The New Zealand Herald
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. It has the largest newspaper circulation of all newspapers in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, although circulation of the daily Herald had declined to 115,213 copies on average by December 2017, its main circulation area is the Auckland region. It is delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland and King Country; the New Zealand Herald was founded by William Chisholm Wilson, first published on 13 November 1863. Wilson had been a partner with John Williamson in the New Zealander, but left to start a rival daily newspaper as he saw a business opportunity with Auckland's growing population, he had split with Williamson because Wilson supported the war against the Māori while Williamson opposed it. The Herald promoted a more constructive relationship between the North and South Islands. After the New Zealander closed in 1866 The Daily Southern Cross provided competition after Julius Vogel took a majority shareholding in 1868.
The Daily Southern Cross was first published in 1843 by William Brown as The Southern Cross and had been a daily since 1862. Vogel sold out of the paper in 1873 and Alfred Horton bought it in 1876. In 1876 the Wilson family and Horton joined in partnership and The New Zealand Herald absorbed The Daily Southern Cross. In 1879 the United Press Association was formed so that the main daily papers could share news stories; the organisation became the New Zealand Press Association in 1942. In 1892, the New Zealand Herald, Otago Daily Times, Press agreed to share the costs of a London correspondent and advertising salesman; the New Zealand Press Association closed in 2011. The Wilson and Horton families were both represented in the company, known as Wilson & Horton, until 1996 when Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media Group of Dublin purchased the Horton family's interest in the company; the Herald is now owned by Entertainment. That company is owned by Sydney-based APN News & Media and the Radio Network, owned by the Australian Radio Network.
Dita de Boni was a columnist for the newspaper, writing her first columns for the NZ Herald in 1995. From 2012 - 2015 she wrote a business and politics column until – after a series of articles critical of the Key government – the Herald discontinued her column for financial reasons. Gordon Minhinnick was a staff cartoonist from the 1930s until his retirement in the 1980s. Malcolm Evans was fired from his position as staff cartoonist in 2003 after the newspaper received complaints about his cartoons on the conflict between Israel and Palestine. Laurence Clark was the daily political cartoonist from 1987 to 1996, continued to publish cartoons weekly in the Herald until 2000. On 10 September 2012, the Herald moved to a compact format for weekday editions, after 150 years publishing in broadsheet format; the broadsheet format was retained for the Saturday edition. In April 2007, APN NZ announced it was outsourcing the bulk of the Herald's copy editing to an Australian-owned company, Pagemasters.
In November 2012, two months after the launch of its new compact format, APN News and Media announced it would be restructuring its workforce, cutting eight senior roles from across the Herald's range of titles. The Herald is traditionally a centre-right newspaper, was given the nickname "Granny Herald" into the 1990s; this changed with the acquisition of the paper by Independent News & Media in 1996, today, despite remaining free enterprise oriented on economic matters such as trade and foreign investment, the Herald is editorially progressive on international geopolitics and military matters, printing material from British newspapers such as The Independent and The Observer but more conservative newspapers such as The Daily Telegraph. It regularly reprints syndicated material from the and politically conservative, right-wing British tabloid the Daily Mail; the Herald's stance on the Middle East is supportive of Israel, as seen most in its 2003 censorship and dismissal of cartoonist Malcolm Evans following his submission of cartoons critical of Israel.
On domestic matters, editorial opinion is centrist supporting conservative values. In 2007, an editorial disapproved of some legislation introduced by the Labour-led government, the Electoral Finance Act, to the point of overtly campaigning against the legislation. In July 2015, the New Zealand Press Council ruled that Herald columnist Rachel Glucina had failed to properly represent herself as a journalist when seeking comment from Amanda Bailey on a complaint she had made about Prime Minister John Key pulling her hair when he was a customer at the cafe in which she worked; the Herald published Bailey's name and comments after she had retracted permission for Glucina to do so. The council said there was an “element of subterfuge” in Glucina's actions and that there was not enough public interest to justify her behaviour. In its ruling the council said that, “The NZ Herald has fallen sadly short of those standards in this case.” The Herald's editor denied the accusations of subterfuge. Glucina subsequently resigned from the newspaper.
In 1998 the Weekend Herald was set up as a separate title and the newspaper's website was launched. A compact-sized Sunday edition, the Herald on Sunday, was first published on 3 October 2004 under the editorship of Suzanne Chetwin and for five years, by Shayne Currie, it won Newspaper of the Year for the calendar years 2007 and 2009 and is New Zealand's second-highest-circulating weekly newspaper after the more established and conservative broadshee
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
The Ministry of Business and Employment is the public service department of New Zealand charged with "delivering policy, services and regulation" which contribute to New Zealand's economic productivity and business growth. Formed on 1 July 2012, MBIE is a merger of the Department of Building and Housing, the Department of Labour, the Ministry of Economic Development, the Ministry of Science and Innovation. In October 2018, the newly-created Ministry of Housing and Urban Development assumed several of MBIE's housing and social policy and regulatory functions including the KiwiBuild programme, the Community Housing Regulatory Authority, administration of funding for the HomeStart, Welcome Home Loans, the legacy Social Housing Fund and Community Group Housing programmes. Senior Leadership Chief Executive Deputy Chief Executive - Immigration Deputy Chief Executive - Corporate Governance and Information Deputy Chief Executive - Building and Markets Deputy Chief Executive - Labour and Enterprise Deputy Chief Executive - Market Services Chief Financial Officer Head of the Office of the Chief Executive The Ministry manages a number of operational services, including: Business.govt.nz Companies Office, which manages registers for: motor-vehicle traders financial-service providers societies and trusts personal-property securities Consumer Affairs Electricity Authority Electrical Workers Registration Board Government procurement Immigration New Zealand Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand Major events Māori Economic Development, including partnership with the independent Māori Economic Development Panel and partnering in He kai kei aku ringa - the Māori Economic Development Strategy and Action Plan Insolvency and Trustee Service Natural Hazards Research Platform New Zealand Cycle Trail New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals New Zealand Space Agency Pike River Recovery Agency Radio Spectrum Management Strategic Science Investment Fund Vision Mātauranga The Ministry serves 15 portfolios, 1 other responsibility, 12 ministers and 1 Parliamentary under-secretary.
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
The HOYTS Group is an Australian group of companies, including Hoyts Exhibition, Hoyts Kiosk and Val Morgan. It has two components: Hoyts Cinema, which incorporates the chain of successful cinema complexes in Australia and New Zealand with more than 450 screens and over 55,000 seats; the Hoyts Group CEO, Damien Keogh, was appointed to the role in 2014. In 2015, Hoyts was acquired by the Wanda Group, a subsidiary of Chinese conglomerate Dalian Wanda Group. At the start of the 20th century, Dr. Arthur Russell, a successful dentist, purchased a share in a small touring circus-type tent show incorporating magic and moving pictures. Russell performed shows at St George's Hall in Bourke Street, in 1909 moving pictures was the only attraction. Russell negotiated a long lease for St George's Hall with the purpose of opening a Picture Palace called Hoyt's Pictures. By the time he died at the end of World War I, Hoyts had expanded into the suburbs of Melbourne, into Sydney. On September 29, 1926, Hoyts and two other companies, Electric Theatres Pty. Ltd. and Associated Theatres Pty. Ltd. merged to become Hoyts Theatres Limited.
In 1930 the Fox Film Corp. acquired majority of shares in Hoyts Theatres Ltd. In August 1982, Twentieth Century Fox sold Hoyts to Stardawn Investments, a group of four Melbourne businessmen. In April 1985, the Fink family subsequently bought out the other partners to become the sole owner. In 1987, the corporation was restructured and two of the companies in the corporation were listed on the Australian Stock Exchange: Hoyts Media and Hoyts Entertainment. However, the company that owned the cinemas, Hoyts Cinemas, was not floated until 1996; the years between 1987 and 1996 saw considerable expansion for Hoyts, expanding in Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Following Leon Fink's death in 1993, the Hoyts organisation was sold to Hellman & Friedman and Lend-Lease; the company went public in 1995. In 1999, Hoyts celebrated its 90th anniversary and was ranked the seventh largest cinema exhibitor in the world. In the same year, the late Kerry Packer's private family company, Consolidated Press Holdings, bought the chain for $620 million.
After that, Hoyts began to sell off international cinemas except for some New Zealand cinemas. In 2004, it joined forces with Village Roadshow and AHL to bail out Val Morgan Cinema Advertising taking their stake to 100% in 2005. In December that year, PBL and West Australian Newspapers purchased the company from Consolidated Press Holdings. In 2007, Hoyts was sold to Sydney-based private equity firm Pacific Equity Partners; the sale valued the company at A$440 million. In October 2008, Hoyts announced a takeover bid for Australian Multiplex Cinemas; the purchase did not proceed, although at the time Hoyts still hoped to return to Queensland, where they had owned theatres in Brisbane and a three cinema complex in Surfers Paradise on the Gold Coast. In 2010, Hoyts acquired the Berkeley Cinema Group in New Zealand and Australian Multiplex Cinema to re-enter the Queensland market. In December 2014, Hoyts was bought by Chinese billionaire Sun Xishuang, through his investment company ID Leisure Ventures.
On 2 June 2015 Wanda Cinema Line, a subsidiary of Dalian Wanda Group, purchased Hoyts from ID Leisure Ventures. Hoyts Distribution was the film distribution arm of the Group until 2012, it existed in its own right in the 1980s- early 1990s, was merged with the distribution operations of Sony Pictures and Twentieth Century Fox. In 2002, the company was brought back to life, distributing films produced by Nine Films and Television, Channel 9's film production arm, major independent studios, such as Lions Gate Entertainment. In July 2012 it was acquired by StudioCanal. Val Morgan holds the advertising rights to all advertising screens in Australia and all screens in New Zealand. Val Morgan's sister company, VMO, operates a digital out-of-home advertising network in four key environments: shopping centres, health clubs, service stations and office towers. Australian Theatres Birch Carroll & Coyle Event Cinemas Greater Union Palace Cinemas Reading Cinemas The Movie Masters Cinema Group Village Cinemas Wallis Cinemas Warner Village Cinemas Hoyts Cinemas Australia Hoyts Cinemas New Zealand
A wilderness hut, backcountry hut, or backcountry shelter is a rent-free, simple shelter or hut for temporary accommodation located in wilderness areas, national parks and along backpacking and hiking routes. They are found in many parts of the world, such as Finland, Sweden and northern Russia, New Zealand and the United States. Huts range from being basic and unmanned, without running water, to furnished and permanently attended. Remote huts sometimes contain emergency food supplies. Similar shelters can be found in remote areas of the Alps. In order to complete some tours, it is necessary to spend the night in such shelters. Though Biwakschachteln are tended to by the Alpine Clubs, they differ markedly from the more accessible mountain huts, which are actual houses suitable for permanent use. Unlike mountain huts, they do not have a permanent resident who tends to the building and sells food to mountaineers. In general, these huts do not have regular maintenance schedules nor paid maintenance staff.
Unofficial rules for use have arisen. Visitors are expected to leave the hut. Fires should never be left unattended, if the firewood supply is used up, the visitors should replace it; some areas are designated fuel stove only, because cooking on a fuel stove can reduce the use of firewood. Some huts contain emergency food stores like canned food and bottled water, meant to consumed in urgent situations. No toilet facilities are present, the general rule requires that toilet waste should be buried away from the nearest watercourse or the hut. No running water is available in the huts, it is recommended when using water from a stream, that the water should be boiled for at least five minutes because of the potential danger of gastroenteritis and giardia. Detergents and soap can harm aquatic life, waterways are damaged; when leaving the hut, visitors are expected to leave it clean and secure, with the fire out, the doors and windows securely closed. Escaping fires can damage the environment. Rubbish should not be buried.
Rubbish like cans, plastic bottles or broken glass are dug out by native animals and may harm them. All waste should be disposed of by taking it away for proper disposal. Rules can differ between Europe, Australia and US. Official wilderness huts are maintained by Metsähallitus, the Finnish state-owned forest management company. Most of the wilderness huts in Finland are situated in the northern and eastern parts of the country, their size can vary greatly: the Lahtinen cottage in the Muotkatunturi Wilderness Area can hold two people, whereas the Luirojärvi cottage in the Urho Kekkonen National Park can hold as many as 16. A wilderness hut need not be reserved beforehand, they are open for everyone tracking by foot, ski or similar means. Commercial stays overnight are prohibited in the wilderness huts owned by Metsähallitus. Unofficial and unmaintained huts exist. For centuries the vast wildernesses of Finland and its resources were divided amongst the Finnish agricultural societies for the purpose of collecting resources.
Areas divided in this way were called erämaa "portion-land,". People from agricultural societies made trips to their erämaas in the summer to trap animals for fur but to hunt game and collect taxes from the local hunter-fisher population. Huts were built in the wilderness for use as base camps for fishermen. Non-agricultural Sami people built huts to help them manage reindeer; the earliest huts were only allowed to be used by people from the communities. Outsiders were not allowed to use the resources of other communities' erämaas. Huts that were free for everyone were first seen in late 18th century Finland, when dwelling places were built along walking routes for passers-by. In the 19th century the authorities started building these huts. In the 20th century they started to be built for travellers. New Zealand has a network of 950 backcountry huts; the huts are maintained by the Department of Conservation, although some of the huts have been adopted and maintained by local hiking and hunting clubs by arrangement.
There are unofficial and owned huts in some places. They vary from small bivouac shelters made of wood to large modern huts that can sleep up to 40 people, with separate cooking areas and gas; some huts were commissioned or built by clubs along walked routes, both for safety reasons as appropriate, sometimes for convenience. The network of back-country huts in New Zealand was extended in the mid-20th-century, when many more were built to serve the deer cullers of the New Zealand Forest Service. Most larger and more modern huts, like some found on the Great Walks, have been purpose designed and built to serve trampers. Many of New Zealand's back-country huts are remote and visited, it is common for recreational trampers to design trips with the idea of reaching and visiting specific huts; some people keep count of which huts they have visited, a practice, informally referred to as hut bagging. Back-country huts in New Zealand were free to use until the early 1990s, when the New Zealand Department of Conservation began charging for their use.
For most back-country huts, nightly hut tickets are purchased via an honesty system by people who use the huts, with an additional option of purchasing an annual pass for people who use huts frequently. Huts on frequen
Tramping in New Zealand
Tramping, known elsewhere as backpacking, hill walking or bushwalking, is a popular activity in New Zealand. Tramping is defined as a recreational activity involving walking over rough country. Trampers carry a backpack and wet-weather gear, may carry equipment for cooking and sleeping. Alpine climbing has been a recreational activity from the early days of European settlement, earlier. From the 1950s tracks and bridges were built in the forested areas of New Zealand to support hunters culling introduced deer species which had become a threat to the biodiversity of New Zealand; as tramping became popular these facilities were used by trampers. In years tramping has become popular for both local and foreign tourists. Tramping clubs were formed in many towns and universities with regular trips being organised; the clubs sometimes own a bus to transport club members to the tracks. A network of tramping tracks has been developed throughout New Zealand of varying lengths and difficulties. A small number of tramping tracks cross private land either in full.
All of the major tramping tracks are on public land, administered by the Department of Conservation. Among the best-known tracks are the nine Great Walks and the ultra-long-distance Te Araroa. There is a network of more than 950 backcountry huts throughout New Zealand operated by the Department of Conservation on public land; some areas have owned huts on public land used for commercial tourism operations. The majority of the huts were built by the now defunct New Zealand Forest Service for deer culling operations. Other huts were built by alpine clubs and ski clubs; some of the buildings on public land that are accessible by vehicle, are "baches" or "cribs" built by private individuals when control of the use of public land was less stringent. These baches are not made available to the public; some public huts are associated with a local club and volunteers from clubs will perform much of the maintenance on these huts. In the Tararua Forest Park north of Wellington huts are managed in a partnership between DOC and various lower North Island clubs.
In the eastern Southern Alps near Christchurch some huts are managed by the Canterbury Mountaineering Club and they rely on fees from these huts to help pay the cost of maintenance. Amongst experienced trampers there is a strong culture of looking after huts; the phrase "hut etiquette" encompasses looking after any hut, used and showing consideration for other hut users. Most huts on the conservation estate are open to the public and the state of a hut depends on the care by those who use it; this environmental care code promoted by the Department of Conservation contains a 10-point checklist of things that can be done in the outdoors to help minimise impact: National parks of New Zealand Forest parks of New Zealand Regional parks of New Zealand Protected areas of New Zealand Conservation in New Zealand Camping in New Zealand Barnett, Shaun. Shelter from the storm: the story of New Zealand's backcountry huts. Nelson, N. Z: Craig Potton Publishing. ISBN 9781877517709. Barnett, Shaun. Tramping: A New Zealand History.
Nelson, N. Z: Craig Potton Publishing. ISBN 9781927213230. Federated Mountain Clubs of New Zealand - an umbrella lobby group representing outdoors organisations Bushcraft New Zealand - Information about enjoying the New Zealand outdoors New Zealand Tramper - tramping related information. Tramping - Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand Tramping in New Zealand at Curlie