Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
The Chief of the Defence Force is the professional head of the Australian Defence Force and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Minister of Defence. The current Chief of the Defence Force is General Angus Campbell, who took office on 6 July 2018; the CDF commands the ADF under the direction of the Minister of Defence and provides advice on matters that relate to military activity, including military operations. In a diarchy, the CDF serves as co-chairman of the Defence Committee, conjointly with the Secretary of Defence, in the command and control of the Australian Defence Organisation; the CDF is the Australian equivalent position of what in NATO and the European Union is known as the Chief of Defence, in the United Kingdom is known as the Chief of the Defence Staff, in the United States is known as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, although with the latter prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the US Armed Forces. Constitutionally, the Governor-General of Australia, is the de jure Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force.
However, in practice, the Australian Government de facto exercises executive power via the Federal Executive Council. The CDF is appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of his/her ministers; the appointment is politically neutral, as are all military positions, not affected by a change of government. Since 4 July 2014, the CDF is appointed for a fixed four-year term under the Defence Act. Prior to this date, the appointment was for three years; the position of CDF is notionally rotated between the Royal Australian Navy, the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force. However, in practice this has not been the case; the current Chief of the Defence Force is General Angus Campbell. During peacetime, the Chief of the Defence Force is the only four-star officer in the ADF; the CDF is assisted by the Vice Chief of the Defence Force and serves as the Chairman of the Chiefs of Service Committee, composed of the service chiefs: the Chief of Navy, Chief of Army, Chief of Air Force, all of whom are three-star officers.
Prior to 1958 there was no equivalent. Instead, the senior service chief served as Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee. In March 1958, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells was appointed Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee, a role independent of and notionally senior to the Army and Air Force chiefs; however and his successors did not command the Australian armed forces in any legal sense. In February 1976, COSC was dissolved and the new position of Chief of Defence Force Staff was created with command authority over the ADF. In October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force to more reflect the role and its authority; the following list chronologically records those who have held the post of Chief of the Defence Force or its preceding positions. The official title of the position at that period of time is listed before the officers who held the role; the honours are as at the completion of the individual's term. Australian Government. "Department of Defence". Commonwealth of Australia.
"Defence Organisational Structure Chart". Department of Defence. Commonwealth of Australia. 21 September 2015
Parliament of Australia
The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Senate and the House of Representatives; the combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modelled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system; the upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, two each for the territories, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. Senators are elected using the single transferable vote proportional representation system and as a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power; the governing party or coalition has not held a majority in the Senate since 1981 and needs to negotiate with other parties and Independents to get legislation passed. The lower house, the House of Representatives consists of 150 members, each elected using full-preference instant-runoff voting from single-member constituencies known as electoral divisions.
This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major political groups, the centre-right Coalition and the centre-left Labor Party. The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power. Although elections can be called early, every three years the full House of Representatives and half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection. A deadlock-breaking mechanism known as a double dissolution can be used to dissolve the full Senate as well as the House in the event that the Upper House twice refuses to pass a piece of legislation passed by the Lower House; the two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January 1901 with the federation of the six Australian colonies; the inaugural election took place on 29 and 30 March and the first Australian Parliament was opened on 9 May 1901 in Melbourne by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall and York King George V.
The only building in Melbourne, large enough to accommodate the 14,000 guests was the western annexe of the Royal Exhibition Building. After the official opening, from 1901 to 1927 the Parliament met in Parliament House, which it borrowed from the Parliament of Victoria, it had always been intended. This was a compromise at Federation due to the rivalry between the two largest Australian cities and Melbourne, which both wished to become the new capital; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital city in 1908. A competition was announced on 30 June 1914 to design Parliament House, with prize money of £7,000. However, due to the start of World War I the next month, the competition was cancelled, it was re-announced in August 1916, but again postponed indefinitely on 24 November 1916. In the meantime, John Smith Murdoch, the Commonwealth's Chief Architect, worked on the design as part of his official duties, he had little personal enthusiasm for the project, as he felt it was a waste of money and expenditure on it could not be justified at the time.
He designed the building by default. The construction of Old Parliament House, as it is called today, commenced on 28 August 1923 and was completed in early 1927, it was built by the Commonwealth Department of Works, using tradesmen and materials from all over Australia. The final cost was about £600,000, more than three times the original estimate, it was designed to house the parliament for a maximum of 50 years until a permanent facility could be built, but was so used for more than 60 years. The building was opened on 9 May 1927 by the Duchess of York; the opening ceremonies were both splendid and incongruous, given the sparsely built nature of Canberra of the time and its small population. The building was extensively decorated with British Empire and Australian flags and bunting. Temporary stands were erected bordering the lawns in front of the Parliament and these were filled with crowds. A Wiradjuri elder, Jimmy Clements, was one of only two aboriginal Australians present, having walked for about a week from Brungle Station to be at the event.
Dame Nellie Melba sang the National anthem. The Duke of York unlocked the front doors with a golden key, led the official party into King's Hall where he unveiled the statue of his father, King George V; the Duke opened the first parliamentary session in the new Senate Chamber. In 1978 the Fraser Government decided to proceed with a new building on Capital Hill, the Parliament House Construction Authority was created. A two-stage competition was announced, for which the Authority consulted the Royal Australian Institute of Architects and, together with the National Capital Development Commission, made available to competitors a brief and competition documents; the design competition drew 329 entries from 29 countries. The competition winner was the Philadelphia-based architectural firm of Mitchell/Giurgola, with the on-site wor
Gregory Laurence Moriarty is a senior Australian public servant and diplomat, the current Secretary of the Department of Defence since 4 September 2017. He was the Chief of Staff to the Prime Minister of Australia Malcolm Turnbull. Moriarty has been Australian Ambassador to Iran from 2005 to 2008, Australian Ambassador to Indonesia from 2010 to 2014, the inaugural Commonwealth Counter-Terrorism Coordinator from 2015 to 2016, the International and National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister. Gregory Laurence Moriarty was born in Brisbane, Queensland, on 4 April 1964, he has a Bachelor of Arts with Honours from the University of Western Australia and a Master of Arts in Strategic and Defence Studies from the Strategic and Defence Studies Centre at the Australian National University. Moriarty joined the Department of Defence in 1986 and worked in Defence until 1995 in the Defence Intelligence Organisation as a regional analyst. An officer in the Australian Army Reserve, Moriarty was attached to the Headquarters of the United States Central Command in the Persian Gulf during Operations Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.
Moriarty has returned to the Department of Defence in 2017 as the Secretary of the Department of Defence. Prior to taking up his first ambassadorial role as Australian Ambassador to Iran in March 2005, Moriarty worked in various positions in the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, including in the Papua New Guinea Section and with postings at the Australian High Commission in Port Moresby, as Assistant Secretary of the Maritime South East Asia Branch, Deputy Leader and Senior Negotiator of the Peace Monitoring Group on Bougainville in 1998; as Ambassador to Iran, he resided in Tehran from 2005 to 2008. While in the role, Moriarty travelled to Washington to brief US President George Bush on Iranian politics, becoming one of a small number of Australian diplomats to have briefed an American president. Moriarty was the Assistant Secretary for the Parliamentary and Media Branch between 2008 and 2009 and the First Assistant Secretary for the Consular, Public Diplomacy and Parliamentary Affairs Division from 2009 to 2010 of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
His nomination by the Australian Government as Australian Ambassador to Indonesia was announced in July 2010. He arrived in Indonesia in late October prior to the Mount Merapi eruptions and the 2010 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. Whilst Moriaty was Ambassador to Indonesia, the Australian Government escalated its border protection policy; the Indonesian Government opposed Australia's boat turnback policy. During the appointment, Moriarty recommended that Australians take the time to learn more about Indonesia to set the two nations up for a great strategic partnership that would help Australian businesses to prosper. From 2014 to 2015, Moriarty was a Deputy Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. In May 2015, the Australian Government announced Moriarty's appointment as the inaugural Commonwealth Counter-Terrorism Coordination within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. In the role, Moriarty did not have authority to direct the operations of any particular agency, instead being granted authority "across agencies" to enhance cooperation between Australian intelligence and security agencies.
His role was intended to focus on preventing domestic terror threats. Soon after he began in the role, Moriarty told media that he was "stunned" by the depth and extent of the problem. After the terrorist attacks in Nice, Moriarty was authorised to examine the full range of people of interest who security agencies are investigating for counter-terrorism purposes, to identify vulnerable persons with mental health concerns or patterns of criminal behavior, examine measures needed to prevent the radicalisation of such people. In September 2016, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull appointed Moriarty his International and National Security Adviser, he was appointed the Prime Minister's Chief of Staff in April 2017
Chief of Army (Australia)
The Chief of Army is the most senior appointment in the Australian Army, responsible to both the Chief of the Defence Force and the Secretary, Department of Defence. The rank associated with the position is lieutenant general. Lieutenant General Richard Burr, the incumbent Chief of Army, has held the post since 2 July 2018; the first Commander of the Australian Army was titled General Officer Commanding, Australian Military Forces, in line with the usual British practice of the time. Experience soon showed that the position concentrated more power than the Ministers for Defence—of whom there were twelve in as many years in 1901–1913—liked. Moreover, the British Army had encountered administrative problems in the Second Boer War which led to the abolition of the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces there in 1904, its replacement by an Army Board. In 1904, Minister for Defence Anderson Dawson commissioned a report which recommended a similar system for Australia, with a Military Board consisting of four military members, the minister, a finance member.
This was implemented by James Whiteside McCay. However instead of creating a Chief of the General Staff as per the report, McCay's Military Board consisted of only three military members, the Deputy Adjutant General, the Chief of Ordnance, the Chief of Intelligence; the post of Chief of the General Staff was created by the new Minister of Defence, George Pearce, in 1909, with Colonel William Bridges becoming the first Chief of the General Staff. The military members of the Military Board became the Chief of the General Staff, Adjutant General, Chief of Ordnance, Quartermaster General. During the Second World War, the threat of invasion led to a reversion to the old system. A Commander in Chief, General Sir Thomas Blamey, was appointed, the Military Board was suspended, with its powers being transferred to the Commander in Chief; the post of Chief of the General Staff was now subordinate to the Commander in Chief. This was successful from a military point of view but the problem of a concentration of power recurred and, after the war ended, the government decided to re-form the Military Board.
Blamey was replaced by Lieutenant General Vernon Sturdee in 1945 and the next year the post of Commander in Chief was again abolished, with Sturdee becoming Chief of the General Staff. The system continued until the reforms of Arthur Tange in 1973; the three services were unified under the Department of Defence. The Military Board was abolished and the Chief of the General Staff became subordinate to the Chief of the Defence Force Staff and the Secretary of Defence. Reflecting this change from a staff to a command role, the post was renamed Chief of Army in 1997; the following table lists all those who have held the post of Chief of Army or its preceding positions. Ranks and honours are as at the completion of their tenure. List of Australian Army generals Beaumont, Australian Defence: Sources and Statistics, South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-554118-9 Palazzo, The Australian Army: A History of Its Organisation 1901–2001, South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-551506-4 Wood, Chiefs of the Australian army: Higher Command of the Australian Military Forces 1901–1914, New South Wales: Australian Military History Publications, ISBN 1-876439-40-8
Government of Australia
The Government of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is commonly referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, Her Majesty's Government, or the Federal Government; the Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums; the Australian head of state is the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General of Australia, with executive powers delegated by constitutional convention to the Australian head of government, the Prime Minister of Australia. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister.
Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the three branches of government being set out in separate chapters. The Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, has been characterised as a "Washminster mutation". Section 1 of the Australian Constitution creates a democratic legislature, the bicameral Parliament of Australia which consists of the Queen of Australia, two houses of parliament, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Section 51 of the Constitution provides for the Commonwealth Government's legislative powers and allocates certain powers and responsibilities to the Commonwealth government. All remaining responsibilities are retained by the six States. Further, each State has its own constitution, so that Australia has seven sovereign Parliaments, none of which can encroach on the functions of any other; the High Court of Australia arbitrates on any disputes which arise between the Commonwealth and the States, or among the States, concerning their respective functions.
The Commonwealth Parliament can propose changes to the Constitution. To become effective, the proposals must be put to a referendum of all Australians of voting age, must receive a "double majority": a majority of all votes, a majority of votes in a majority of States; the Commonwealth Constitution provides that the States can agree to refer any of their powers to the Commonwealth. This may be achieved by way of an amendment to the Constitution via referendum. More powers may be transferred by passing other acts of legislation which authorise the transfer and such acts require the legislative agreement of all the state governments involved; this "transfer" legislation may have a "sunset clause", a legislative provision that nullifies the transfer of power after a specified period, at which point the original division of power is restored. In addition, Australia has several "territories", two of which are self-governing: the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; these territories' legislatures, their Assemblies, exercise powers devolved to them by the Commonwealth.
Australian citizens in these territories are represented by members of both houses of the Commonwealth Parliament. The territory of Norfolk Island was self-governing from 1979 until 2016, although it was never represented as such in the Commonwealth Parliament; the other territories that are inhabited—Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands—have never been self-governing. The federal nature of the Commonwealth and the structure of the Parliament of Australia were the subject of protracted negotiations among the colonies during the drafting of the Constitution; the House of Representatives is elected on a basis that reflects the differing populations of the States. Thus New South Wales has 48 members, but the Senate is elected on a basis of equality among the States: all States elect 12 Senators, regardless of population. This was intended to allow the Senators of the smaller States to form a majority and thus be able to amend or reject bills originating in the House of Representatives.
The ACT and the NT each elect two Senators. The third level of government after Commonwealth and State/Territory is Local government, in the form of shires and cities; the Councils of these areas are composed of elected representatives serving part-time. Their powers are devolved to them by the Territory in which they are located. Government at the Commonwealth level and the State/Territory level is undertaken by three inter-connected arms of government: Legislature: The Commonwealth Parliament Executive: The Sovereign of Australia, whose executive power is exercisable by the Governor-General, the Prime Minister and their Departments Judiciary: The High Court of Australia and subsidiary Federal courts. Separation of powers is the principle whereby the three arms of government undertake their activities separately from each other: the Legislature proposes laws in the form of Bills, provides a legislative framework for the operations of the other two a
Australian Defence Force
The Australian Defence Force is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force and a number of'tri-service' units; the ADF has a strength of just under 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies. During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations; each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a strategic change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters and training institutions have supplanted many single-service establishments; the ADF is technologically sophisticated but small. Although the ADF's 58,206 full-time active-duty personnel and 21,694 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, it is smaller than most Asian military forces.
Nonetheless, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia. The ADF's legal standing draws on the executive government sections of the Australian Constitution. Section 51 gives the Commonwealth Government the power to make laws regarding Australia's defence and defence forces. Section 114 of the Constitution prevents the States from raising armed forces without the permission of the Commonwealth and Section 119 gives the Commonwealth responsibility for defending Australia from invasion and sets out the conditions under which the government can deploy the defence force domestically. Section 68 of the Constitution sets out the ADF's command arrangements; the Section states that "the command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure, the elected government controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control. The Minister acts on most matters alone, though the National Security Committee of Cabinet considers important matters; the Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as advised in the normal form of executive government. The Commonwealth Government has never been required by the Constitution or legislation to seek parliamentary approval for decisions to deploy military forces overseas or go to war; the ADF's current priorities are set out in the 2016 Defence White Paper, which identifies three main areas of focus. The first of these is to defend Australia from direct coercion; the second priority is to contribute to the security of the South Pacific. The third priority is to contribute to stability across the Indo-Pacific region and a "rules-based global order which supports our interests"; the white paper states that the government will place equal weight on the three priorities when developing the ADF's capabilities.
Australia has maintained military forces since federation as a nation in January 1901. Shortly after Federation, the Australian Government established the Australian Army and Commonwealth Naval Force by amalgamating the forces each of the states had maintained. In 1911, the Government established the Royal Australian Navy, which absorbed the Commonwealth Naval Force; the Army established the Australian Flying Corps in 1912, separated to form the Royal Australian Air Force in 1921. The services were not linked by a single chain of command, as they each reported to their own separate Minister and had separate administrative arrangements; the three services saw action around the world during World War I and World War II, took part in conflicts in Asia during the Cold War. The importance of'joint' warfare was made clear to the Australian military during World War II when Australian naval and air units served as part of single commands. Following the war, several senior officers lobbied for the appointment of a commander in chief of the three services.
The government rejected this proposal and the three services remained independent. The absence of a central authority resulted in poor co-ordination between the services, with each service organising and operating on the basis of a different military doctrine; the need for an integrated command structure received more emphasis as a result of the inefficient arrangements which at times hindered the military's efforts during the Vietnam War. In 1973, the Secretary of the Department of Defence, Arthur Tange, submitted a report to the Government that recommended the unification of the separate departments supporting each service into a single Department of Defence and the creation of the post of Chief of the Defence Force Staff; the government accepted these recommendations and the Australian Defence Force was established on 9 February 1976. Until the 1970s, Australia's military strategy centred on the concept of'forward defence', in which the role of the Australian military was to co-operate with allied forces to counter threats in Australia's region.
In 1969, when the United States began the Guam Doctrine and the British withdrew'east of Suez', Australia developed a defence policy which emphasised self-reliance and the defence of the Australian continent. This was known as the Defence of Australia Policy. Under this policy, the focus of Australian defence planning was to protect Australia's northern maritime approaches against enemy attack. In line with this goal, the ADF was restructured to increase its ability to strike at enemy forces from Australian bases and to counter raids on continental Australia; the ADF a
Department of Civil Aviation (Australia)
The Department of Civil Aviation was an Australian government department that existed between November 1938 and November 1973. The Department of Civil Aviation had its origins as the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of Defence, established on 28 March 1921, after Parliament passed the Air Navigation Act 1920 in December 1920; the organisation was reformed as a separate Government Department after the enquiry into the 1938 Kyeema Crash. When created in 1938, the Department was organised into seven branches: Administration, Transport Services and Legislation, GroundOrganisation, Electrical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering,Flying Operations and Accounts and Stores. Arthur Brownlow Corbett was appointed Director-General of Civil Aviation in April 1939, serving until his retirement in August 1944. From June 1946 to December 1955 the Director-General was Richard Williams, a former Royal Australian Air Force Chief of the Air Staff. Donald George Anderson held the position of Director-General from January 1956 until September 1973.
On 30 November 1973 the DCA merged with the Department of Shipping and Transport and became the Department of Transport, Air Transport Group. The amalgamation was after the Second Whitlam Ministry agreed that this could achieve closer coordination of policies in the transport field and facilitate a more effective determination of the expenditure priorities and resources allocation; the Department was an Australian Public Service department responsible to the Minister for Civil Aviation. The Department was headed by the Director-General. Information about the department's functions and/or government funding allocation could be found in the Administrative Arrangements Orders, the annual Portfolio Budget Statements and in the Department's annual reports; the Department administered related legislation. Airservices Australia Civil Aviation Safety Authority