Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It takes its name from a cluster of rocks off the English Channel coast. Calvados is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from a part of the former province of Normandy. The name "Orne inférieure" was proposed for the department, but it was decided to call the area Calvados after a group of rocks off its coast. One popular legend ascribes its etymology to the Salvador, a ship from the Spanish Armada that sank by the rocks near Arromanches-les-bains in 1588, it is more however, that the name Calvados was derived from calva dorsa, meaning bare backs, in reference to two sparsely vegetated rocks off its shore. After the allied victory at Waterloo the department was occupied by Prussian troops between June 1815 and November 1818. On 6 June 1944, the Allied forces landed on the beaches of the Bay of the Seine in what became known as the Battle of Normandy. Calvados belongs to the region of Normandy and is surrounded by the departments of Seine-Maritime, Eure and Manche.
To the north is the Baie de la Seine, part of the English Channel. On the east, the Seine River forms the boundary with Seine-Maritime. Calvados includes the Bessin area, the Pays d'Auge and the area known as the "Suisse normande"; the most notable places in Calvados include Deauville and the elegant 19th-century casino resorts of the coast. Agriculture dominates the economy of Calvados; the area is known for producing butter, cheese and Calvados, the apple spirit that takes its name from the area. The President of the General Council is the centrist Jean-Léonce Dupont, the former dominant figure of the right and centre in the department; the Conseil General of Calvados and Devon County Council signed a Twinning Charter in 1971 to develop links with the English county of Devon. The inhabitants of Calvados are called "Calvadosiens" and "Calvadosiennes". In 1999, Calvados had 648,299 inhabitants. Age distribution in Calvados: 75 years and older: 7.2% 60–74 years old: 13.16% 40–59 years old: 25.52% 20–39 years old: 28.53% 0–19 years old: 25.6% The Bayeux Tapestry is on display in Bayeux and makes the city one of the most-visited tourist destinations in Normandy.
Juno Beach Centre at Courseulles-sur-Mer, commemorates the D-Day landing of the Canadian liberation forces at Juno Beach during World War II in 1944. The cult of Saint Thérèse de Lisieux brings large numbers of people on pilgrimage to Lisieux, where she lived in a Carmelite convent; every September, Deauville hosts the Festival of the American Movie and the beach resort of Cabourg hosts the Festival of the Romantic Movie. Annually, the city of Caen celebrates the festival of the electronical cultures called "Nordik Impakt" & The festival of Beauregard, just around Caen; the local dialect of the Norman language is known as Augeron. It is spoken by a minority of the population. Calvados is one of the most visited areas in France because of its seaside resorts which are among the most prestigious in France with their luxurious hotels, green countryside, castles, the quiet, the chalk cliffs, the typical Norman houses, the history of William the Conqueror, Bayeux, the famous D-day beaches and numerous museums about the Second World War.
The culinary specialties from the verdant countryside of Calvados are abundant: cider, calvados and Pont-l'Évêque cheeses. One of the advantage of Calvados is to be near large urban centers. Calvados is therefore preferred for holidays and for weekends and sometimes considered as the countryside of Paris. Calvados, via the port of Ouistreham, is an entrance to the continent from Britain. There are two airports: Deauville-Saint Gatien; the department of Calvados has several popular tourist areas: the Bessin, the Plain of Caen, the Bocage Virois, the Côte de Nacre, the Côte Fleurie and the Pays d'Auge. Several beaches of Calvados are popular for water sports, including Cabourg and Merville-Franceville-Plage. Tourist capacity: 7,818 hotel rooms 13,734 camping sites 1,176 beds 619 rural gites This ranking takes into account all the municipalities having over 10% of second homes in the departement of Calvados. 80% of owners are from the Paris area, 10% are English and 10% are local. According to the general census of the population of 1 January 2006, 18.9% of housing available in the department were second homes.
Aquatic sports are played on the coasts and beaches, for example, kite surfing and beach volleyball. Stade Malherbe Caen is a professional football team from Caen, who play in Ligue 1. Arrondissements of the Calvados department Cantons of the Calvados department Communes of the Calvados department Calvados Stratégie – Calvados Development Agency Economic news from Calvados General Council website Prefecture website Calvados at Curlie Encyclopædia Britannica's guide to D-Day
Dominique Bussereau is a French politician, was Secretary of State for Transport within the government of François Fillon. Appointed to the post on 18 May 2007, he was Minister of Agriculture, Minister-Delegate for Aviation and Maritime Affairs and Minister-Delegate for Budgets. Governmental functions Secretary of State for Transport: 2007–2010. Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Affairs: 2004–2007. Secretary of State for the Budget: March–November 2004. Secretary of State for Transport and Sea: 2002–2004. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France MP of the Charente-Maritime's 4th constituency: 1986–1988 / 1993–2002 / Re-elected in 2007, but he stays minister. Elected in 1986, re-elected in 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012. Regional Council Regional councillor of Poitou-Charentes: 1992–1993 / March–April 2004 / March–September 2010. Re-elected in 2004, 2010. General Council President of the Charente-Maritime's General Council: Since 2008. General councillor of Charente-Maritime: Since 1985.
Re-elected in 1992, 1998, 2004. Municipal Council Mayor of Saint-Georges-de-Didonne: 1989–2002. Re-elected in 1995, 2001. Deputy-mayor of Saint-Georges-de-Didonne: 2002–2008. Municipal councillor of Saint-Georges-de-Didonne: 1989–2008. Re-elected in 1995, 2001. Deputy-mayor of Royan: 1983–1989. Municipal councillor of Royan: 1983–1989. 2007 – Order of the Rising Sun, Grand Cordon
Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants, Aube is 76th department in terms of population; the inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or AuboisesThe department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790. The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region, it borders the departments of Marne in the north, Haute-Marne to the east, Côte-d'Or in the south-east, Yonne in the south-west, Seine-et-Marne in the west. Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows: northwest quarter: Champagne crayeuse northwestern tip: the Nogentais southwest of Troyes: the Othe region to the south: le Chaourçois to the northeast: the Briennois to the east: the Barrois between Troyes and Barrois: Champagne wetlands Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants.
Major cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are: Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, La Chapelle-Saint-Luc, Saint-André-les-Vergers and Sainte-Savine. They are located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes. There are 23 rivers throughout the department, the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube, the Armance, the Vanne; the department has 140,000 hectares of forests. Located in the Community of communes of Forests and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France. In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, bathing are available; each lake specialises in one or more of these activities. The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic. Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C, equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France.
The average sunshine hours per year is 1771. Average annual rainfall is quite high. In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season. There is, more rain in the south-east than the north-west. Snow is infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west; the department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company; the network serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. Aube has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, Procars Champagne has 2 routes, Autocars Bardy has one route.
Five railway stations are in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube. Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse; the department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain; the first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC. Saints Potentian and Savinian, Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses suffered martyrdom; as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land. Emperor Julian rescued it; the territory making up Aube was first attached to France following the Treaty of Verdun.
Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other at Paraclete, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous; the reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy; the inhabitants, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable. The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube, its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and MP; the 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business i
Corrèze is a department in south-western France, named after the river Corrèze which runs though it. Its capital is Tulle, its most populated town is Brive-la-Gaillarde; the inhabitants of the department are called Corréziens. Corrèze is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it includes part of the former province of Limousin. The 1851 census recorded a population of 320,866: this remained constant for the rest of the nineteenth century. During the twentieth century, Corrèze shared the experience of many of the country's rural departments as the population fell steadily. Within Corrèze the nineteenth-century railway planners, influenced in part by the department's topography, endowed Brive-la-Gaillarde with good connections and a major junction from which railway lines fanned out in six different directions; the railways arrived in 1860, at an opportune moment, directly after phylloxera had destroyed the local wine industry. The new railways enabled the farms in the area surrounding Brive to specialise in fruits and vegetables which they could now transport to the larger population centres of central and southern France.
Locally, the new agriculture triggered the development, in the Brive basin, of related businesses and industries such as the manufacture of jams and liquors, as well as timber/paper-based packaging businesses. The department is part of the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it is surrounded by the departments of Creuse, Haute-Vienne, Puy-de-Dôme, Dordogne. Tulle is the prefecture of Corrèze and Brive-la-Gaillarde the largest city; the President of the General Council was François Hollande of the Socialist Party until 2012 when he was elected President of the Republic. Jacques Chirac served as a Deputy of the National Assembly from here for many years. People who were born or have lived in Corrèze include: The House of Noailles, dukes of Noailles and Ayen, which provided three marshals of France, one admiral of France and one archbishop of Paris The House of La Tour d'Auvergne, viscounts of Turenne Bernard de Ventadour, a famous troubadour born at the castle of Ventadour Pope Clement VI, 198th pope, born Pierre Roger in Rosiers-d'Égletons Pope Innocent VI, 199th pope, born Etienne Aubert in Beyssac Pope Gregory XI, 201st pope and last French pope, born Pierre Roger de Beaufort in Rosiers-d'Egletons Étienne Baluze and personal librarian of Colbert Guillaume Dubois and statesman, Prime Minister of France during the Régence Jean-Baptiste Treilhard, political figure of the French Revolution, member of Committee of Public Safety, president of the Convention that judged and sentenced to death King Louis XVI, member of the Directory and one of the redactors of the Napoleonic codes.
Marius Vazeilles: politician and archeologist Henri Queuille, mayor of Neuvic, deputy for Corrèze, senator for Corrèze who refused to vote full powers to Pétain in 1940, three times Prime Minister of France during the Fourth Republic Edmond Michelet and statesman, who did the first act of resistance of World War II in France by distributing tracts calling to continue the war in all Brive-la-Gaillarde's mailboxes on 17 June 1940, one day before Charles de Gaulle's Appeal of 18 June Antoinette Feuerwerker and resistance member David Feuerwerker and resistance member Marie-Thérèse Nguyễn Hữu Thị Lan, the last empress consort of the Nguyễn dynasty in Vietnam Jean Cazeneuve and sociologist, president of the ORTF and of TF1 Pierre Neuville, author of "Les combats de ma vie" SDE. Jacques Delors and politician, 8th President of the European Commission, father of socialist leader Martine Aubry André Malraux, writer and statesman, member of the French Resistance in Corrèze during the Second World War Jacques Chirac, deputy to the Assemblée Nationale for Corrèze, President of the departement's General Council, Prime Minister of France, Mayor of Paris and 22nd President of the French Republic Bernadette Chirac, member of the departement's General Council and aide to the mayor of Sarran François Hollande, deputy for Corrèze, mayor of Tulle, President of the department's General Council, leader of the Socialist Party, 24th
Allier is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France named after the river Allier. Moulins is the prefecture and the INSEE and Post Code is 03; the inhabitants of the department are known as Bourbonnais since October 2018. Allier department is composed of all of the former Duchy of Bourbonnais, it is part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region and borders the departments of Cher, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, Puy-de-Dome, Creuse. Major towns The department includes three spa towns: Bourbon l'Archambault Neris-les-Bains VichyNeris-les-Bains is the only town in the department with more than 10% of second homes: 504 out of 1,800 homes in 1999. Bourbonnais bocage covers most of the western and central parts of the department, followed by the Bourbonnais Sologne in the east north-east, the Bourbonnais Mountain, the highest point of Bourbonnais together with Montoncel, in the south of the department, the Bourbonnais Limagne, which extends from Varennes to Gannat, is the breadbasket of the department.
The Bourbonnais BocageTo the north and just over 500 metres above sea level, the Bourbonnais Bocage occupies one-third of the department, with two parts: the centre and the west. The bocage is remarkable for its rich forests and woodlands including the famous Forest of Tronçais but the forests of Moladier Bagnolet, Soulongis, Dreuille and Suave. All of the southern area consists of Combrailles, sometimes called High Bourbonnais, in an area that goes beyond the departmental boundaries of Creuse and Puy-de-Dôme; this area of the department rises to 778 metres at Bosse. The rivers Sioule and Cher have carved the most picturesque gorges in Allier; the Bourbonnais SologneTo the east, between the Val d'Allier and the borders of Nièvre and Saône-et-Loire, the Bourbonnais Sologne has a nice balance between pastures, crops and ponds: the balance between agriculture and semi-wilderness constituting a favorable setting for fauna and flora. The Bourbonnais MountainsIn its southern extension, the Bourbonnais Mountain rises from the Puy Saint-Ambroise near Saint-Léon and extends to the massif of Assisi and the Black Forest at the edge of Puy-de-Dome and Loire, marked by the Puy de Montoncel – the highest point in Allier.
The Bourbonnais LimagneCommonly grouped under the name of Val d'Allier, the Limagne and Forterre extend on both sides of the river between Vichy and Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule with an essential quality of fertility. Limogne, together with Sioule and Allier, is part of the Gannat / Escurolles / Saint-Pourçain triangle while Forterre covers the Canton of Varennes-sur-Allier ending near Jaligny. Watercourses to the west: the Cher in the centre: the Allier and its tributary the Sioule to the east the Loire and its tributary the Besbre A transition zone in the middle of the country, Allier is a free zone between north and south; the department is wide open to Atlantic influences and it enjoys a mild and humid climate dominated by westerly winds which helps a little to differentiate it from other parts of Auvergne. The weather variances coincide with the diversity of Bourbonnais territory such as: flat regions, low altitude Bourbonnais Sologne and large floodplains, the hill country, the average altitude of 300 to 600 metres, the central part of the department, the semi-mountainous southern townships bordering the Combraille and Forez between 700 and 1,200 metres.
There are two periods of maximum precipitation in June and October and a minimum in January and February with average of 694 millimetres in Montluçon, 763 mm in Moulins 778 mm in Vichy 791 mm in Lapalisse. and nearly 1,200 mm in Assisi. As noted Atlantic winds are dominant from northwest, or southwest; the influence of topography in the valleys of Cher and Allier contributes to the south and north variance. The history of Allier corresponds to the Duchy of Bourbon with which it shares the entire territory. Allier is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Bourbonnais. In 1940, the government of Marshal Philippe Pétain chose the town of Vichy as its capital. Vichy became the department's second sub-prefecture in 1940, since the department now found itself split by the demarcation line between the occupied and free zones of France. On 1 January 1997 the population of Allier was estimated at 357,100 inhabitants which represented an average density of 50 people/km².
Many areas have a density less than 20 people/km². Because of its low population density, it is considered to fall within the empty diagonal. Since the early 1980s Allier has faced many demographic handicaps; the ratio of older people is important and with low fertility rates the natural growth is negative. Meanwhile, net migration has become negative. At 1 January 2009 the legal population was 343,046 inhabitants; the fertility rate was lower than the national average in 2007 but would renew the Allier population if it were not for the lack of jobs that led to the exodus of young people to more favourable employment areas, thus confirming a negative net migration. Allier has three major cities: Montluçon, Moulins by size; the rest of the department includes some small towns and villages, scattered along the rivers. The few villages are far from one another, it is a sparsely-populated
Charente is a department in southwestern France, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, named after the Charente River, the most important river in the department, the river beside which the department's two largest towns, Angoulême and Cognac, are sited. Charente is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from the former province of Angoumois and south of Saintonge. Prior to the creation of the department, the area was not a natural unit, but much of it was commercially prosperous thanks to traditional industries such as salt and cognac production. Although the river Charente became silted up and was unnavigable for much of the twentieth century, in the eighteenth century it provided important links with coastal shipping routes both for traditional businesses and for newly evolving ones such as paper goods and iron smelting; the accelerating pace of industrial and commercial development during the first half of the nineteenth century led to a period of prosperity, the department's population peaked in 1851.
During the second half of the nineteenth century Charente, like many of France's rural departments, experienced a declining population as the economic prospects available in the cities and in France's overseas empire attracted the working age generations away. Economic ruin came to many in the Charentais wine industry with the arrival in 1872 of phylloxera. During the twentieth century, the department with its traditional industries was adversely impacted by two major world wars and in the second half of the century experienced low growth, the overall population remaining remarkably stable at around 340,000 through the second half of the twentieth century, although industrial and commercial developments in the conurbation surrounding Angoulême have added some 10,000 to the overall population during the first decade of the twenty-first century; the relaxed pace of economic development in the twentieth century encouraged the immigration of retirees from overseas. Census data in 2006 revealed that the number of British citizens residing in the department had risen to 5,083, placing the department fourth in this respect behind Paris and Alpes-Maritimes.
It is part of the Aquitaine Basin for its major part, of the Massif Central for its north-eastern part. The Charente gave its name to the department, along with Charente-Maritime, it is composed with the historical region of Angoumois and contains part of the regions of Saintonge, Limousin, Périgord and Poitou. The department is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it is surrounded by the departments of Charente-Maritime, Haute-Vienne and Deux-Sèvres. Its capital is Angoulême; the inhabitants of the department are called Charentais. The President of the General Council is Michel Boutant of the Socialist Party. Cognac and pineau are two of the major agricultural products of the region, along with butter; the Charentaise slipper is another well-known traditional product. Cantons of the Charente department Communes of the Charente department Arrondissements of the Charente department Kaolin deposits of the Charentes Basin "Charente". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Prefecture website General Council website
Charente-Maritime is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente River. A part of Saintonge and Aunis, Charente-Inférieure was one of the 83 original departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. On 4 September 1941, it was renamed Charente-Maritime; when first created, the commune of Saintes was assigned as the prefecture of the department. This changed in 1810 when Napoleon passed an imperial decree which moved the prefecture to La Rochelle. During World War II, the department was invaded by the German army and became part of occupied France. To provide defence against a possible beach landing, the Organisation Todt constructed a number of sea defences in the area. Defences such as pillboxes are noticeable on the beaches of the presqu'île d'Arvert and the island of Oléron. At the end of the war there were only two pockets of German resistance: La Rochelle, in the north and Royan in the south. Despite being completely destroyed during an RAF bombing raid on 5 January 1945, the town of Royan wasn't liberated by the French resistance until April of the same year.
La Rochelle was captured on 9 May 1945. Charente-Maritime is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine administrative region, it has a land area of 6864 km² and 628,733 inhabitants as of 2012. The important rivers are the Charente and its tributaries, the Boutonne and the Seugne, along with the Sèvre Niortaise, the Seudre, the Garonne, in its downstream part, the estuary of the Gironde; the department includes the islands of Île de Ré, Île d'Aix, Ile d'Oléron, Île Madame. The department forms the northern part of the Aquitaine Basin, it is separated from the Massif Armoricain by the Marais Poitevin to the north-west and from the Parisian basin by the Seuil du Poitou to the north-east. The highest point in the department is in the woods of Chantemerlière, near the commune of Contré in the north-east, rises to 173 m. Charente-Maritime is surrounded by the departments of Gironde, Deux-Sèvres and Vendée; the climate is mild and sunny, with less than 900 mm of precipitation per year and with insolation being remarkably high, in fact, the highest in Western France including southernmost sea resorts such as Biarritz.
Average extreme temperatures vary from 38 °C in summer to−5 °C in winter. The economy of Charente-Maritime is based on three major sectors: tourism, maritime industry, manufacturing. Cognac and pineau are two of the major agricultural products with maize and sunflowers being the others. During the summer months, families flock from all over Europe to bask in the sun and enjoy the local seafood. Royan, popular for its extensive beaches and attractions, is one of the most famous seaside resort of atlantic coast. Charente-Maritime is the headquarters of the major oyster producer Marennes-Oléron. Oysters cultivated here are shipped across Europe. Rochefort is a shipbuilding site and has been a major French naval base since 1665. La Rochelle is a seat of major French industry. Just outside the city is a factory for the French engineering giant Alstom, where the TGV, the cars for the Paris and other metros are manufactured, it is a popular venue for tourism, with its picturesque medieval city walls. The inhabitants of the department are called Charentais-Maritimes.
The President of the General Council is Dominique Bussereau of the Union for a Popular Movement. Popular destinations include, La Rochelle, Saintes, St Jean d'Angely, Rochefort, Île d'Aix, Île de Ré and Île d'Oléron; the department is served by the TGV at La Rochelle. It can be reached by motorway by the A10 and A837. Cantons of the Charente-Maritime department Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Charente-Maritime department Éclade des Moules "Charente-Inférieure". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Charente Maritime website News Charente Maritime Official Tourism Guide of Charente-Maritime Official Tourism Guide of Charente-Maritime Charente Maritime News Zoo de la Palmyre Ile d'Oléron Ile de ré Tourisme Ile de re