Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary and military leader, recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution, in the Spanish–American War, against the United States during the Philippine–American War. In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. Emilio Famy Aguinaldo Sr. was born on March 22, 1869 in Cavite el Viejo, in Cavite province, to Carlos Jamir Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy-Aguinaldo, a Tagalog Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio Sr. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as his father, Carlos J. Aguinaldo was the community's appointed gobernadorcillo in the Spanish colonial administration and his grandparents Eugenio K. Aguinaldo and Maria Jamir-Aguinaldo, he studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasn't able to finish his studies due to outbreak of cholera in 1882.
Emilio became the "Cabeza de Barangay" In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted. At the age of 25, Aguinaldo became Cavite el Viejo's first "gobernadorcillo capitan municipal" while on a business trip in Mindoro. On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason. 203, Cavite by the codename "Colon". He would say: The Successful Revolution of 1896 was masonically inspired and executed, I venture to say that the first Philippine Republic of which I was its humble President, was an achievement we owe to Masonry and the Masons. On March 7, 1895, Santiago Alvarez whose father was a Capitan Municipal of Noveleta encouraged Aguinaldo to join the "Katipunan", a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force. Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene; the local chapter of Katipunan in Cavite was established and named Sangguniang Magdalo, Aguinaldo's cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo was appointed leader.
The Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte. However and other Cavite rebels refused to join in the offensive because of the lack of arms. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare and the Cavite rebels won major victories in planned and well-timed set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area. On August 31, 1896, Aguinaldo started the assault beginning as a skirmish to a full blown revolt, he marched with his army of bolomen to the town center of Kawit. Prior to the battle, Aguinaldo ordered his men not to kill anyone in his hometown. Upon his men's arrival at the town center, the guards, armed with Remingtons and unaware of the preceding events, were caught by surprise and surrendered immediately; the guns there were captured and armed by the Katipuneros, the revolt was a major success for Aguinaldo and his men. That afternoon, they raised the Magdalo flag at the town hall to a large crowd of people from Kawit all assembled after hearing of their city's liberation Magdalo faction of the Katipunan, which operated in Cavite under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, used a flag alike to the Magdiwang faction's.
It features a white sun with Number the Ray a red baybayin letter K. This symbol has been revived by a breakaway group of army officers signifying the end of warfare with Spain after the peace agreement; this flag became the first official banner of the revolutionary forces and was blessed in a crowd celebrated at Imus. Binakayan. Zapote Bridge, and Perez Dasmariñas. General Aguinaldo referred to this flag in his proclamation of October 31, 1896: "Filipino people!! The hour has arrived to shed blood for the conquest of our liberty. Assemble and follow the flag of the Revolution - it stands for Liberty and Fraternity." In August 1896, as coordinated attacks sparked the revolution beginning in Manila. Emilio Aguinaldo marched from Kawit with 600 men and launched a series of skirmishes at Imus which ended in open hostilities against Spanish troops stationed there. On September 1, with the aid of Captain Jose Tagle of Imus, they laid siege against Imus Estate to draw the Spanish out. A Spanish relief column commanded by Brig.
General Ernesto de Aguirre had been dispatched from Manila to aid the beleaguered Spanish defenders of Imus. Supported only by a hundred troops and by a cavalry, Aguirre gave the impression that he had been sent out to suppress a minor disturbance. Aguinaldo and his men counter-attacked but suffered heavy losses and cost his own life. Despite the success, Aguirre did not press the attack and felt the inadequacy of his troops and hastened back to Manila to get reinforcements. During the lull in the fighting, Aguinaldo's troops reorganized and prepared for another Spanish attack. On September 3, Aguirre came back with a much larger force of 3,000 men; when Spanish troops arrived at the Isabel II bridge, they were fired upon by the concealed rebels. As surprise was on the side of the revolutionaries all the Spaniards that were sent there were trapped and annihilated. Alarmed by previous siege, led by General Aguinaldo in Imus, Cavite in September 1896, Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas order
The Elliptical Road is a 2 km roundabout in Quezon City which circumscribes the Quezon Memorial Circle, a large park. It was named after its elliptical shape; the spinning in this roundabout is in a counterclockwise direction. The road is divided into 8 lanes, wherein 3 are the main lanes, 4 lanes are for exiting vehicles with one lane for bicycles and pedicabs; the entire route is located in Quezon City. Quezon City Triangle Park Major Roads in Metro Manila Quezon Avenue Epifanio De los Santos Avenue Quezon Memorial Circle Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City Media related to Elliptical Road, Quezon City at Wikimedia Commons
Philippine Carabao Center
The Philippine Carabao Center, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, was established at Science City of Muñoz in Nueva Ecija province in 1992 to breed and cross carabao based on high-yield Murrah buffalo in the Philippines as a multi-purpose animal that can be raised for milk, meat and draft. It was set up in 1992 on a 40 hectares piece of land donated by Central Luzon State University on its main campus with network centers. 7 more network centers were added in 1994 bringing the total to 13. It was sponsored as a bill by the senator Joseph Estrada and enacted as a law through Republic Act 7307 or the Philippine Carabao Act of 1992. To improve the breeds and milk yield, high milk yield Murrah buffalo breed were imported from the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, India, a reputed species of the dairy type originating from Haryana state of India. Murrah breed are reputed as a high milk yield breed that can produce an average of more than eight liters of milk daily over a 300 days long annual productive cycle.
Better performing Murrah buffalo can produce 12 to 15 liters per day on average, with top performers going up to 25 liters per day. PCC imported Murrah breed from non-native-breed third-party countries such Bulgaria, USA and Latin America. PCC breeds and cross-breeds Murrah buffalo through artificial insemination; the PCC had some success in reproductive biotechnology in 2004 when the first test-tube buffalo was born on April 5 the birthday of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Incidentally, the test-tube buffalo was named as "Glory" after the President. Late in 2007, according to Filipino scientists, the Center located in Nueva Ecija initiated a study to breed the super water buffalo that could produce 4 to 18 liters of milk/day using gene-based technology; the majority of the funding came from the Department of Technology. When this marker-assisted selection process is perfected it will allow the poor farmers to conserve their resources by raising only the best producers that are genetically selected soon after birth.
PCC has 13 network centers at various host universities including the following: Luzon Mariano Marcos State University at Batac city of Ilocos Norte. PCC was established in 1994. Cagayan State University at Piat city of Cagayan. PCC was established in 1992. Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University at Rosario city of La Union. PCC established in 1994. PCC was established in 1994. Central Luzon State University at Science City of Muñoz of Nueva Ecija. PCC was established in 1992. University of the Philippines Los Baños at Los Baños city of Laguna. PCC was established in 1992. Visayas Visayas State University at Baybay city of Leyte. PCC was established in 1994. West Visayas State University at Calinog of Iloilo City. PCC was established in 1994. La Carlota Stock Farm at La Granja of La Carlota, Negros Occidental. PCC was established in 1992. Ubay Stock Farm at Ubay city of Bohol. PCC was established in 1992. Mindanao Mindanao Livestock Production Center at Kalawit of Zamboanga del Norte. PCC was established in 1994.
Central Mindanao University at University Town, Musuan city of Bukidnon. PCC was established in 1992. Mindanao State University at Marawi City. PCC was established in 1994. University of Southern Mindanao at Kabacan of North Cotabato. PCC was established in 1994. Murrah buffalo Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, India Government Livestock Farm, India Philippine Carabao Center, official website Buffalopedia, created by CIRB Hisar, India
Department of Agrarian Reform (Philippines)
The Philippines' Department of Agrarian Reform is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for the redistribution of agrarian land in the Philippines. Bureau of Agrarian Reform Legal Assistance Bureau of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Development Bureau of Land Tenure Improvement Bureau of Land Development Bureau of Agrarian Reform Information Education Department of Agrarian Reform website DAR - History
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
Agriculture in the Philippines
Agriculture in the Philippines employs 27.7% of the Filipino workforce as of 2017, according to the World Bank The Philippines is the 8th largest rice producer in the world, accounting for 2.8% of global rice production. The Philippines was the world's largest rice importer in 2010. In 2010, nearly 15.7 million metric tons of palay were produced. In 2010, palay accounted for 21.86% percent of gross value added in agriculture and 2.37% of GNP. Self-sufficiency in rice reached 88.93% in 2015. Rice production in the Philippines has grown since the 1950s. Improved varieties of rice developed during the Green Revolution, including at the International Rice Research Institute based in the Philippines have improved crop yields. Crop yields have improved due to increased use of fertilisers. Average productivity increased from 1.23 metric tons per hectare in 1961 to 3.59 metric tons per hectare in 2009. Harvest Yields have increased by using foliar fertilizer based on PhilRice National Averages; the table below shows some of the agricultural products of the country per region.
There are 11 regions that produce sugarcane in the Philippines. A range from 360,000 to 390,000 hectares are devoted to sugarcane production; the largest sugarcane areas are found in the Negros Island Region, which accounts for 51% of sugarcane areas planted. This is followed by Mindanao which accounts for 20%, it is estimated that as of 2012, the industry provides direct employment to 700,000 sugarcane workers spread across 19 sugar producing provinces. Sugar growing in the Philippines pre-dates colonial Spanish contact. Sugar became the most important agricultural export of the Philippines between the late eighteenth century and the mid-1970s. During the 1950s and 60s, more than 20 percent income of Philippine exports came from the sugar industry. Between 1913 and 1974, the Philippines sugar industry enjoyed favoured terms of trade with the US, with special access to the protected and subsidized the American sugar market. Coconuts plays an important role in the national economy of the Philippines.
According to figures published in December 2015 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, it is the world's largest producer of coconuts, producing 19,500,000 tonnes in 2015. Production in the Philippines is concentrated in medium-sized farms. There are 3.5 million hectares dedicated to coconut production in the Philippines, which accounts for 25 per cent of total agricultural land in the country. In 1989, it was estimated that between 25 percent and 33 percent of the population was at least dependent on coconuts for their livelihood; the Southern Tagalog and Bicol regions of Luzon and the Eastern Visayas were the centers of coconut production. In the 1980s, Western Mindanao and Southern Mindanao became important coconut-growing regions. According to the Philippine Fiber Industry Development Authority, the Philippines provided 87.4% of the world's abaca in 2014, earning the Philippines US$111.33 million. The demand is still greater than the supply; the remainder came from Costa Rica.
The Bicol region in the Philippines produced 27,885 metric tons of abaca in 2014, the largest of any Philippine region. The Philippine Rural Development Program and the Department of Agriculture reported that in 2009-2013, Bicol Region had 39% share of Philippine abaca production while overwhelming 92% comes from Catanduanes Island. Eastern Visayas, the second largest producer had 24% and the Davao Region, the third largest producer had 11% of the total production. Around 42 percent of the total abaca fiber shipments from the Philippines went to the United Kingdom in 2014, making it the top importer. Germany imported 37.1 percent abaca pulp from the Philippines. Sales of abaca cordage surged 20 percent in 2014 to a total of 5,093 MT from 4,240 MT, with the United States holding around 68 percent of the market; the Philippines is the world's third largest producer of pineapples, producing more than 2.4 million of tonnes in 2015. The Philippines was in the top three banana producing countries including India and China.
Davao and Mindanao contribute to the total national banana crop. Mangoes are the third most important fruit crop of the country based on export volume and value next to bananas and pineapples. Corn is the second most important crop in the Philippines. 600,000 farm households are employed in different businesses in the corn value chain. As of 2012, around 2.594 Million ha of land is under corn cultivation and the total production is 7.408 million metric ton. There are an estimated 458,000 families dependent upon the cultivation of rubber trees. Rubber is planted in Mindanao, with some plantings in Luzon and the Visayas; as of 2013, the total rubber production is 111,204 tons. Coffee production in the Philippines Ostrich farming in the Philippines Crocodile farming in the Philippines Federation of Free FarmersGovernment: Department of Agriculture Land Bank of the PhilippinesLand reform: Land reform in the Philippines Agricultural Land Reform Code Department of Agrarian ReformGeneral: Economy of the Philippines Jesus, Ed. C.
De. The Tobacco Monopoly in the Philippines: Bureaucratic Enterprise and Social Change, 1766-1880. Ateneo University Press. ISBN 9715501680. Retrieved 24 April 2014