Digital radio in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, the roll-out of digital radio is proceeding since engineering test transmissions were started by the BBC in 1990 followed by a public launch in September 1995. The UK has the world's biggest digital radio network, with 103 transmitters, three national DAB ensembles and 48 local and regional DAB ensembles broadcasting over 250 commercial and 34 BBC radio stations across the UK. In the capital, London there are more than 64 different digital stations available. In addition to DAB and DAB+, radio stations are broadcast on digital television platform as well as internet radio in the UK. Digital radio ensemble operators and stations need a broadcasting licence from the UK's media regulator Ofcom to broadcast. In the long term there will be a switchover from analogue to digital radio when the AM and FM services will cease; the government has set criteria on the coverage and proportion of digital listening before this occurs. In 2018 the criteria of over 50% of digital radio listening was met which will now require the UK Government to review digital radio in view of a potential switchover.
In the same year, the BBC stated. Digital radio in the United Kingdom is being promoted by radio stations and the broadcasting industry on the premise that it provides superior quality sound over AM, a wider choice of radio stations, is easier to use, is resistant to the interference which other broadcast media are susceptible to. On the other hand, critics say that coverage is not yet sufficient and the quality can be less than that of FM. In the UK, 50.9% of all radio listening hours by the first quarter of 2018 were through digital platforms, with DAB making up for the majority of digital radio listening, 63.7% of UK households claim to have access to a DAB radio set. However in the second quarter, digital listening had dropped back to 50.2% Experimental transmissions of the DAB Eureka 147 standard from the Crystal Palace transmitting station by the BBC started in 1990 with permanent transmissions covering London in September 1995. With the expansion of its single-frequency network in the spring of 1998, the BBC national ensemble was available to 65% of the UK population by 2001, 85% by 2004 and 96.4% by 2015.
DAB+ full-time broadcasts began in 2016. The Broadcasting Act of 1996 allowed the introduction of national and local commercial ensembles in the United Kingdom; the first national ensemble licence for DAB from the Radio Authority was advertised in 1998 and one applicant applied for the licence. The licence was awarded to the GWR Group and NTL Broadcast, who since the launch were renamed Arqiva; the two companies formed the Digital One ensemble, which began broadcasting on 15 November 1999. The Digital One ensemble has grown and is available to over 90% of the UK population although an Ofcom report into Digital Radio in 2015 puts robust household coverage at 89.8% of the UK. In the United Kingdom, the uptake of DAB has increased since the launch of the BBC national DAB ensemble in 1995. Lower prices, new radio stations and marketing have increased the uptake of DAB radio in the UK. Digital radios were first sold as car radios in 1997, priced around £800, with hi-fi tuners costing up to £2,000 being released two years later.
In 2001, Digital One invested in Frontier Silicon to produce a new processing chip which would allow cheaper portable radios to be produced. Roberts Radio, Goodmans and in 2002, Pure Digital's award-winning Evoke series of radios broke the £100 price barrier, DAB take up has increased since; the BBC and other DAB broadcasters have been encouraging DAB take up by promoting a number of features which are either new or improve upon former technology in their sales literature. The benefit of DAB is that due to the use of multiplexing technology and encoding technology, broadcasters including the BBC and EMAP have been able to launch exclusive digital radio stations alongside their existing analogue radio stations. Broadcasters state that DAB offers better reception, without the problems of interference that are more noticeable through analogue radio. DAB radios come with features such as station lists, so listeners do not need to retune their receivers, as well as scrolling text, providing information such as breaking news, travel information or the latest track information.
DAB has been marketed as having two major advantages over analogue radio broadcasting in that using MPEG-1 Audio Layer II lossy audio compression technology and more DAB+ using High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding, parts of the audio spectrum that cannot be heard by humans are discarded, meaning less data needs to be sent over the air. This, as well as multiplexing technology, allows a number of channels to be broadcast together on one frequency as opposed to one channel for analogue radio broadcasts. National and regional DAB ensembles use the same frequency for the area they cover. Using a single-frequency network, an ensemble broadcasting a number of stations can cover the same area as a number of FM frequencies which would be required to cover the same area for one station; the BBC carried out successful tests of a single-frequency network in London before launching its national DAB ensemble. DAB audibly provides worse audio quality than FM in the UK because all stereo stations use a bit rate of 128 kbit/s or lower with the MP2 audio codec.
Most commercial stations use 112 kbit/s. A bit rate of 256 kbit/s has been judged to provide a high quality stereo broadcast signal. A large and growing number of music stations are only transmitting in mono. Indeed, the bit rates used by the radio stations on other digital platforms, such as cable and satellite are higher than on DAB, so the audio quality is higher
The Sunday People
The Sunday People is a British tabloid Sunday newspaper, founded as The People on 16 October 1881. It was bought by the Mirror group in 1961 along with the Daily Herald, it is now published by Reach plc, shares a website with the Mirror papers. In July 2011, when it benefited from the closure of the News of the World, it had an average Sunday circulation of 806,544. By December 2016 the circulation had shrunk to 239,364. Despite its tagline claim to be a "truly independent" newspaper, The People endorsed the Labour Party at the 2015 general election on the recommendation of polling data from its readers. Garry Bushell had a two-page television opinion column, "Bushell on the Box", but left in early 2007 moving to the Daily Star Sunday. Jimmy Greaves, the former England footballer Fred Trueman, former England cricketer and fast bowler Fred Harrison, an established economics author of 19 books In 2019 every edition of the Sunday People since 1881 will be online page by page
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization which owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. A multinational corporation can be referred to as a multinational enterprise, a transnational enterprise, a transnational corporation, an international corporation, or a stateless corporation. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards, that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, the military backing of their own wealthy host nation-states.
They have become associated with multinational tax havens and base erosion and profit shifting tax avoidance activities. A multinational corporation is a large corporation incorporated in one country which produces or sells goods or services in various countries; the two main characteristics of MNCs are their large size and the fact that their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies. Importing and exporting goods and services Making significant investments in a foreign country Buying and selling licenses in foreign markets Engaging in contract manufacturing — permitting a local manufacturer in a foreign country to produce their products Opening manufacturing facilities or assembly operations in foreign countriesMNCs may gain from their global presence in a variety of ways. First of all, MNCs can benefit from the economy of scale by spreading R&D expenditures and advertising costs over their global sales, pooling global purchasing power over suppliers, utilizing their technological and managerial know-how globally with minimal additional costs.
Furthermore, MNCs can use their global presence to take advantage of underpriced labor services available in certain developing countries, gain access to special R&D capabilities residing in advanced foreign countries. The problem of moral and legal constraints upon the behavior of multinational corporations, given that they are "stateless" actors, is one of several urgent global socioeconomic problems that emerged during the late twentieth century; the best concept for analyzing society's governance limitations over modern corporations is the concept of "stateless corporations". Coined at least as early as 1991 in Business Week, the conception was theoretically clarified in 1993: that an empirical strategy for defining a stateless corporation is with analytical tools at the intersection between demographic analysis and transportation research; this intersection is known as logistics management, it describes the importance of increasing global mobility of resources. In a long history of analysis of multinational corporations we are some quarter century into an era of stateless corporations - corporations which meet the realities of the needs of source materials on a worldwide basis and to produce and customize products for individual countries.
One of the first multinational business organizations, the East India Company, was established in 1601. After the East India Company, came the Dutch East India Company, founded March 20, 1603, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years; the main characteristics of multinational companies are: In general, there is a national strength of large companies as the main body, in the way of foreign direct investment or acquire local enterprises, established subsidiaries or branches in many countries. Multinational corporations can select from a variety of jurisdictions for various subsidiaries, but the ultimate parent company can select a single legal domicile. Corporations can engage in tax avoidance through their choice of jurisdiction, but must be careful to avoid illegal tax evasion. Multinational corporations may be subject to the laws and regulations of both their domicile and the additional jurisdictions where they are engaged in business. In some cases, the jurisdiction can help to avoid burdensome laws, but regulatory statutes target the "enterprise" with statutory language around "control".
For small corporations, registering a foreign subsidiary can be expensive and complex, involving fees and forms.
The Mail on Sunday
The Mail on Sunday is a British conservative newspaper, published in a tabloid format. It was launched in 1982 by Lord Rothermere, its sister paper, the Daily Mail, was first published in 1896. In July 2011, after the closure of the News of the World, The Mail on Sunday sold some 2.5 million copies a week—making it Britain's biggest-selling Sunday newspaper—but by September that had fallen back to just under 2 million. Like the Daily Mail it is owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust, but the editorial staffs of the two papers are separate, it had an average daily circulation of 1,284,121 in December 2016. The Mail on Sunday was launched on 2 May 1982; the first story on the front page was the Royal Air Force's bombing of Port Stanley airport in the Falkland Islands. The newspaper's owner, the Daily Mail and General Trust wanted a circulation of 1.25 million. Its sports coverage was seen to be among its weaknesses at the time of its launch; the Mail on Sunday's first back-page splash was a report from the Netherlands on the rollerskating world championships, which led to the paper being ridiculed in the industry.
Lord Rothermere the proprietor, brought in the Daily Mail's editor David English who, with a task force of new journalists, redesigned and re-launched The Mail on Sunday. Over a period of three-and-a-half months English managed to halt the paper's decline, its circulation increased to 840,000. Three new sections were introduced: firstly a sponsored partwork, the initial one forming a cookery book; the newspaper's reputation was built on the work of Stewart Steven. The newspaper's circulation grew from around 1 million to just under 2 million during his time in charge. Although its sister paper the Daily Mail has invariably supported the Conservative Party, Steven backed the Social Democratic Party in the 1983 General Election; the subsequent editors were Jonathan Holborow, Peter Wright and Geordie Greig. At the 2015 general election The Mail on Sunday urged its readers to vote Conservative to prevent the country "veering left" under a Labour-SNP pact, it urged UKIP voters to "please come home to the Conservatives" as their "protest has been registered".
In the EU membership referendum, the paper came out unequivocally in favour of the Remain campaign, arguing that it would provide a safer and more prosperous UK. Under Peter Wright's editorship of the Mail on Sunday and his membership of the Press Complaints Commission, the Mail newspaper organisation withheld important evidence about phone hacking from the PCC when the latter held its inquiry into the News of the World's interception of voicemail messages; the PCC was not informed that four Mail on Sunday journalists—investigations editor Dennis Rice, news editor Sebastian Hamilton, deputy news editor David Dillon and feature writer Laura Collins—had been told by the Metropolitan police in 2006 that their mobile phones had been hacked though Wright, editor of the Mail on Sunday, had been made aware of the hacking. The facts did not emerge until several years when they were revealed in evidence at the News of the World phone hacking trial. Wright became a member of the PCC from May 2008, he took over the place held by the Daily Mail's editor-in-chief Paul Dacre, who had served on the body from 1999 to April 2008.
The PCC issued two reports, in 2007 and 2009, which were compiled in ignorance of the significant information from the Mail group about the hacking of its journalists’ phones. According to The Guardian journalist Nick Davies, whose revelations had resulted in the News of the World phone hacking trial and subsequent conviction of Andy Coulson, this reinforced News International's "rogue reporter" defence; the PCC's 2009 report, which had rejected Davies' claims of widespread hacking at the News of the World, was retracted when it became clear that they were true. Wright and Dacre both failed to mention the hacking of the four Mail on Sunday staff in the evidence they gave to the Leveson inquiry in 2012. You -- You featured in The Mail on Sunday, its mix of in-depth features plus fashion, beauty advice, practical insights on health and relationships, food recipes and interiors pages make it a regular read for over 3 million women every week. The Mail on Sunday is read by over six million a week.
Event – this magazine includes articles on the arts and culture and carries reviews of all media and entertainment forms and interviews with sector personalities. It has columns by well-known people such as Piers Morgan. Sport on Sunday – a separate 24-page section edited by Alison Kervin, it features coverage of the Premier League and Football League games from Sunday and important international football games, motor racing and many other sports. Columnists include Glenn Hoddle, it is a campaigning and investigative sports section which ran a three year concussion campaign to keep players in rugby union safe from ECT and brain damage. Financial Mail on Sunday – now part of the main paper, this section includes the Financial Mail Enterprise, focusing on small business. Mail on Sunday 2 – This pullout includes review, featuring articles on the arts and culture and it consists of reviews of all media and entertainment forms and interviews with sector personalities, property and health. Cartoons including The Gambols and Peanuts.
Peter Hitchens Liz Jones Piers Morgan Tom Parker Bowles Derek D