La Guajira Department
La Guajira is a department of Colombia. It occupies most of the Guajira Peninsula in the northeast region of the country, on the Caribbean Sea and bordering Venezuela, at the northernmost tip of South America; the capital city of the department is Riohacha. Various indigenous tribes populated the arid plains of the region long before the Spanish expeditions reached the Americas. In 1498, Alonso de Ojeda sailed around the peninsula of La Guajira, but the first man to set foot in what is known today as La Guajira was the Spanish explorer Juan de la Cosa in 1499. During the colonial era, the territory of La Guajira was disputed by the governors of Santa Marta and Venezuela, owing to deposits of pearls. English pirates and Germans fought for control of the territory. Martin Fernandez de Enciso founded Nuestra Señora Santa María de los Remedios del Cabo de la Vela, the first colonial village in the territory. In 1535, Nicolás de Federmán refounded the settlement as the village of Riohacha, as a result of constant attacks by the Wayuu people.
In 1544, it was moved to the site of the present-day city. In 1871, the region was separated from the Department of Magdalena, La Guajira became a national territory in its own right; the Intendance of La Guajira was created in 1898. In 1911, the Colombian government created the Commissary of la Guajira. In the 1930s, numerous immigrants came to the area from the Middle East from Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, countries under the Ottoman Empire, they settled in the city of Maicao. In 1954, the Intendance of la Guajira was created again and Riohacha was declared a municipality. In 1964, the Department of La Guajira was created; the economy of the department depends on royalties from the coal mining at Cerrejón, natural gas exploitation, salt mines. A popular ecotourist destination is Cabo de la Vela, a small fishing village located on the headland of the peninsula in the Guajira desert; the name Guajira comes from the Cariban languages. According to Picon, the word Guajiros was first used in the year 1600 to designate some 200 indigenous families inhabiting the region of Riohacha.
They were known for having large herds of goats. The Spanish applied the term to all the indigenous in the peninsula. According to Oliver, the term Guajiro did not appear on Spanish records until the year 1626, in a document by a friar named Pedro Simón; the northern part of the department consists of arid plains called the Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub, whose dryness is caused by the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. These mountains rise to 5,775 metres in the south; the Sinú Valley dry forests lie in between. In the far south are the headwaters of the Cesar River, which flow south towards the Magdalena River; the Ranchería River, which rises in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, crosses the Guajira Peninsula from south to north and flows through the Valley of Upar and into the Caribbean Sea. The Serranía del Perijá and the Montes de Oca lie in the southeastern part of the department, bordering Venezuela; the department was divided into three subregions based on geographical characteristics: Upper and Southern Guajira.
The Upper Guajira covers the northernmost part of the peninsula, with scarce semi-desertic vegetation. It has the Serranía de Macuira; the Middle Guajira region is flat, with hills in some areas, presenting an arid environment. The Southern Guajira covers the region of the Montes de Oca and the Serranía del Perijá mountain ranges on the border with Venezuela, the valley formed with the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range. Southern Guajira has more green vegetation and rivers; the Department of La Guajira is within the Colombian Caribbean region, one of the five natural regions of Colombia. The Serranía de Macuira mountain range is located to the northwest of the Guajira Peninsula occupying an area of 35,000 hectares, 25,000 ha of which are contained within the Macuira National Park; the mountain range is an isolated ecosystem in the middle of the La Guajira Desert, near the Caribbean sea, between the villages of Nazareth and Tawara. The mountain range works as a barrier to humid trade winds.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range is located on the Caribbean Sea and is shared with the departments of Magdalena and Cesar. Most of the hydrographic reserves in the Department of La Guajira originate in this mountain range, including the Ranchería River which flows through most of the department from south to north; the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was declared by UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve. The Cerro Pintao —on the slopes of which sit the municipalities of San Juan del Cesar, El Molino and Urumita and, in the Department of Cesar, the municipalities of Manaure, La Paz, San Diego, Codazzi—covers an area of 25,000 hectares, with altitudes ranging from 1,600 to 3,688 metres, forming a Páramo ecosystem, gives birth to some 13 rivers of Colombia; the Santuario de Flora y Fauna los Flamencos is located on the coastline of the municipality of Riohacha, between the village of Camarones and the Tapias River, covers 7,000 hectares The sanctuary has four lagoons and numerous streams which serve as habitat for the flamingos and numerous other endemic species.
Located in the village of Musichi, the Flamingos Protection Area is within the municipality of Manaure and contains
Vichada Department is a department of the Republic of Colombia in South America. Vichada is located in the eastern plains of Colombia, in the Orinoquía Region within the Orinoco river basin bordering the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the north and east. To the north the department borders with Arauca Department, to the northwest with Casanare Department, to the west with Meta Department, to the southwest narrowly bordering with Guaviare Department and to the south with Guainía Department; the department is the second largest in Colombia and scarcely populated in comparison to other departments. The department was a commissary established in 1913; the largest town and capital of the department is Puerto Carreño located in extreme northeastern part of the department and bordering Venezuela. The department is subdivided into four municipalities, it contains 46 indigenous reserves and 6 communities. The department is located on the eastern plains of Colombia known colloquially as the Llanos.
The department limits to the north with the Arauca Department and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The department is located to the left margin of the Orinoco River and the right margin of the Meta River within the plains of los Llanos. Part of the department lies on the Guiana Shield. Soil lacks sediments due to the lack of alluvions from rivers coming from the Andes mountains. Climate in the department is predominantly hot and humid with an average temperature of 28 °C throughout the year. In 1913 the government of Colombia created the commissary of Vichada and the capital was established in a locality known as El Picacho between the Meta and Orinoco rivers; the town was named Puerto Carreño in honor of Pedro María Carreño acting Minister of Government. In August 1974, Puerto Carreño was elevated to the category of municipality by decree 1594 of that same year. On July 5, 1991 Vichada was elevated to the category of department and Puerto Carreño as its capital. Cumaribo La Primavera Puerto Carreño Santa Rosalía San Jose de Ocune Revista Semana.
Government of Vichada official website Vichada Music llanera Territorial-Environmental Information System of Colombian Amazon SIAT-AC website
Magdalena is a department of Colombia, located to the north of the country by the Caribbean Sea. The capital of the Magdalena Department was named after the Magdalena River, it inherited the name of one of the original nine states of the United States of Colombia that its current territory integrated. The Department of Magdalena is located on the North Coast of the Colombian Caribbean Region. On the north it borders the Caribbean Sea. On the northeast it borders the La Guajira Department, being divided by the Palomino River. On the east it borders with the Cesar Department, in part divided by the Guaraní River. On the west, it is divided by the Magdalena River, it borders the departments of Atlantico in the Northwest, Bolívar in the West and Southwest; the territory of the Department of Magdalena is formed by four drainage basins which are different in composition and importance. Sierra Nevada's Northern SlopeThe drainage basin of the Sierra Nevada's western slope is located in the northern part of the department.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta creates different rivers that run through the municipality of Santa Marta, that end up draining into the Caribbean Sea. The rivers that form part of this basin are: Palomino River Don Diego River 2 Buritaca River Guachaca River Mendiguaca River Piedras River Manzanares River Gaira RiverSierra Nevada’s Southwestern SlopeThis basin gathers its waters from the rivers coming from the southern and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; the basin irrigates great extensions of the municipalities of Ciénaga, Zona Bananera, Fundación, El Retén, which are the heart of the agricultural and livestock economy of the department. The rivers that form part of this basin are: Frío River Sevilla River Tucurinca River Aracataca River Fundación River Rosa CreekIt consists of a small number of arroyos that only flow during the rainy seasons; this basin encompasses the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, the largest marsh in the north of the country, formed by 16 smaller marshes that are connected by means of arms within the march.
The balance of the march is a delicate one that depends on the fresh waters coming from the Sierra Nevada, the periodical flooding of the Magdalena River, the salt water coming from the mouth of the March to the sea, carried by the current and winds into the marshland. Magdalena Basin The Magdalena River Basin is the largest drainage basin in the department, it is formed by the Magdalena River and its tributaries that feed on to the river and the Marsh; the Mompóx Depression is found within this basin, this depression runs from the Zapatosa Marsh to the delta of the Magdalena River. This depression collects the most water in the department as its where the Cauca River, Cesar River, the San Jorge River drain its waters; the Magdalena River is by far the most affluent river of these, during the rainy season when it overflows, it causes the other rivers to flow backwards, not before overflowing the marshes and sometimes flooding some valleys. Ariguaní BasinThe Ariguaní River drains into the Magdalena River through the Zapatosa Marsh and washes over the central valleys of the departments of Magdalena and Cesar that are the principal areas of agriculture and animal husbandry in the Caribbean Region.
MarshesThe department of Magdalena is characterized by its many marshes and extensive marshland valleys. The whole western side of the department its dotted with marshes and lakes due to the Magdalena River that borders the department on this side. Most of this marshes are located in the northwestern side; the permanent marshes are, Chilloa, La Rinconada, Pijiño, Juan Criollo, Playa Afuera, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Zapatosa. The Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, is the biggest and by far the most important march in the department of Magdalena and one of the most important marshes in the country, it is located in the northwest of the department and is separated from the sea by a thin margin of land, only a few meters away. It has an extension of 4,280 km², of which 730 km² are just water mirrors with a depth of 2 to 6 meters; the Zapatosa Marsh, located in the municipality of El Plato in the southernmost part of the department, it is shared with the Cesar Department, who controls most of its waters.
It has an extension of 310 km² and at its deepest it reaches about 8m. In it many rivers of different importance merge; the Zapatosa Marsh drains into the Magdalena River by an arm of about 16 km of length. The Department of Magdalena, because of its terrain, proximity to the sea has an unstable weather, its Climate is dictated by its global positioning, because the department of Magdalena is located on the Intertropical Convergence Zone it possess an inter-tropical climate. Temperature in the department is affected by ocean currents and atmospheric pressure, it has a hot temperatures with high humidity, but temperatures vary as altitude raises; the altitude of the department goes from 0m to 5,775m above sea levels, the drastic changes of altitude divide the territory into what is called thermal floors. There are no solid or determined divides between these floors as local factors can affect the temperature; the first 200m of altitude are considered the warm lands, they occupy a great extension of the departmental territory, the average temperature is of 30 °C.
The main urban centers are located in the warm lands, including all of the downtown urban area of Santa Marta. The altitude increase because of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, an isolated mountain, the highest at sea level, temperatures raise as it goes up; the presence of the Sierra Nevada in this area of the country has consequences in the climate of the department, the SNSM stands
Congress of Colombia
The Congress of the Republic of Colombia is the name given to Colombia's bicameral national legislature. The Congress of Colombia consists of the 108-seat Senate, the 172-seat House of Representatives. Members of both houses are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; the composition and powers of Congress and the legislative procedure are established by the fourth title of the Colombian Constitution. According to article 114 of the Constitution, the Congress amends the constitution, makes the law and exercises political control over the government and the public administration. In addition, the Constitution and the law grant other powers to Congress, including certain judicial powers and electing senior judges and other senior public officials. Both houses of Congress meet at the neoclassical Capitolio Nacional building in central Bogotá, the construction of which began in 1847 and was not concluded until 1926; each house has its own election procedure and individual powers distinguishing them from the other, which are further discussed in the article for each individual chamber.
Each house has its own eligibility requirements established by the Constitution, but there are common rules of ineligibility and incompatibility, determined by the Constitution. Anyone, sentenced to deprivation of liberty at any time except for political crimes and culpable negligence. In addition, relatives through marriage or kinship who are registered candidates for the same party for an office elected on the same day may not be members of Congress; the constitution bans election to or membership in more than one office or body if the terms only overlap partially. Members of Congress may not hold another private office. Violations of the rules of ineligibility, conflict of interest lead to the loss of one's mandate as congressmen; the Council of State rules on the loss of mandate within twenty days of the request made by a citizen or the executive committee of the appropriate house. Members of Congress enjoy immunity for their opinions and the votes that they cast in the exercise of their office.
For crimes committed during their term, only the Supreme Court of Justice may order the arrest and try them. Members of Congress do not have alternates and are only replaced in the event of a temporary or permanent absences, as decreed by law, by the next non-elected candidate on the list from which he/she was elected, ranked in order of registration or votes received. Permanent absences include death, physical incapacity, nullification of the election and accepted resignation, disciplinary sanctions and the loss of one's mandate. Temporary absences include maternity leave and temporary deprivation of liberty from crimes other than those signalled in the paragraph below. In the wake of the parapolitics scandal, a political reform in 2009 created the so-called silla vacía mechanism, according to which anyone, sentenced for membership, promotion or funding of illegal armed groups. Any congressmen who resigns after having been formally indicted in Colombia for any of these crimes or, temporarily absent after an arrest warrant has been issued for any of these crimes is not replaced.
These rules not only apply to Congress, but to all other directly elected bodies - departmental assemblies, municipal councils and local administrative boards. These provisions were strengthened by the 2015 constitutional reform, which added fraudulent wrongdoings against public administration as a crime not resulting in replacement. Although each house of Congress serves a particular role and have individual powers distinguishing them from one another, both houses have certain powers in common, according to Article 135 of the Constitution. To summon (by writing, with five days
2014 Colombian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Colombia on May 25, 2014. Since no candidate received 50% of the vote in the first round, a run-off between the two candidates with the most votes took place three weeks on June 15, 2014. According to the official figures released by the National Registry office, as of May 22, 2014 32,975,158 Colombians were registered and entitled to vote in the 2014 presidential election, including 545,976 Colombians resident abroad. Incumbent president Juan Manuel Santos was allowed to run for a second consecutive term. In the first round, Santos and Óscar Iván Zuluaga of the Democratic Center were the two highest-polling candidates and were the contestants in the June 15 run-off. In the second round, Santos was re-elected president, gaining 50.95% of the vote compared with 45.00% for Zuluaga. By law the incumbent president Juan Manuel Santos had to declare before November 25, 2013 whether he would stand again for president. There had been speculation that he would not seek re-election: he had come under strong criticism during his first term for not continuing with the strong anti-terrorist measures of his predecessor Álvaro Uribe and for opening peace talks with the FARC guerrilla group, which drew fierce criticism from the still-popular Uribe and a large section of the public, resulting in low popularity ratings.
Although his governing National Unity coalition still supported Santos in his re-election bid, there was speculation that other people would stand in his place, such as the Radical Change leader and experienced minister Germán Vargas Lleras, Vice President Angelino Garzón, the retired head of the police force, General Oscar Naranjo. However, on November 20 Santos publicly declared his intention to stand for election again, citing a successful conclusion to the peace talks as one of the main factors for seeking a second term in office, his candidacy was supported unopposed by all three parties of the governing National Unity coalition: his own Social Party of National Unity known as "Party of the U". The following day Garzón said he would not seek reelection as Vice President in 2014. On February 24, 2014 Santos confirmed that Vargas Lleras would be his running mate for the 2014 election. Unhappy with Santos' more conciliatory approach to the FARC, Álvaro Uribe had left the Party of the U to form the Democratic Center movement in January 2013 along with his former vicepresident Francisco Santos and other close allies from the Party of the U.
The Democratic Center's convention on October 25–26, 2013 chose economist and ex-minister Óscar Iván Zuluaga as its candidate for the presidential elections, ahead of Francisco Santos and Carlos Holmes Trujillo. On February 28, 2014 Trujillo was named as Zuluaga's vicepresidencial running mate; the Colombian Conservative Party overwhelmingly chose Marta Lucía Ramírez to be its presidential candidate at its convention on January 26, 2014. Ramírez polled 1047 votes from the delegates, comfortably ahead of the other contenders Pablo Victoria with 138 votes and Álvaro Leyva with 84 votes; the convention was a fraught affair, with heated debate between some delegates arguing that the party should support the National Unity coalition and reelection of President Santos, others who were in favour of the party fielding their own candidate. Ramírez was a defence minister in Álvaro Uribe's government, but left the Party of the U after Santos' election and rejoined the Conservative Party where she had begun her political career, becoming one of Santos' most vocal critics.
The main socialist opposition party, the Alternative Democratic Pole, had been split by infighting in the four years since the previous election. Its 2010 election candidate Gustavo Petro had acrimoniously left the party along with his followers after accusing the PDA's Samuel Moreno Mayor of Bogota, of corruption, a charge of which Moreno was found guilty, removed from his position and jailed. Petro formed the Progressives Movement in 2011 and ran for Mayor of Bogota himself. Another faction of the PDA left to form the Patriotic Course movement; the PDA was, the first party to confirm its candidate for the 2014 election, choosing its president and former caretaker Mayor of Bogotá Clara López Obregón at its third national congress on November 9, 2012. The Green Party had suffered serious divisions since its surprise second place in the 2010 election; the defeated 2010 presidential candidate Antanas Mockus had resigned from the Green Party in June 2011, opposed to the decision to accept Álvaro Uribe's support for the party's Bogotá mayoral candidate Enrique Peñalosa.
On September 25, 2013, after a year of negotiations, the Fourth National Congress of the Green Party confirmed a union with the Progressives Movement of Bogotá mayor Gustavo Petro, with the new name Green Alliance. This new political alliance decided that its candidate for the 2014 elections would be chosen by a national vote on March 9, 2014, the same day as the parliamentary elections. On November 21, 2013 the Green Alliance confirmed that there were six pre-candidates for the position: former Bogotá mayor Enrique Peñalosa, senators John Sudarsky and Camilo Romero, ex-presidential candidate and former FARC hostage Ingrid Betancourt, the Progressives Movement spokesman Antonio Navarro, indigenous leader Feliciano Valencia. Betancourt and Valencia failed to reach the party's "10% recognition amongst Colombians" requirement to stand as a candidate, leaving Peñalosa and Romero as the three remaining potential candidates. In the election on March 9, 2014 Enrique Peñ
Valle del Cauca Department
Valle del Cauca, or Cauca Valley is a department of Colombia. It is on the western side of the country, its capital is Santiago de Cali. Such other cities as Buenaventura and Tuluá have great economical, political and cultural influence on the department's life. Valle del Cauca has the largest number of independent towns with over 100,000 inhabitants in the country, counting six within its borders. Buenaventura has the largest and busiest seaport in Colombia, moving about 8,500,000 tons of merchandise annually; the anthem of Valle del Cauca Department is "Salve Valle del Cauca, mi tierra". The department of Valle del Cauca is located in the western part of the country, between 3° 05’ and 5° 01’ latitude N, 75° 42’ and 77° 33’ longitude W, it borders the departments of Risaralda and Quindío to the north, Cauca to the south, Tolima to the east, Chocó and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The valley is geographically bounded by the Central and Western mountain ranges and is watered by numerous rivers which empty into the Cauca River.
The department is divided into four zones: the Pacific Fringe, humid and jungle. Malpelo Island in the Pacific pertains to Valle del Cauca. Palynological analyses performed by experts have determined that during the Superior Pleistocene some, the valleys of El Dorado and Alto Calima had Andean forest and Sub-Andean vegetation; the discovery of projectiles indicated that there were communities of hunter-gatherers at the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene. The extinction of the Pleistocenic megafauna in the beginning of the Holocene forced humans to adapt to their new environment, becoming hunter-gatherers. In the lower basin of the Calima River archaeologists found the oldest traces of hunter-gatherers that inhabited the Valley of the Cauca River. According to these, in 5000 BC these societies had some level of primitive agriculture and cultivated maize. There is little information about the years between 3000 and 1500 BC. In 1500 BC the first agricultural–pottery society appeared, the Ilama culture, extending along the Calima River (in what is nowadays the towns of Restrepo and Darien.
Its society had a social structure of Cacicazgos. The Ilama economy was based on migratory agriculture using maize and beans; the Chief or "Cacique" was the head of the settlement and had "chamanes", farmers, pottery men, goldsmiths. By 100 AD, the Ilamas had developed into the Yotoco Culture, which expanded the region of the Ilamas further into the Cauca River to the Pacific Ocean, to the south to the region of what is now the city of Cali; the Yotocos were a stratified society, headed by caciques, which managed several settlements. They existed in the region until 1200 AD; the population had increased, forcing them to develop effective agricultural techniques to feed its population which improved the techniques on pottery and metal works. The agriculture of the Yotocos was more varied than that of the Ilamas and was based on maize, beans and achiote among others; the Yotoco started declining in the 6th century AD. This archeological period is called the Late Period and is divided into Late Period I and Late Period II.
In Late period I the region of Valle del Cauca was inhabited by the Early Sonso culture, Sachamate and La Llanada. During Late Period II the region was inhabited by the Late Sonso Culture, Pichinde and Quebrada Seca, their development is attributed to population growth. All the settlers in the area became subject to the rule of one main Cacique; the first 67 Spanish explorers arrived in the area after founding the village of Popayán, in an expedition from Quito headed by Sebastián de Belalcázar. In the Valle del Cauca the explorers founded the village of Villa de Ampudia, named after one of them, Juan de Ampudia. By orders of Belalcázar the village was moved to the Riviera of the Cauca River, within the Gorrones indigenous people's territory. In 1536 a Captain Muñoz ordered the city to be moved to the Valley, where the Village of Cali was founded on 25 July of that same year. Another Spanish explorer, Juan de Vadillo, coming from the village of Cartagena de Indias, entered Cali on 23 December 1538 with a second group of explorers, but he returned to Cartagena, leaving many of his men behind including Pedro Cieza de León.
A third group of explorers, led by Admiral Jorge Robledo under orders of Lorenzo de Aldana, advanced to the North of the Valle del Cauca and founded the villages of Anserma and Antioquia, under command of Pascual de Andagoya who came from Panama to Cali with a fourth group of explorers. The Department of Valle del Cauca was created by decree number 340 April 16, 1910 which created 12 other departments for Colombia; the Valle del Cauca Department was a result of the union of four former departments. The government of Valle del Cauca is set up as the Government of Colombia in which there are three branches of power. T
2010 Colombian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Colombia in 2010. They took place under a two-round system, with an initial vote held on May 30 and a second poll held three weeks on June 20. A referendum proposal that would have allowed incumbent President Álvaro Uribe the opportunity to run for a third term was rejected by the Constitutional Court of Colombia in a 7–2 ruling on February 26, 2010; because no candidate received a majority of the votes cast in the May 30 poll, the candidates with the two highest vote totals competed in a runoff election on June 20: Juan Manuel Santos of the liberal-conservative Social Party of National Unity which unites supporters of former President Uribe, Antanas Mockus from the Green Party. Santos won the election with 69% of the votes. In 2002, Álvaro Uribe of the Colombia First party was elected president with 53.1 per cent of the vote, breaking the two-party system that ruled the country since 1958, with the promise of ending the armed conflict that haunts the country since 1964 by strengthening the Armed Forces.
In 2006, he managed to change the Constitution. After a mute campaign, Uribe won the election with 62.2 per cent of the vote, followed by Carlos Gaviria of the Alternative Democratic Pole with a distant 22 per cent. In 2007, Luis Guillermo Giraldo, leader of the pro-Uribe Party of the U, announced he would create the "promoters' committee", a group charged with gathering signatures to call a referendum on whether Uribe should be allowed to run for a third term in office. In September 2009, Congress approved the referendum bill in a late-night voting boycotted by members of the opposition. On February 26, 2010, the Constitutional Court voted against the referendum bill. After the ruling, former defence minister Juan Manuel Santos confirmed that he would become a presidential candidate. Another Uribist candidate was Germán Vargas Lleras of the Radical Change party. Former Colombian ambassador to the United Kingdom, Noemí Sanín, former agriculture minister Andrés Felipe Arias, two of the closest Uribe allies, were seeking nomination by the Conservative Party.
Sanín was nominated. Two of the opposition candidates were Rafael Pardo of the Liberal Party and Gustavo Petro of the Alternative Democratic Pole. Álvaro Leyva Durán, a Uribe opponent, was seeking the presidential nomination by the Conservative Party. On October 2, 2009, the Green Party was created, it nominated its presidential candidate on a primary ballot that took place on March 14, 2010, the same day as the legislative election. The contenders were three former Bogotá mayors: Enrique Peñalosa, Antanas Mockus, Luis Eduardo Garzón; the Greens seek to be a moderate force in what they called "a polarized" political situation, calling themselves "Post-Uribists." Mockus was chosen as their candidate. Former Medellín mayor Sergio Fajardo joined him as his running mate on 5 April 2010, after missing the requirements to become a presidential candidate himself. On polling day seven Colombian security services personnel were killed and eight were missing. No candidate received an outright majority in the first round vote held on May 30.
Santos and Mockus faced one another in the runoff election on 20 June, leading to the election of Juan Manuel Santos as the next Colombian President. Santos achieved a landslide victory, with 69 per cent of the votes. Mockus got 27.51 per cent of votes. This was the largest margin of victory for a president in the democratic period of Colombia's history. Santos won 32 of the country's 33 electoral districts, his allies have an overwhelming majority in the Colombian Congress. Santos vowed to continue his predecessor's hardline stance against the country's Marxist rebels, he paraphrased Isaac Newton – "If we have come far it's because we are standing on the shoulders of giants" – and said he would rid Colombia of what he described as the "nightmare of violence". The United States State Department said it was "pleased" with the election of Santos and praised the "spirited debate" before the runoff and Colombia's "longstanding commitment to democratic principles"; the First Round Results by department happened to be the same as the second round results by department: Colombian legislative election, 2010