Oshkosh is a city in Winnebago County, United States, located where the Fox River enters Lake Winnebago from the west. The population was 66,083 at the 2010 census; the city is located adjacent to the Town of Oshkosh. Oshkosh was named for Menominee Chief Oshkosh, whose name meant "claw". Although the fur trade attracted the first European settlers to the area as early as 1818, it never became a major player in the fur trade. Soon after 1830, much of the trade moved west; the establishment and growth of the lumber industry in the area spurred development of Oshkosh. Designated as the county seat, Oshkosh was incorporated as a city in 1853, it had a population of nearly 2,800. The lumber industry became well established as businessmen took advantage of navigable waterways to provide access to both markets and northern pineries; the 1859 arrival of rail transportation expanded the industry's ability to meet the demands of a growing construction market. At one time, Oshkosh was known as the "Sawdust Capital of the World" due to the number of lumber mills in the city, 11 by 1860.
During the Civil War, the 21st Regiment, Wisconsin Infantry, of the Union Wisconsin Volunteers was organized at Oshkosh, taking in many new recruits. This was one of two units organized in the state; the 21st mustered in September 5, 1862, marching to Ohio and Louisville, where it participated in the fortification of Louisville that year. It was attached to the Army of the Ohio and to the Army of the Cumberland. By 1870, Oshkosh had become the third-largest city in Wisconsin, with a population of more than 12,000; the community attracted a range of professional teachers, doctors and others who helped it flourish. The Oshkosh Daily Northwestern newspaper was founded around this time, as was the Oshkosh State Normal School. Lumber continued as the mainstay of the city. By 1874, it had 15 shingle mills. On April 28, 1875, Oshkosh had a "Great Fire" that consumed homes and businesses along Main Street north of the Fox River; the fire engulfed 70 stores, 40 factories, 500 homes, costing nearly $2.5 million in damage.
Around 1900 Oshkosh was home of the Oshkosh Brewing Company, which coined the marketing slogan "By Gosh It's Good." Its Chief Oshkosh brand became a nationally distributed beer. The Oshkosh All-Stars played in the National Basketball League from 1937–49, before the NBL and the Basketball Association of America merged to become the NBA. Oshkosh reached the NBL's championship finals five times; the city has a total of 33 listings on the National Register of Historic Places. Some area entrepreneurs and businessmen made their fortunes in the lumber industry. Many made significant contributions to the community, in both politics and supporting philanthropic organizations. Following devastating fires in the mid-1870s, new buildings were commissioned in Oshkosh that expressed a range of good design: for residential, commercial and religious use; the many structures which make up the city's historic areas are a result of the capital and materials generated by the lumber and associated wood manufacturing industries.
Oshkosh had six historic districts as of October 2011. They include the Algoma Boulevard, Irving/Church, North Main Street, Oshkosh State Normal School on the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh campus, Paine Lumber Company, Washington Avenue historic districts; the city had 27 historic buildings and sites individually listed on the NRHP as of October 2011. Eleven are houses, four are churches, the remainder include schools, colleges, a bank, a fire house, an observatory, the county courthouse, a cemetery where many of the entrepreneurs are buried. Oshkosh is located at 44°1′29″N 88°33′4″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.61 square miles, of which, 25.59 square miles is land and 1.02 square miles is water. Oshkosh has a humid continental climate according to the Köppen climate classification system; as of the census of 2010, there were 66,083 people, 26,138 households, 13,836 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,582.4 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 28,179 housing units at an average density of 1,101.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.5% White, 3.1% African American, 0.8% Native American, 3.2% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 26,138 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.7% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.1% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 33.5 years. 18.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 62,916 people, 24,082 households, 13,654 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,662.2 people per square mile.
There were 25,420 housing units at an average density of 1,075.6 per square mile. The racia
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
John Pope (military officer)
John Pope was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He had a brief stint in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the East. Pope was a graduate of the United States Military Academy in 1842, he served in the Mexican–American War and had numerous assignments as a topographical engineer and surveyor in Florida, New Mexico, Minnesota. He spent much of the last decade before the Civil War surveying possible southern routes for the proposed First Transcontinental Railroad, he was an early appointee as a Union brigadier general of volunteers and served under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, he achieved initial success against Brig. Gen. Sterling Price in Missouri led a successful campaign that captured Island No. 10 on the Mississippi River. This inspired the Lincoln administration to bring him to the Eastern Theater to lead the newly formed Army of Virginia, he alienated many of his officers and men by publicly denigrating their record in comparison to his Western command.
He launched an offensive against the Confederate army of General Robert E. Lee, in which he fell prey to a strategic turning movement into his rear areas by Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson. At Second Bull Run, he concentrated his attention on attacking Jackson while the other Confederate corps attacked his flank and routed his army. Following Manassas, Pope was banished far from the Eastern Theater to the Department of the Northwest in Minnesota, where he commanded U. S. Forces in the Dakota War of 1862, he was appointed to command the Department of the Missouri in 1865 and was a prominent and activist commander during Reconstruction in Atlanta. For the rest of his military career, he fought in the Indian Wars against the Apache and Sioux. Pope was born in Louisville, the son of Nathaniel Pope, a prominent Federal judge in early Illinois Territory and a friend of lawyer Abraham Lincoln, he was the brother-in-law of Manning Force, a distant cousin married the sister of Mary Todd Lincoln. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1842, was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers.
He served in Florida and helped survey the northeastern border between the United States and Canada. He fought under Zachary Taylor in the Battle of Monterrey and Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican–American War, for which he was appointed a brevet first lieutenant and captain, respectively. After the war Pope worked as a surveyor in Minnesota. In 1850 he demonstrated the navigability of the Red River, he served as the chief engineer of the Department of New Mexico from 1851 to 1853 and spent the remainder of the antebellum years surveying a route for the Pacific Railroad. Pope was serving on lighthouse duty when Abraham Lincoln was elected and he was one of four officers selected to escort the president-elect to Washington, D. C, he offered to serve Lincoln as an aide, but on June 14, 1861, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and was ordered to Illinois to recruit volunteers. In the Department of the West under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, Pope assumed command of the District of North and Central Missouri in July, with operational control along a portion of the Mississippi River.
He had an uncomfortable relationship with Frémont and politicked behind the scenes to get him removed from command. Frémont was convinced that Pope had treacherous intentions toward him, demonstrated by his lack of action in following Frémont's offensive plans in Missouri. Historian Allan Nevins wrote, "Actually and timidity offer a better explanation of Pope than treachery, though he showed an insubordinate spirit."Pope forced the Confederates under Sterling Price to retreat southward, taking 1,200 prisoners in a minor action at Blackwater, Missouri, on December 18. Pope, who established a reputation as a braggart early in the war, was able to generate significant press interest in his minor victory, which brought him to the attention of Frémont's replacement, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. Halleck appointed Pope to command the Army of the Mississippi on February 23, 1862. Given 25,000 men, he was ordered to clear Confederate obstacles on the Mississippi River, he made a surprise march on New Madrid and captured it on March 14.
He orchestrated a campaign to capture Island No. 10, a fortified post garrisoned by 12,000 men and 58 guns. Pope's engineers cut a channel. Assisted by the gunboats of Captain Andrew H. Foote, he landed his men on the opposite shore, which isolated the defenders; the island garrison surrendered on April 7, 1862, freeing Union navigation of the Mississippi as far south as Memphis. Pope's outstanding performance on the Mississippi earned him a promotion to major general, dated as of March 21, 1862. During the Siege of Corinth, he commanded the left wing of Halleck's army, but he was soon summoned to the East by Lincoln. After the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, Pope was appointed to command the Army of Virginia, assembled from scattered forces in the Shenandoah Valley and Northern Virginia; this promotion infuriated Frémont. Pope brought an attitude of self-assurance, offensive to the eastern soldiers under his command, he issued an astonishing message to his new army on July 14, 1862, that included the following: Let us understand each other.
I have come to you from the West.
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin
Fond du Lac is a city in Fond du Lac County, United States. The population was 43,021 at the 2010 census; the city forms the core of the United States Census Bureau's Fond du Lac Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Fond du Lac County. Fond du Lac is the 342nd largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States; the Fond du Lac MSA and the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin Micropolitan Statistical Area, form the larger Fond du Lac-Beaver Dam Combined Statistical Area. "Fond du Lac" is French for the "bottom" or the "farthest point" of the lake, so named because of its location at the bottom of Lake Winnebago. Native American tribes the Winnebagos but the Potawatomi and Mascoutin lived or gathered in the area long before European explorers arrived. Although the identity of the first white man to explore the southern end of Lake Winnebago is uncertain, it was Claude-Jean Allouez, followed by French fur trappers. James Doty, a federal judge for the western part of the Michigan Territory, thought the land at the foot of Lake Winnebago might be a good location for a city, so he and his partners bought land in the area.
In 1836, during the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature, John Arndt proposed making Fond du Lac the new capital. The motion failed, Doty convinced the legislature to choose Madison instead. Colwert, Fanna Pier and Alex Tomasik were the first white residents of the area. In 1835, the construction of the Military Ridge Road began, it passed through Fond du Lac, connecting the forts in Fort Dearborn in Illinois. The first school in Fond du Lac was built in 1843; the first railroad came to the community in 1852. About 1856, the first English newspaper in Fond du Lac, the Fond du Lac Commonwealth, was founded. Logging and milling were primary industries in the late 1880s, with access to the lake as the engine of the industry. Fond du Lac has 20 listings on the National Register of Historic Places, including four historic districts: the South Main Street Historic District, the North Main Street Historic District, the Linden Street Historic District, the East Division Street-Sheboygan Street Historic District.
Other listings include six houses, two octagon houses, two hotels, a church, a fire station, a train depot, an apartment building, a commercial building, a prehistoric site. Most of the buildings listed in the register were a result of economic prosperity following the lumber industry boom in the Fox Valley and the newly rich building residences in the area. Fond du Lac is at 43°46′N 88°27′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.11 square miles, of which, 18.82 square miles is land and 1.29 square miles is water. Fond du Lac lies on the southern shore of Lake Winnebago; the east and west branches of the Fond du Lac River connect in the city and the river flows into Lake Winnebago near Lakeside Park. Fond du Lac is the larger principal city of the Fond du Lac-Beaver Dam CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Fond du Lac metropolitan area and the Beaver Dam micropolitan area, which had a combined population of 183,193 at the 2000 census; as of the census of 2010, there were 43,021 people, 17,942 households, 10,395 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,285.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 19,181 housing units at an average density of 1,019.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.6% White, 2.5% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 2.5% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.4% of the population. There were 17,942 households of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.1% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 36.9 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 42,203 people, 16,638 households, 10,282 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,501.3 people per square mile. There were 17,519 housing units at an average density of 1,038.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.59% White, 1.86% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 1.52% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.27% from other races, 1.25% from two or more races. 2.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,638 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,113, the median income
Janesville is a city in southern Wisconsin, United States. It is the county seat and largest city of Rock County, the principal municipality of the Janesville, Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 63,575. The Janesville area was home to many Native American tribes before the settlement of people from the East. With the Indian Removal Act of 1830, many Native American peoples were uprooted and forced out of their homelands to make room for the new settlers, with many Native peoples, including the Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi, being forced onto reservations. American settlers John Inman, George Follmer, Joshua Holmes, William Holmes, Jr. built a crude log cabin in the region in 1835. That year, one key settler named Henry Janes, a native of Virginia, a self-proclaimed woodsman and early city planner, arrived in what is now Rock County. Janes came to the area in the early 1830s, wanted to name the budding village “Blackhawk," after the famous Sauk leader, Chief Black Hawk, but was turned down by Post Office officials.
After some discussion, it was settled that the town would be named after Janes himself and thus, in 1835, Janesville was founded. Despite being named after a Virginian, Janesville was founded by immigrants from New England; these were old stock Yankee immigrants, descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. The completion of the Erie Canal caused a surge in New Englander immigration to what was the Northwest Territory; some of them were from upstate New York, had parents who had moved to that region from New England shortly after the Revolutionary War. New Englanders, New England transplants from upstate New York, were the vast majority of Janesville's inhabitants during the first several decades of its history. Land surveys encouraged pioneers to settle in the area among the abundance of fertile farmland and woodlands. Many of these early settlers began cultivating wheat and other grains; some of the key settlers hailed from the burned-over district of western New York State.
Some of those in that revival movement were active in the abolitionist and women’s rights movements. One of the settlers in Janesville was William Tallman, who hailed from New York. Tallman came to the area in 1850, bought up large tracts of land in hopes of inspiring his fellow New Yorkers to settle in the fertile Rock County, he established himself as one of the most influential and affluent members of the budding Janesville populace. He was passionate about the call for abolition, became a supporter of the Republican Party. One of the crowning moments in Tallman’s life was when he convinced the up-and-coming Illinois Republican, Abraham Lincoln, to speak in Janesville in 1859; the Tallman house is now a historical landmark, best known as “The place where Abraham Lincoln slept.”As the population grew in the Janesville area, several new industries began cropping up along the Rock River, including flour and lumber mills. The first dam was built in 1844. Janesville was active during the Civil War.
Local farms sold grains to the Union army, Rock County was one of the counties in Wisconsin with the highest number of men enlisted. Thomas H. Ruger, of Janesville, served in the war, along with his brothers, Edward and Henry, he rose to the rank of brigadier general. Ruger served as military governor of Georgia, commandant of West Point, he is memorialized at Fort Ruger in Hawaii. After the Civil War, Janesville’s agriculture continued to surge and a greater demand for new farming technology led to the development of several foundries and farm machine manufacturers in the area, including the Janesville Machine Company, the Rock River Iron Works. With the boom in the farm service sector, establishment of a rail system, Janesville soon began to ship goods to and from prominent eastern cities, including New York and Philadelphia. After decades of rigorous grain farming, the soil quality around Janesville began to degrade. Farmers responded to this by planting tobacco, which became one of the most profitable and prolific crops grown in Wisconsin during the late 19th century.
Another development during the mid-19th century was the establishment of a women’s rights movement in Janesville. The movement was founded in the 1850s, continued after the Civil War. One of the key focuses of the group during the 1870s was the Temperance movement. In the late 1880s, German immigrants began to arrive in Janesville in large numbers, they were the largest non-English-speaking group. Unlike in some other areas, in Janesville they experienced no hostility or xenophobia. Janesville's founding English-Puritan-descended Yankee population welcomed them with open arms, with many writing back to relatives in Germany enthusiastically; this led to chain migration. Only one German-language newspaper was founded in the town. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Milwaukee Road and Chicago and North Western railroads had freight and passenger rail connections to the city. Passenger rail service continued until 1971. One of the key developments in Janesville’s history was the establishment of a General Motors plant in 1919.
The plant was established to produce Samson tractors, a company acquired by GM co-founder William C. Durant. Durant was encouraged by Joseph Craig, the president of Janesville Machine, to build a plant to produce the Samson tractors in Janesvill
Alfred Sully, was a military officer during the American Civil War and during the Indian Wars on the frontier. He was a noted actor, having acted in the same play that Lincoln went to see shortly before his death. Sully was the son of Thomas Sully, of Pennsylvania. Alfred Sully graduated from West Point in 1841. During and after the American Civil War, Sully served in the Plains States and was regarded as an Indian fighter. Sully, like his father, was a watercolorist and oil painter. Between 1849 and 1853, he became chief quartermaster of the U. S. troops at Monterey, after California came under American jurisdiction. Sully created a number of watercolor and some oil paintings reflecting the social life of Monterey during that period. Sully headed US troops out of Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, in June 1861 as captain and occupied the city of St Joseph, declaring martial law. Violent secessionist uprisings in the city during the early Civil War prompted Sully's occupation. Sully was commissioned colonel of the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry on February 3, 1862.
He led his regiment during the Peninsula Campaign. Sully was promoted to brigadier general on September 26 and led a brigade in the II Corps during the Battle of Fredericksburg, but on May 1, 1863, was removed from command by his division commander, Brig. Gen John Gibbon after failing to suppress a mutiny by the 34th New York when several of its companies refused to fight on the grounds that their two-year enlistment term was about to expire. Gibbon attempted to have Sully court-martialed for dereliction of duty, although a court of inquiry found him innocent of these charges, he was removed from command of his brigade and exiled to the Great Plains, never to serve in the Civil War again. After being relieved of command, Sully went west and gained notoriety for committing several massacres against natives. On September 3, 1863, at Whitestone Hill, Dakota Territory, as reprisal for the Dakota Conflict of 1862, his troops destroyed a village of some 500 tipis that lodged Yankton, Dakota and Sihasapa Lakota.
Warriors, along with children, were killed or captured. The troopers' casualties were small. With the end of the Civil War, Sully's commission as a brigadier general expired and he reverted to the rank of major in the regular army. Despite frequent bouts of ill health, he continued serving in the Indian Wars until his death at Ft. Vancouver, Oregon on April 27, 1879; the cause of death was ruled to be an aortic hemorrhage due to complications from an esophageal ulcer. Sully was buried in Philadelphia. Sully was stationed at Fort Randall, South Dakota during the Minnesota Sioux Uprising, a.k.a. the Dakota War of 1862. He married a young French-Yankton girl of the Yankton Sioux tribe, she had reminded him of his young Mexican wife, who died of cholera during an epidemic in California. With this marriage, Sully became the son-in-law of Saswe, a.k.a. François Deloria, a powerful Yankton medicine man and chief of the "Half-Breed band". Sully's daughter, Mary Sully, was known as Akicita Win, she married Rev. Philip Joseph Deloria, an Episcopal priest, a.k.a.
Tipi Sapa, a leader of the Yankton/Nakota band of the Sioux Nation. Tipi Sapa is featured as one of the 98 Saints of the Ages at the National Cathedral in Washington, D. C. as the first Dakota Christian minister to his own people. Among their descendants are Yankton Sioux Ella Deloria, an ethnologist, her nephew Vine Deloria, Jr. a scholar, author of Custer Died for Our Sins, activist. Pictures of Alfred Sully Portrait of Alfred Sully, a Cadet at West Point, 1839, by his father Thomas Sully
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual