India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Below Poverty Line
Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. It is determined using various parameters which vary from state within states; the present criteria are based on a survey conducted in 2002. Going into a survey due for a decade, India's central government is undecided on criteria to identify families below poverty line. Internationally, an income of less than $3.20 per day per head of purchasing power parity is defined as extreme poverty. By this estimate, about 21.2% of Indians are poor. Income-based poverty lines consider the bare minimum income to provide basic food requirements. Criteria are different for the urban areas. In its Tenth Five-Year Plan, the degree of deprivation is measured with the help of parameters with scores given from 0–4, with 13 parameters. Families with 17 marks or less out of a maximum 52 marks have been classified as BPL. Poverty line depends on the per capital income in India rather than level of prices.
In its Ninth Five-Year Plan, BPL for rural areas was set than Rs. 20,000, less than two hectares land, no television or refrigerator. The number of rural BPL families was 650,000 during the 9th Plan; the survey based on this criterion was again carried out in 2002 and the total number of 387,000 families were identified. This figure was in force until September 2006. In its Tenth Five-Year Plan survey, BPL for rural areas was based on the degree of deprivation in respect of 13 parameters, with scores from 0–4: landholding, type of house, food security, consumer durables, literacy status, labour force, means of livelihood, status of children, type of indebtedness, reasons for migrations, etc; the Planning Commission fixed an upper limit of 326,000 for rural BPL families on the basis of simple survey. Accordingly, families having less than 15 marks out of maximum 52 marks have been classified as BPL and their number works out to 318,000; the survey was carried out in 2002 and thereafter but could not be finalised due to a stay issued by the Supreme Court of India.
The stay was vacated in February 2006 and this survey was finalised and adopted in September 2006. This survey formed the basis for benefits under government of India schemes; the state governments are free to adopt any criteria/survey for state-level schemes. In its Tenth Five-Year Plan BPL for urban areas was based on degree of deprivation in respect of seven parameters: roof, water, education level, type of employment, status of children in a house. A total of 125,000 upper families were identified as BPL in urban area in 2004, it has been implemented since then. Those spending over Rs 32 a day in rural areas and Rs 47 in towns and cities should not be considered poor, an expert panel headed by former RBI governor C Rangarajan said in a report submitted to the BJP government last week; the recommendation, which comes just ahead of the budget session of Parliament, is expected to generate fresh debate over the poverty measure as the committee's report has only raised the bar marginally. Based on the Suresh Tendulkar panel's recommendations in 2011-12, the poverty line had been fixed at Rs 27 in rural areas and Rs 33 in urban areas, levels at which getting two meals may be difficult.
The Rangarajan committee was tasked with revisiting the Tendulkar formula for estimation of poverty and identification of the poor after a massive public outcry erupted over the abnormally low poverty lines fixed by UPA government The Government of Kerala is one of the few state governments which has formulated its own criteria. In Kerala there are nine parameters. Families which lack access to four or more parameters are classified as BPL; the nine parameters for urban areas are: No land or less than five cents of land No house or dilapidated house No sanitation latrine Family with an illiterate family member No regular employed person in the family No access to safe drinking water Women-headed household or presence of widows or divorcee Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes Mentally retarded or disabled member in the family The poverty line was fixed in terms of income/food requirements in 2000. It was stipulated that the calorie standard for a typical individual in rural areas was 2400 calorie and was 2100 calorie in urban areas.
The cost of the grains that fulfil this normative standard was calculated. This cost was the poverty line. In 1978, it was Rs. 61.80 per person per Rs. 71.30 for urban areas. Since the Planning Commission calculates the poverty line every year adjusting for inflation; the poverty line in recent years is as follows – This income is bare minimum to support the food requirements and does not provide much for the other basic essential items like health, education etc. That is; the Socio Economic Survey conducted during 2002 was based on 13 Socio economic indicators indicating the quality of life and by Score-based ranking for all households. Each of the indicators have 0–4 marks, thus for 13 indicators, the tentative marks obtained by the families are from 0–52 for all the Districts. The Supreme Court of India in Writ Petition No. 196/2001 filed by People's Union for Civil Liberties, the result of Below Poverty Line census 2002 need not be finalised. In October 2005 the Government of India informed that based on the advice given by the Additional Solicitor General, it has been decided to finalise the results o
Nawada district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the Indian state of Bihar. Nawada is its administrative headquarters; the district is the easternmost district of the Magadh division, one of the nine administrative divisions of Bihar. The area of the modern district was part of the Magadha and Gupta empires. Koderma and Giridih districts of the state of Jharkhand lie on the southern border of the district. Kakolat Falls are mentioned in Hindu mythology as the abode of a king turned into a python by a Rishi's curse. Nawada district occupies an area of 2,494 square kilometres, comparatively equivalent to Chile's Navarino Island. Most parts of the district are plain but some areas are hilly; the main rivers are the Sakri, Panchane, Bhusri by Kakolat and Tilaiya. Nawada District is divided into two Sub-divisions and into 14 blocks; these blocks in their respective sub-divisions are as follows: Hisua – Bagodar, Chitarghati, Dona, Hadsa, Hisua Nagar Panchayat, Pachra, Tekpur, Tungi Warisaliganj – Makanpur,Apsarh, Baghi Bardiha, Chakwae, Hajipur, Kumbhi, Manjaur, Mohiuddin Pur, Naromurar, Saur, Thera, Warisaliganj Nagar Panchayat,maafi,simri,may,chainpur,chandipur,balyari,baali,bilaari.
Nawada – Bhadauni, Akauna Minhai, Bhadokhra, Didaur, Jamuawa Patwa Sarai, Kharant, Mahuli, Nawada Nagar Parishad, Paura, Samai, Sonsiahri Kawakol – Chhabail, Debnagar, Kebali, Lalpur, Manjhila, Paharpur, Pandegangot, Shekhodewra Nardiganj – Dohra, Ichua Karna, Kosla, Nardiganj, Odo, Pesh Kashichak – Parwati, Jagdishpur, Khakhari, Birnawa, Derhgaon, Sarkatti Pakari Barawan – Belkhunda, Dioura, Dewdha, Dumrawan, Jiuri, Kunanpur, Pakri Barawan, Poksi Akbarpur – Baksanda, Baliya Buzurg, Barew, Bhudhuwa, Gobind Bigha, Ladaha, Nemdarganj, Pachgawan, Paijuna, Parto Karahri, Sakarpura, Diri Narhat – Babhnaur, Khanwa, Narhat, Pali Kurd, Punthar, Saidapur Goasa, Shekhpura Meskaur – Akri Pandebigha, Barosar, Biju Bigha, Mairzapur, Rasulpur, Tetariya Sirdala – Abdul, Bandhi, Chaube, Dhiraundh, Khalkhu, Khatangi, Rajan, Sanrh Majhgawn, Upardih Rajauli – Amawa East, Amawa West, Bahadurpur, Dhamni, Jogya Maran, Murhena, Parka Buzurg, Rajauli Nagar Panchayat, Sawaiya Tand, Takua Tand Govindpur – Baksoti, Baniya Bigha, Madhopur, Bhawanpur, Sarkanda, Govindpur Roh – Nazardih, Ohari The main crops harvested in the district are paddy, wheat and vegetables.
Industrial facilities in the district include bidi factories and silk handlooms. Sugar cane farming and processing took place. Kadirganj, located 10 km from Nawada, has a silk small scale industry where workers clean and weave silk. Rajauli and Sirdala are emerging as significant market hubs for the hinterland regions bordering Jharkhand state, have produced many professionals including physicians, engineers who are working in many parts of India; the Nuclear Power Corporation of India identified Rajauli as the possible site for creating an additional 2,800 MW of nuclear power capacity in the state. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Nawada one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 38 districts in Bihar receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. National Highway 20 runs north–south through the western side of district, serving many villages and towns, including the administrative center of Nawada. National Highway 120 follows a 30 km route in the far northwestern corner of the district, passing through the town of Hisua.
Including state highways and other routes connecting villages, the district has 420 km of paved roads. Deluxe buses are available from Nawada including Patna; the district lies in the East Central Railway of Indian Railways. Two express trains and several local trains run on the Gaya-Kiul line via Nawada railway station. Though electrification is complete, doubling of railway line is under process; this would provide alternative route for kolkata and North-East bound trains and woud enhance passenger services and freight trains. However a Delhi bound train is scheduled to start from mid march from Bhagalpur to Delhi via kiul-gaya mughalsarai on weekly basis. According to the 2011 census Nawada district has a population of 2,216,653 equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico; this gives it a ranking of 205th in India. The district has a population density of 889 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.49%. Nawada had a sex ratio of 936 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 61.63%.
The district has good literacy percentage. There are numerous institution for Higher education and secondary education. KLs College, Nawada TS College, Hisua Krishna Memorial College, Nawada Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Nawada Gyan Bharti Model Residential Complex
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G
Raghubar Das is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand state of India. He was sworn in as the 6th chief minister of Jharkhand on 28 December 2014, he belongs to Bharatiya Janata Party. A former employee of Tata Steel, he served as the member of legislative assembly for five times, representing Jamshedpur East since 1995, he served as the Deputy Chief Minister and the Urban Development Minister during the BJP-led government in the state. During the period of emergency, he was sent behind the bars. Das belongs to Other Backward Class family, he was born on 3 May 1955 to a labourer with a steel company. He passed matriculation from Bhalubasa Harijan High School, completed B. Sc. from Jamshedpur Cooperative College. He studied law from the same college and acquired LLB degree. After studies, he joined Tata Steel as a labourer. Das was involved in politics since his college days, he participated in Jayprakash Narayan-led Total Revolution movement in the state. He was arrested and imprisoned in Gaya and was again imprisoned during the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi.
Subsequently, Das joined the Janata Party in 1977. He joined Bharatiya Janata Party as a founding member in 1980, he participated in the first National Committee meeting of BJP in Mumbai in 1980. He was appointed as the chief of unit of Sitaramdera in Jamshedpur, he served as the city chief secretary and the vice president of Jamshedpur. BJP secretary and became the vice president, he was elected as the member of Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1995 from Jamshedpur East. He again won from the same constituency for five times, he was appointed as a chief of BJP in Jharkhand in 2004. The BJP won 30 seats in Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election, 2005, he served as the Urban Development Minister during the NDA government in 2005 under Arjun Munda as the chief minister. He led the Indian general election, 2009 in the state, he held the office of Deputy Chief Minister of Jharkhand state from 30 December 2009 to 29 May 2010, when Shibu Soren was the chief minister. He was appointed as the vice president in the National Committee of BJP on 16 August 2014.
He has shown assets to the tune of around Rs. 21 lakh. When BJP secured majority in Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election, 2014, he became the sixth and the first non-tribal chief minister of the state in December 2014. Official website Raghubar Das affidavit List of Chief Ministers of Jharkhand recent announcement
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha for the Jains, believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.. Its distance to cover is 23 kms by walk and takes to climb up and down the hill. If a short route is taken it takes approx 12 hours to complete.. Shikharji means the "venerable peak"; the site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar "peak of concentration." Because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha through meditation. The word "Parasnath" is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Jain tirthankara, one of those, believed to have attained Moksha at the site. Shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India, it lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a section called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state.
The earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva; the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment. Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act. Use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain; the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 27 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains; the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water and snacks. There is an option for parikrama of a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres; the parikrama path is walking only. The temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century.
However, the idol itself is old. Sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji. On the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill. Temples along the track include: In Jainism, the building of replica temples is seen as auspicious and worthwhile. On August 13, 2012, the world's first to-scale complete replication of Shikharji was opened in Siddhachalam in New Jersey over 120 acres of hilly terrain. Called Shikharji at Siddhachalam, it has become an important place of pilgrimage for the Jain diaspora. There is a small scale replica of Shikharji at Mehrauli; the nearest railway station named "Parasnath Station" is situated in Isri Bazar, Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, at the base of Shikharji. Parasnath station is situated on Grand Chord, part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line. Many long distance trains have halts at Parasnath Station.
Daily connectivities to Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Allahbad, Jammutawi, Kalka etc. are available. 12301-12302 Howrah Rajdhani Express via Gaya Junction has a halt on Parasnath station which run 6 days in a week. By Airway. Durgapur has direct flights from Kolkata and Delhi "Save Shikharji" is a protest movement by Jain sects who are against the state's development plans for Shikharji. Jain community members have opposed the plans of the state government to improve the infrastructure in the hill to boost tourism as alleged attempts to commercialize the Shikharji hill; this movement is headed by Yugbhushan Surishwarji, demands Shikharji Hill to be declared as a place of worship by Government of Jharkhand. List of Jain temples Tirth Pat Nirvana Kanda Tourist Places in Giridih Parasnath Hills travel guide from Wikivoyage