Robert Watson (computer scientist)
Robert Nicholas Maxwell Watson is a FreeBSD developer, founder of the TrustedBSD Project. He is employed as a University Lecturer in Systems and Architecture in the Security Research Group at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. Watson graduated in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University and has attained a PhD from University of Cambridge; as well as Cambridge, he has worked at the National Institutes of Health, Carnegie Mellon University, Trusted Information Systems, Network Associates, McAfee, SPARTA. He obtained a PhD in computer security from the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, supervised by Ross Anderson and sponsored by Google. Watson's work has been supported by DARPA, Apple Computer, the Navy, other US government agencies, his main research interests are operating system security. His main open source software contributions include his work in developing the multi-threaded and multi-processor FreeBSD network stack, the TrustedBSD project, OpenBSM, his writing has been featured in forums such as ACM's Queue Magazine, the USENIX Annual Technical Conference, BSDCon, a Slashdot interview.
He was a FreeBSD Core Team member from 2000 to 2012. Watson is coauthor of the standard textbook The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System by Marshall Kirk McKusick
James H. Davenport
James Harold Davenport is a British computer scientist who works in computer algebra. Having done his PhD and early research at the Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, he is the Hebron and Medlock Professor of Information Technology at the University of Bath in Bath, England. In 1969, the team that developed the ATM at IBM Hursley used parts from that project to build an IBM School Computer, as a community outreach project, it toured the region; when it came to James Davenport’s school, he discovered that, although it was ostensibly a six-digit computer, the microcode had access to a 12-digit internal register to do multiply/divide. He therefore used this to implement Draim's algorithm from his father's book, The Higher Arithmetic, was testing eight-digit numbers for primality until the teacher’s patience wore out, he worked in a government laboratory for nine months, again writing and using multiword arithmetic, but using his knowledge of number theory to solve a problem in hashing, which earned him his first published paper at 18.
He went to Cambridge University, to IBM Yorktown Heights for a year, back to Cambridge as a Research Fellow, to Grenoble for a year, before going to the new University of Bath "for a couple of years" in 1983. Davenport is an author of a textbook of many papers, he has been Project Chair of the European OpenMath Project and its successor Thematic Network, with responsibilities for aligning OpenMath and MathML, producing Content Dictionaries and supervised a Reduce-based OpenMath/MathML translator, was Treasurer of the European Mathematical Trust. He was Founding Editor-in-Chief of the London Mathematical Society's Journal of Computation and Mathematics. Davenport is the son of Harold Davenport. A Fulbright CyberSecurity Scholar at New York University and maintains a blog
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
EDSAC 2 was an early computer, the successor to the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. It was the first computer to have a microprogrammed control unit and a bit-slice hardware architecture. First calculations were performed on incomplete machine in 1957
Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits. At the time of his death, Wilkes was an Emeritus Professor of the University of Cambridge. Wilkes was born in Dudley, Worcestershire and grew up in Stourbridge, West Midlands, where his father worked on the estate of the Earl of Dudley, he was educated at King Edward VI College and during his school years he was introduced to amateur radio by his chemistry teacher. He went on to read the Mathematical Tripos at St John's College, Cambridge from 1931–34, continuing to complete a PhD in physics on the topic of radio propagation of long radio waves in the ionosphere in 1936, he was appointed to a junior faculty position of the University of Cambridge through which he was involved in the establishment of a computing laboratory.
He was called up for military service during World War II and worked on radar at the Telecommunications Research Establishment, in operational research. In 1945, Wilkes was appointed as the second director of the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory; the Cambridge laboratory had many different computing devices, including a differential analyser. One day Leslie Comrie visited Wilkes and lent him a copy of John von Neumann's prepress description of the EDVAC, a successor to the ENIAC under construction by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, he had to read it overnight. He decided that the document described the logical design of future computing machines, that he wanted to be involved in the design and construction of such machines. In August 1946 Wilkes travelled by ship to the United States to enroll in the Moore School Lectures, of which he was only able to attend the final two weeks because of various travel delays. During the five-day return voyage to England, Wilkes sketched out in some detail the logical structure of the machine which would become EDSAC.
Since his laboratory had its own funding, he was able to start work on a small practical machine, the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, once back at Cambridge. He decided that his mandate was not to invent a better computer, but to make one available to the university. Therefore, his approach was relentlessly practical, he used only proven methods for constructing each part of the computer. The resulting computer was smaller than other planned contemporary computers. However, his laboratory's computer was the second practical stored program computer to be completed, operated from May 1949, well over a year before the much larger and more complex EDVAC. In 1950, along with David Wheeler, Wilkes used EDSAC to solve a differential equation relating to gene frequencies in a paper by Ronald Fisher; this represents the first use of a computer for a problem in the field of biology. In 1951, he developed the concept of microprogramming from the realisation that the central processing unit of a computer could be controlled by a miniature specialised computer program in high-speed ROM.
This concept simplified CPU development. Microprogramming was first described at the University of Manchester Computer Inaugural Conference in 1951 published in expanded form in IEEE Spectrum in 1955; this concept was implemented for the first time in EDSAC 2, which used multiple identical "bit slices" to simplify design. Interchangeable, replaceable tube assemblies were used for each bit of the processor; the next computer for his laboratory was the Titan, a joint venture with Ferranti Ltd begun in 1963. It supported the UK's first time-sharing system and provided wider access to computing resources in the university, including time-shared graphics systems for mechanical CAD.. Control Memory, used in today's computer was developed by using the concept of this Microprogramming. A notable design feature of the Titan's operating system was that it provided controlled access based on the identity of the program, as well as or instead of, the identity of the user, it introduced the password encryption system used by Unix.
Its programming system had an early version control system. Wilkes is credited with the idea of symbolic labels and subroutine libraries; these are fundamental developments that made programming much easier and paved the way for high-level programming languages. Wilkes worked on an early timesharing systems and distributed computing. Toward the end of the 1960s, Wilkes became interested in capability-based computing, the laboratory assembled a unique computer, the Cambridge CAP. In 1974 Wilkes encountered a Swiss data network that used a ring topology to allocate time on the network; the laboratory used a prototype to share peripherals. Commercial partnerships were formed, similar technology became available in England, he received a number of distinctions: he was a knight bachelor, Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the Royal Society. Wilkes received a number of distinctions: he was a knight bachelor, Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1956.
He was a founder member of the British Computer
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Cambridge University Reporter
The Cambridge University Reporter, founded in 1870, is the official journal of record of the University of Cambridge, England. The Cambridge University Reporter appears within the University and online every Wednesday during Full Term, carrying notices of all University business; this includes announcements of University events, proposals for changes in regulations and General Board decisions, as well as information on awards and appointments. The weekly numbers are supplemented by special numbers, which contain additional information of use or information to members of the University, but not included in the weekly editions; these special numbers include the Lecture List, published at the start of the Michaelmas term and giving details of all the year's lectures. Numbers of the Reporter are published at the discretion of the Registrary; each issue of the Reporter bears the line "Published By Authority", referring to the fact that in its official part, it contains only University Notices issued by authority, to say, by those University bodies which have a right of reporting to the University.
In its unofficial part, the Reporter contains Reports of Discussions. The printed edition of the Reporter is printed in Great Britain by the University Press and published by Cambridge University Press, it is registered at the Post Office as a newspaper. Most of the Reporter is now available on the Internet. However, because of the requirements of the Data Protection Act, some of the content of the online Reporter is limited to the cam.ac.uk domain, some copies are made available only in printed form. Copies of the Reporter are made available gratis to Praelectors of the Colleges. Members of the University who live in Cambridge or any member of the Regent House is entitled to receive copies of the Reporter for a term and the following vacation at a reduced price; the excess of the cost of the Reporter over the Receipts is charged to the Chest. In 2005, controversy was caused within the University when an edition of the Reporter was recalled in order to be republished with corrections. Oxford University Gazette Cambridge University Reporter