early 1978, Gurney wrote what came to be known as the "Gurney White Paper", the blueprint for an organization called Championship Auto Racing Teams. Gurney took his inspiration from the improvements Bernie Ecclestone had forced on Formula One with his creation of the Formula One Constructors Association; the White Paper called for the owners to form CART as an
The Milwaukee Mile is an one mile-long oval race track in the central United States, located on the grounds of the Wisconsin State Fair Park in West Allis, Wisconsin, a suburb west of Milwaukee. Its grandstand and bleachers seated 37,000 spectators. Paved 65 years ago in 1954, it was a dirt track. In addition to the oval, there was a 1.8 mile road circuit located on the infield. As the oldest operating motor speedway in the world, the Milwaukee Mile’s has hosted at least one auto race every year from 1903 to 2015; the track has held events sanctioned by major bodies, such as the AAA, USAC, NASCAR, CART/Champ Car World Series, the IndyCar Series. There have been many races in regional series such as ARTGO. Famous racers who have competed at the track include: Barney Oldfield, Ralph DePalma, Walt Faulkner, Parnelli Jones, A. J. Foyt, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, Mario Andretti, Bobby Rahal, Jim Clark, Darrell Waltrip, Alan Kulwicki, Emerson Fittipaldi, Bobby Allison, Davey Allison, Nigel Mansell, Rick Mears, Michael Andretti, Alex Zanardi, Harry Gant, Rusty Wallace, Walker Evans, Dario Franchitti and Bernie Eccelstone as well as current racing stars Danica Patrick, Dale Earnhardt, Jr. Jeff Gordon, Tony Kanaan, Scott Dixon, Hélio Castroneves, A. J. Foyt IV, Simona de Silvestro, Colin Braun, Kyle Nicholas, James Davison, Paul Newman, Jay Drake, Nick Bussell, Josh Underwood, Kenny Stevens, a 5 year-old child, Sage Karam and many others.
On December 16, 2009, Wisconsin State Fair Park officials confirmed that the Milwaukee Mile would not host any NASCAR or IndyCar races in 2010. NASCAR confirmed that their June Nationwide Series date would remain in Wisconsin for 2010, as they announced they would hold a race at Road America for the first time since the Grand National Series raced there in 1956. NASCAR announced on January 20, 2010 that the Milwaukee date for the truck series would be moved to August; the track hosted two ASA Late Model Series races in 2010. IndyCar returned to the track in 2011, but the Mile was left off of the preliminary 2012 schedule after a poorly attended 2011 event that resulted in part from an inexperienced promoter. In February 2012, it was announced that IndyCar would return to the Mile on the weekend of June 15–16; the event was promoted by Andretti Sports Marketing, owned by former Indy driver Michael Andretti, was billed as the Milwaukee IndyFest. The event included open-wheel racing featuring the IndyCar Series and the Firestone Indy Lights, as well as a driver question period and autograph sessions and other attractions.
The series again left after the 2015 season and since 2015 the track has hosted no major professional races. The track was a 1 mile private horse racing track by 1876. In 1891, the site was purchased by the Agricultural Society of the State of Wisconsin to create a permanent site for the Wisconsin State Fair; the first motorsports event was held on September 11, 1903. William Jones of Chicago won a five lap speed contest, set the first track record with a 72-second, 50 mph lap. There were 24-hour endurance races in 1907 and 1908. Louis Disbrow won the first 100-mile event in 1915. Barney Oldfield's success at the Mile helped make him a legend, he set the track record in 1905 and raised his speed in 1910 to 70.159 mph in his "Blitzen Benz". In 1911, Ralph DePalma won the first Milwaukee Mile Championship car race, four years before his Indianapolis 500 win. Oldfield drove a gold car built by Harry Miller that enclosed the driver, in June 1917 he beat DePalma in a series of 10 to 25-mile match races.
The July 17, 1933 race was rained out. Wilbur Shaw and the other drivers convinced the track promoters to run the race the following day and the term "rain date" was born. Huge new grandstands were installed with seating for 14,900 people, they replaced the original grandstands that were built in 1914. A roof was placed over the grandstands in 1938; these grandstands stood until new aluminum grandstands were installed in September 2002. The 1939 race was the first AAA Championship race; the 1937 non-championship AAA event was best known for running 96 laps due to a scoring error. It was won by Rex Mays, who continued his domination throughout the 1940s by winning in 1941 and the next race in 1946; the tradition of hosting the "race after the Indianapolis 500" began in 1947. In the 1969 film, starring actor and race driver Paul Newman, the character he plays remarks, “Everybody goes to Milwaukee after Indy.” The Milwaukee Mile held more national championship midget and Indy car races than any other track in the country between 1947 and 1980.
The infield of the quarter-mile dirt infield track at the Mile near the current media center was the location of a football stadium, informally known as the Dairy Bowl. It hosted the NFL's Green Bay Packers from 1934 through 1951, including the NFL championship game in 1939, a 27–0 shutout of the New York Giants on December 10 to secure a fifth league title; the Packers played several games a year in Milwaukee from 1933 through 1994. The team played at Borchert Field in 1933, Marquette Stadium in 1952, moved to County Stadium when it opened in 1953. In 1940 and 1941, the Dairy Bowl served as the home of the Milwaukee Chiefs of the third American Football League; the 50-yard line sat where the start-finish line is located. The city's own entry in the NFL, the Milwaukee Badgers, lasted just five seasons, from 1922 to 1926, played at Athletic Park, renamed Borchert Field in 1928. In 1954 the 1-mile track was paved, and
Michelin Raceway Road Atlanta is a 2.54-mile road course located just north of Braselton, United States. The facility is utilized for a wide variety of events, including professional and amateur sports car and motorcycle races and driving schools, corporate programs and testing for motorsports teams; the track has 12 turns, including the famous "esses" between turns five. The track is owned by IMSA Holdings, LLC through its subsidiary Road Atlanta, LLC, is the home to the Petit Le Mans, as well as AMA motorcycle racing, smaller events throughout the year. Michelin acquired naming rights to the facility in 2018. In 1969, David Sloyer, Earl Walker, Arthur Montgomery purchased a 750 acres plot of farmland in Braselton, with the intent to build a world-class road racing facility; when a Can-Am race had to be canceled due to flood damage, the series organizers chose Road Atlanta to replace it. The track began to take form taking only six months to excavate and pave the road course; the first race was held on September 13, 1970.
Vic Elford, in a Chaparral 2J, won pole and Tony Dean, in a Porsche 908/02, won the 300 km Can-Am event, with Stirling Moss as the Grand Marshal. Throughout the 1970s, more top-level series came to Road Atlanta, including Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA Camel GT, Trans-Am; the Sports Car Club of America held their annual national championship, the SCCA Runoffs, at Road Atlanta from 1970 to 1993. The first road race in NASCAR Busch Grand National Series history took place at Road Atlanta in 1986; the track was sold in 1978, was passed from one owner to the next—culminating in bankruptcy in 1993 under the Whittington Brothers. A partnership between business executives Frank Drendel, Jim Kanely, Eddie Edwards, George Nuse, Bill Waddell was formed to purchase the track; the next three years were spent making gradual improvements to the facility. New buildings were constructed, others were renovated, the track was widened and resurfaced and the grounds were landscaped. In November 1996, the track was purchased by Don Panoz, who would make Braselton the base of operations for his motorsports-related ventures.
Panoz introduced the first major changes to the track, removing the Dip and creating a chicane at the end of the long back straight. These changes brought the track up to FIA standards. A new pit and paddock area was constructed on the infield side of the track, allowing for larger events, a 10,000-seat terrace area was constructed around the new Turn 10 complex. In 1998, major racing resumed at Road Atlanta with the first edition of the Petit Le Mans endurance race; the race attracted worldwide attention, included entries from the Le Mans-winning Porsche factory team. The race would be the first race of the American Le Mans Series and included a spectacular accident where a Porsche 911 GT1 backflipped and flew into the side barriers. Petit has continued to be an annual event at Road Atlanta, a marquee event in the ALMS. Prior to the 2007 Petit Le Mans, the entire track surface was repaved; the works included moving the walls in the esses away from the track, with the intention of improved driver safety and better sight lines for spectators.
In the late winter of 2007/2008, the circuit was again modified with the reconfiguration of turns 4 and 12, for the ostensible safety benefit of motorcycle racers. In April 2008, Road Atlanta hosted the 4th stage of the Tour de Georgia, one of the largest cycling stage races in the United States; the stage was run using standard racing bikes instead of the more aerodynamic time trial bikes. Slipstream Chipotle won the stage with a time of 19:38.86, while Astana and Team High Road finished second and third respectively. Used in local cycling events, the circuit is run counterclockwise, owing to safety issues from the downhill Turn 11 to Turn 12, creating a steep climb from Turn 12 to Turn 11, a much safer route for cycling; the October 2008 Petit Le Mans had a four-day crowd of 113,000 people with an average weekend crowd of nearly 80,000 fans. The race entry list includes a number of returning cars. In September 2012, the track was purchased by IMSA Holdings as part of its acquisition of Panoz Motor Sports Group.
The intention was to combine American Le Mans Series. NASCAR K&N series has announced a return to the track in October 2013 as part of the K&N East series. In December 2017, the track hosted its first 24 Hours of LeMons event, the Kim Harmon Scrotium 500; the series is scheduled to return in 2018. Starting in 2019, the track will become Michelin Raceway Road Atlanta after Michelin and IMSA Holdings announced the naming rights agreement. Road Atlanta has been featured as one of the main drivable courses in the Xbox video game Forza Motorsport and its sequels, in the 1999 PC racing simulator Sports Car GT; the track was digitally created for Electronic Arts' F1 series "modded" to be compatible with multiple PC games. Scratch-made versions of the track have been created for rFactor and Papyrus' NASCAR Racing 2003 Season, it appears in the PlayStation 2 game Le Mans 24 Hours and on iRacing.com. AMA/FIM-MotoAmerica Suzuki Superbike Series WWW. Motoamerica.com IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar ChampionshipPetit Le MansIMSA Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge IMSA Cooper Tires Prototype Lites IMSA Porsche GT3 Cup Challenge presented by Yokohama Formula DDrift AtlantaTrans-Am Series Historic Sportscar RacingThe MittyLamborghini Super Trofeo North America American Endurance Racing 24 Hours of LeMons presented by Yokohama TireRack.com ChampCar Endurance Series Nati
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Cosworth is a British automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in high-performance internal combustion engines and electronics. Cosworth is based in Northampton, with American facilities in Indianapolis, Shelby Charter Township and Mooresville, North Carolina. Cosworth has collected 176 wins in Formula One as engine supplier, ranking second with most wins behind Ferrari; the company was founded as a British racing internal combustion engine maker in 1958 by Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth. Its company name:'Cosworth', was derived as a portmanteau of the surnames of its two founders. Both of the co-founders were former employees of Lotus Engineering Ltd. and Cosworth maintained a strong relationship with Colin Chapman. When the company was founded in 1958, Duckworth left Lotus, leaving Costin at the company; until 1962, Costin worked on Cosworth projects in his private time, while being active as a key Lotus engineer on the development of Lotus 15 through 26, as well as leading the Team Lotus contingent at foreign races, as evidenced by the 1962 Le Mans Lotus scandal.
Initial series production engines were sold to Lotus and many of the other racing engines up to Mk. XII were delivered to Team Lotus; the success of Formula Junior engines started bringing in non-Lotus revenues, the establishment of Formula B by the Sports Car Club of America allowed the financial foundation of Cosworth to be secured by the increased sales of Mk. XIII, a pure racing engine based on Lotus TwinCam, through its domination of the class; this newly found security enabled the company to distance itself from the Lotus Mk. VII and Elan optional road engine assembly business, allowed its resources to be concentrated on racing engine development; the first Cosworth-designed cylinder head was for SCA series. A real success was achieved with the next gear-driven double overhead camshaft four-valve FVA in 1966, when Cosworth, with a help from Chapman, convinced Ford to purchase the rights to the design, sign a development contract – including an eight-cylinder version; this resulted in the DFV, which dominated Formula One for many years.
From this time on, Cosworth was supported by Ford for many years, many of the Cosworth designs were owned by Ford and named as Ford engines under similar contracts. Another success by the BD series in the 1970s put Cosworth on a growing track. Cosworth went through a number of ownership changes. After Duckworth decided he didn't want to be involved with the day-to-day business of running a growing company, he sold out the ownership to United Engineering Industries in 1980, retaining his life presidency and day-to-day technical involvement with Cosworth, becoming a UEI board director. In 1998, Vickers sold Cosworth and Pi Research to Ford. In September, 2004 Ford announced that it was selling Cosworth and Pi Research, along with Cosworth Racing Ltd, its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 November 2004, the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, the current Cosworth Group; the road car engine aspect of the business was split from the racing division, following the sale of the engineering division of Cosworth to Volkswagen / Audi Group in September 1998, renamed Cosworth Technology, before being subsequently acquired by Mahle GmbH in 2005.
Cosworth Technology was renamed as MAHLE Powertrain on 1 July 2005. Since 2006, Cosworth has diversified to provide engineering consultancy, high performance electronics, component manufacture services outside of its classic motorsport customer base. Current publicised projects range from an 80 cubic centimetres diesel engine for unmanned aerial vehicles, through to an engineering partnership on some of the world's most powerful aspirated road car engines, including upcoming Aston Martin Valkyrie 1000+bhp V12. Cosworth supplied its last premier class racing engines to one F1 team in 2013, the Marussia F1 Team; the following is the list of initial products, with cylinder heads modified, but not designed by Cosworth, on Ford Kent engine cylinder blocks. The exceptions were Mk. XVII and MAE, which had intake port sleeves for downdraft carburetors brazed into the stock cast iron cylinder head, in place of the normal side draft ports, thus could be considered Cosworth designs. In addition to the above, Cosworth designed and provided the assembly work for Lotus Elan Special Equipment optional road engines with special camshafts and high compression pistons.
The final model of the above initial series was the MAE in 1965, when new rules were introduced in Formula 3 allowing up to 1,000 cubic centimetres engines with 36mm intake restrictor plate. MAE used one barrel of a two barrel Weber IDA downdraft carburetor with the other barrel blanked off; the domination of this engine was absolute as long as these regulations lasted until 1968. As Cosworth had a serious difficulty