Leavenworth is the county seat and largest city of Leavenworth County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 35,251. Located on the west bank of the Missouri River; the site of Fort Leavenworth, built in 1827, the city became known in American history for its role as a key supply base in the settlement of the American West. It is important in nineteenth-century African-American history. During the American Civil War, many volunteers joined the Union Army from Leavenworth. In 1866, the 10th Regiment of Cavalry, an all-black unit within the U. S. Army, was stood up at Fort Leavenworth; the city has been notable as the location of several prisons the United States Disciplinary Barracks and United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth. Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first city incorporated in the territory of Kansas; the city developed south of Fort Leavenworth, established as Cantonment Leavenworth in 1827 by Colonel Henry Leavenworth. Its location on the Missouri River attracted refugee African-American slaves in the antebellum years, who were seeking freedom from the slave state of Missouri across the river.
Abolition supporters helped. In the years before the American Civil War, Leavenworth was a hotbed of anti-slavery and pro-slavery agitation leading to open physical confrontations on the street and in public meetings. On April 3, 1858, the "Leavenworth Constitution" for the state of Kansas was adopted here. Although the federal government never approved this early version of the state constitution, it was considered one of the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for the new territory because it recognized freed blacks as citizens. Refugee African Americans continued to settle in the city during the war. By 1865 it had attracted nearly one-fifth of the 12,000 blacks in the state. Charles Henry Langston was an African-American leader from Boston who worked and lived in Leavenworth and northeast Kansas in the Reconstruction era and afterward. In Kansas, Langston worked for black suffrage and the right of African Americans to sit on juries, testify in court, have their children educated in common schools.
African Americans gained suffrage in 1870 after passage of the federal 15th constitutional amendment, the legislature voted for their right to sit on juries in 1874. African Americans continued to migrate to the state of Kansas after the war. There were a total of 17,108 African Americans in Kansas in 1870, with 43,107 in 1880, 52,003 by 1900. Most lived in urban areas. Following months of assaults on young white women in late 1900, in which witnesses had identified a "large white man" and a "slight black man" as having been seen in the vicinity of the attacks, Fred Alexander, a 22-year-old black veteran of the Spanish–American War, was arrested on circumstantial evidence for the attacks; the police had moved him to the penitentiary during questioning, but a lynch mob was forming in Leavenworth. The sheriff needed to bring him to Leavenworth for arraignment at the county court, he refused the governor's offer of state militia, was unable to protect the prisoner. On January 15, 1901, Alexander was taken from jail by a mob of 5,000 people and to the site of the murder of Pearl Forbes, where he was brutally lynched: burned alive.
He protested his innocence to the end. An inquest concluded he had been killed by "persons unknown", his family refused to claim his body for burial. His father Alfred Alexander, an exoduster, said "The people have mutilated him, now let them bury him." The city arranged burial. African Americans in the region were horrified at Alexander's murder by the mob and created the first state chapter of the Afro-American Council the only national organization working for civil rights. In 1972 Benjamin Day became the city's first African-American mayor. Day had been elected to the City Commission one year earlier. Leavenworth appoints its mayor from among the members of the Commission, Day was named mayor in 1971. Day was a former principal in Leavenworth. Fort Leavenworth was located outside the city limits until its territory was annexed by the city on April 12, 1977. In 2008, an underground series of "vaults" was found in the city built during the late 19th century. Leavenworth is located at 39°18′40″N 94°55′21″W at an elevation of 840 feet.
Located in northeastern Kansas at the junction of U. S. Route 73 and Kansas Highway 92, Leavenworth is 25 mi northwest of downtown Kansas City, 145 mi south-southeast of Omaha, 165 mi northeast of Wichita; the city lies on the west bank of the Missouri River in the Dissected Till Plains region of North America's Central Lowlands. Four small tributaries of the river flow east through the city. From north to south, these are Quarry Creek, Corral Creek, Three Mile Creek, Five Mile Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.06 square miles, of which, 24.04 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Fort Leavenworth occupies the northern half of the city's area. Leavenworth, along with the rest of Leavenworth County, lies within the Kansas City metropolitan area. Lansing, Kansas, is located to the south. Leavenworth experiences a humid continental climate, with hot, humid summers and cold, drier winters. On average, January is the coldest month, July is the hottest month, June is the wettest month.
The average temperature in Leavenworth is 55.2 °F or 12.9 °C. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low of 19 °F or −7.2 °C in January to an average high of 90
Eagle (United States coin)
The eagle was a United States $10 gold coin issued by the United States Mint from 1792 to 1933. The eagle was the largest of the five main decimal base-units of denomination used for circulating coinage in the United States prior to 1933, the year when gold was withdrawn from circulation; these five main base-units of denomination were the mill, the cent, the dime, the dollar, the eagle, where a dime is 10 cents, a dollar is 10 dimes, an eagle is 10 dollars. The eagle base-unit of denomination served as the basis of the gold quarter-eagle, the gold half-eagle, the eagle, the double-eagle coins. With the exceptions of the gold dollar coin, the gold three-dollar coin, the three-cent nickel, the five-cent nickel, the unit of denomination of coinage prior to 1933 was conceptually linked to the precious or semi-precious metal that constituted a majority of the alloy used in that coin. In this regard the United States followed long-standing European practice of different base-unit denominations for different precious and semi-precious metals.
In the United States, the cent was the base-unit of denomination in copper. The dime and dollar were the base-units of denomination in silver; the eagle was the base-unit of denomination in gold although, unlike "cent", "dime", "dollar", gold coins never specified their denomination in units of "eagles". Thus, a double eagle showed its value as "twenty dollars" rather than "two eagles"; the United States' circulating eagle denomination from the late 18th century to first third of the 20th century should not be confused with the American Eagle bullion coins which are manufactured from silver or gold, platinum, or palladium. Gold eagles were issued for circulation by the United States Mint from 1795–1933, half eagles from 1795–1929, quarter eagles from 1796–1929, double eagles from 1850–1933, with occasional production gaps for each type; the diameter of eagles was 27 mm, half eagles 21 mm, quarter eagles 17 mm, double eagles 34 mm. The purity of all circulating gold coins in the United States was eleven twelfths pure gold and one twelfth alloy.
Under U. S. law, the alloy was composed only of silver and copper, with silver limited to no more than half of the alloy by weight. Thus, U. S. gold coins had 22/24 pure gold, at most 1/24 silver, with the remaining one–two 24ths copper. The weight of circulating, standard gold, eagles was set at 270 grains, half eagles at 135 grains, quarter eagles at 67.5 grains. This resulted in the eagle containing 0.5156 troy ounces of pure gold. In 1834, the mint's 15:1 legal valuation of gold to silver was changed to 16:1, the metal weight-content standards for both gold and silver coins were changed, because at the old value ratio and weight content, it was profitable to export and melt U. S gold coins; as a result, the specification for standard gold was lowered from 22 karat to.8992 fine. In 1837 a small change in the fineness of the gold was made, the alloy was again defined as silver and copper, with silver capped at no more than half; the new 1837 standard for the eagle was 258 grains of.900 fine gold, with other coins proportionately sized.
Between 1838 and 1840, the silver content was reduced to zero—the eagle in 1838, half eagle in 1839, quarter eagle in 1840,—resulting in U. S. gold coins being 10 % copper. Using only copper as the alloy in gold coins matched longstanding English practice; the 1837 standard resulted in a gold content of only 0.9675 troy ounces of gold per double eagle and 0.48375 troy ounces for the eagle. It would be used for all circulating gold coins until U. S. gold coin circulation was halted in 1933. As part of its Modern United States commemorative coins program the United States mint has issued several commemorative eagle coins. In 1984, an eagle was issued to commemorate the Summer Olympics, in 2003 to commemorate the Wright brothers first flight at Kitty Hawk; the pre-1933.900 fine gold standard was restored, this would be used in half-eagle gold commemoratives as well. The coins would be identical in fineness and size to their pre-1933 counterparts of the same face value. In 2000 a unique eagle, the 2000 Library of Congress bimetallic ten dollar coin, was issued commemorating the Library of Congress.
Turban head 1795–1804 Turban Head, small eagle 1795–1797 Turban Head, large eagle 1797–1804 Liberty Head 1838–1907 Coronet, without motto 1838–1866 Coronet, with motto 1866–1907 Indian Head 1907–1933 American Gold Eagle American Buffalo American Silver Eagle American Platinum Eagle American Palladium Eagle Double Eagle Half Eagle The English eagle, a 13th-century coin outlawed under Edward I US Gold Eagle by year and type. Histories and more. American Eagle production numbers
An anachronism is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement a juxtaposition of persons, objects, or customs from different periods of time. The most common type of anachronism is an object misplaced in time, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a plant or animal, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period in time, placed outside its proper temporal domain. An anachronism may be either unintentional. Intentional anachronisms may be introduced into a literary or artistic work to help a contemporary audience engage more with a historical period. Anachronism can be used for purposes of rhetoric, comedy, or shock. Unintentional anachronisms may occur when a writer, artist, or performer is unaware of differences in technology, customs, attitudes, or fashions between different historical eras. A parachronism is anything that appears in a time period in which it is not found; this may be an object, idiomatic expression, philosophical idea, musical style, custom, or anything else so bound to a particular time period as to seem strange when encountered in a era.
They may be ideas that were once common but are now considered rare or inappropriate. They can take outdated fashion or idioms. Examples of parachronisms could include a suburban housewife in the United States around 1960 using a washboard for laundry. A parachronism is identified when a work based on a particular era's state of knowledge is read within the context of a era—with a different state of knowledge. Many scientific works that rely on theories that have been discredited have become anachronistic with the removal of those underpinnings, works of speculative fiction find their speculations outstripped by real-world technological developments or scientific discoveries. A prochronism is an impossible anachronism which occurs when an object or idea has not yet been invented when the situation takes place, therefore could not have existed at the time. A prochronism may be an object not yet developed, a verbal expression that had not yet been coined, a philosophy not yet formulated, a breed of animal not yet evolved, or use of a technology that had not yet been created.
The well-known stories of the One Thousand and One Nights contain a manifest anachronism: in the frame story, the tales are narrated to King Shahryār, presented as a member of the Persian Sassanid Dynasty, by his wife Scheherazade - yet many of the stories she tells relate to the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, his Grand Vizier, Jafar al-Barmaki, his contemporary the famous poet Abu Nuwas, all of whom lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanids. The intentional use of older obsolete cultural artifacts may be regarded as anachronistic. For example, it could be considered anachronistic for a modern-day person to wear a top hat, write with a quill, or carry on a conversation in Latin; such choices may reflect an aesthetic preference. Some writings and works of art promoting a political, nationalist or revolutionary cause use anachronism to depict an institution or custom as being more ancient than it is. For example, the 19th-century Romanian painter Constantin Lecca depicts the peace agreement between Ioan Bogdan Voievod and Radu Voievod—two leaders in Romania's 16th-century history—with the flags of Moldavia and of Wallachia seen in the background.
These flags date only from the 1830s. Here anachronism promotes legitimacy for the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia into the Kingdom of Romania at the time the painting was made. Anachronism is used in works of imagination that rest on a historical basis. Anachronisms may be introduced in many ways: for example, in the disregard of the different modes of life and thought that characterize different periods, or in ignorance of the progress of the arts and sciences and other facts of history, they vary from glaring inconsistencies to scarcely perceptible misrepresentation. It is only since the close of the 18th century that this kind of deviation from historical reality has jarred on a general audience. Sir Walter Scott justified the use of anachronism in historical literature: "It is necessary, for exciting interest of any kind, that the subject assumed should be, as it were, translated into the manners as well as the language of the age we live in." However, as fashions move on, such attempts to use anachronisms to engage an audience may have quite the reverse effect, as the details in question are recognized as belonging neither to the historical era being represented, nor to the present, but to the intervening period in which the artwork was created.
"Nothing becomes obsolete like a period vision of an older period", writes Anthony Grafton. Ludwig van Beethoven! Come in and practice your piano now!' We are jerked from our suspension of disbelief by what was intended as a means of reinforcing it, plunged directly into the American bourgeois world of the filmmaker."Anachronism can be an aesthetic choice. Anachronisms abou
James Knox Taylor
James Knox Taylor was Supervising Architect of the United States Department of the Treasury from 1897 to 1912. His name is listed ex officio as supervising architect of hundreds of federal buildings built throughout the United States during the period; the son of H. Knox and Mary Taylor, he was born in Knoxville and attended schools in Minnesota, he attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he was a classmate of William Martin Aiken, who would precede him in the position of Supervisory Architect, Cass Gilbert. After graduation, he worked in the New York City office of Charles C. Haight and with Bruce Price. In 1882 he moved to St. Paul, Minnesota where he formed a partnership with Gilbert, as Gilbert & Taylor, they built many churches. Subsequently, they designed the Endicott Buildings. In 1893 he formed a partnership with Amos J. Boyden. In 1895 he got a job with the Supervisory Architect, as a temporary draftsman. In 1897, following a Civil Service Commission examination, he became the Supervisory Architect, the first architect promoted from within.
In 1893 Missouri Congressman John Charles Tarsney introduced a bill that allowed the Supervisory Architect to hold competitions among private architects for major structures. Competitions under Taylor's supervision included the Alexander Hamilton U. S. Custom House, James Farley Post Office, Cleveland Federal Building, U. S. Post Office and Courthouse and U. S. Customhouse among others; the competitions were met with enthusiasm by the community but were marred by scandal, as when Taylor picked his ex-partner Cass Gilbert for the New York Customs House commission. In 1913 the act was repealed. In 1912, Taylor returned to MIT for two years as director of the department of architecture moved to Yonkers, New York, where for several years he continued practicing. In 1928, he retired to Tampa, where he died the following year. From 1897 through 1912 Taylor is credited as "supervising architect" for federal buildings constructed during his tenure, a list which includes dozens of post offices, court houses and other structures.
Local architects are credited as well. As the head of a sizable government office, Taylor's direct involvement with any of these projects is open to question. A partial list of these works include: Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, 1908 Pioneer and Endicott Buildings, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1890 Denver Mint, Denver, 1897 United States Post Office, 1901 Philadelphia Mint, Philadelphia, 1901 Old Post Office, 1901 Gatke Hall, now part of Willamette University, Oregon, 1901 United States Courthouse Building and Downtown Postal Station, 1902–1905 Public Safety Building, Maryland, 1904 United States Post Office and Courthouse, Fergus Falls, Minnesota, 1904 United States Post Office, Niagara Falls, New York, 1904 U. S. Post Office and Court House, San Francisco, now the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 1905 U. S. Post Office, 1906 U. S. Custom House, Houston 1907–1911 Old Post Office, 1908 Old Post Office/Museum of Ceramics, 1908 Gainesville, Florida Post Office, 1909 Webster City, Iowa Post Office, 1909 U.
S. Post Office, 1910 Post Office Building, 1910 U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, 1910–12 U. S. Post Office, 1911 U. S. Post Office, 1910 U. S. Post Office, Maine, 1911 United States Post Office, 1911–1913 United States Post Office Mineral Wells, Texas, 1911–1913 Alaska Governor's Mansion, Alaska, 1912 United States Post Office, 1912 United States Post Office, New York, 1912–1913 United States Post Office, Pennsylvania, 1912–1914 Media related to James Knox Taylor at Wikimedia Commons
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u