Jeannot Ahoussou-Kouadio is an Ivorian politician, Prime Minister of Ivory Coast from March 2012 to November 2012. He was Minister of Industry from 2002 to 2005 and Minister of Justice from 2010 to 2012. Ahoussou-Kouadio is a member of the Democratic Party of Ivory Coast – African Democratic Rally, a party led by former President Henri Konan Bédié. Since leaving office as Prime Minister, he has served as President of the Regional Council of Bélier Region and as Minister of State at the Presidency for Political Dialogue and Relations with the Institutions. Ahoussou-Kouadio was born at Raviart, located in the Tie-N'Diekro subprefecture. A business lawyer by profession, he is a long-time member of the PDCI-RDA and has held various party posts, he was appointed as a member of the Economic and Social Council of Ivory Coast in 1999, he was elected to the National Assembly of Ivory Coast in the December 2000 parliamentary election, representing the constituency of Didievi and Tie-N'Diekro. At the PDCI-RDA's 11th congress, held in 2002, he was designated as its Deputy Secretary-General for Legal Affairs.
Under President Laurent Gbagbo, Ahoussou-Kouadio was appointed as Minister of Industry and the Promotion of the Private Sector on 5 August 2002 as part of a national unity government. He remained in that post until December 2005, he was the director of Bédié's campaign during the first round of the October–November 2010 presidential election. Both Gbagbo and Ouattara claimed victory in the second round. Ahoussou-Kouadio was appointed as Prime Minister by President Ouattara on 13 March 2012, fulfilling Ouattara's promise to appoint a member of Bédié's party as Prime Minister; as Prime Minister, he retained the justice portfolio. However, he remained in office for less than a year. Ahoussou-Kouadio was subsequently appointed as Minister of State at the Presidency on 9 January 2013. Ahoussou-Kouadio has been the President of the Regional Council of Bélier since 2013. In the government appointed on 12 January 2016, he held the post of Minister of State at the Presidency for Political Dialogue and Relations with the Institutions.
It's expected he will become the first President of the Senate on 10 April 2018. Article
2015 Ivorian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Ivory Coast on 25 October 2015. Alassane Ouattara won a second term in a landslide victory over his closest rival Pascal Affi N'Guessan; the President of the Ivory Coast is elected with a five-year mandate through a two-round system, with 50% simple majority required to avoid a run-off. According to the 2000 Constitution of Ivory Coast, candidates are limited to two consecutive terms as President. Incumbent President Alassane Ouattara, first elected in 2010 preceding the 2010–11 Ivorian crisis, stood again to seek a second term. Opposition party Ivorian Popular Front called for a boycott of the elections in protest against the trial of former President Laurent Gbagbo by the International Criminal Court. Presidential candidate Pascal Affi N'Guessan denounced the incarceration of Gbagbo and political conditions under Ouattara: "Peace isn't only the silence of weapons. Can we say that Ivory Coast is in peace when President Gbagbo is in The Hague? With hundreds of political prisoners in jail, Ivory Coast is not in peace."
Some hardliners in the FPI did not want to participate in elections as long as Gbagbo remained imprisoned, but others felt the party needed to remain engaged in the electoral process. The vote was peaceful, compared to the unrest that marred previous elections, although voter turnout was down to 54.6%. Outtara avoided a second round vote and won a second term in office after garnering 83.7%, in a landslide victory over his nearest rival Affi N'Guessan on 9.3%
Regions of Ivory Coast
The regions of Ivory Coast are the second-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast. There are 31 regions, each region is subdivided into two or more departments, the third-level division in Ivory Coast. Two to four regions are combined to make up the first-level subdivision; the two autonomous districts of Ivory Coast are not divided into regions. The first 16 regions were established in 1997. In 2000, four of the regions were divided to create three more regions, bringing the total to 19. Prior to the 2011 reorganisation of the subdivisions of Ivory Coast, the 19 regions were the first-level subdivision of the country. In the reorganisation, districts were created and replaced regions as the first-level subdivisions and the 19 regions were reorganized into 30. In 2012, one region was divided to create a 31st region; the executive of each region is headed by a prefect, appointed by the council of ministers of the national government. For departments that house regional capitals, the prefect of the department is the same individual as the prefect of the region, though the two offices of prefect remain distinct.
The legislative body of the region is the Regional Council, elected and headed by a President. The government of each region is responsible for designing and implementing programmes to improve the economic and cultural life of the region. Regions are responsible for coordinating and harmonising the activities of their departmental governments and for implementing public interest projects established by the district or the national government. Precise distinctions in the jurisdiction of regions as compared to districts has yet to be established; the governments of the non-autonomous districts have not yet begun to function. Apart from governors for the two autonomous districts, no district governor has yet been nominated. There are 31 regions of Ivory Coast. Two areas of the country, the autonomous districts of Abidjan and Yamoussoukro, are not divided into regions; the regions are as follows, with the date of creation in parentheses: The 14 districts and the 31 regions are listed below, with their regional seats and populations at the 2014 census.
Before a reorganization in 2011, the regions were the first-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast. The 19 regions that existed prior to the reorganisation were as follows, with their creation date in parentheses: As is the case now, regions were further divided into departments. From 1997 to 2011, departments were the second-level administrative subdivisions. ISO 3166-2:CI
The Ivorian passport is issued to citizens of Côte d'Ivoire for international travel. Surname Given names Nationality Ivorian Date of birth Sex Place of birth Date of Expiry Passport number The data page/information page is printed in French and English. ECOWAS passports List of passports Visa requirements for Ivorian citizens Visa policy of Cote d'Ivoire
Guillaume Kigbafori Soro is an Ivorian politician, the Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire from April 2007 to March 2012. Prior to his service as Prime Minister, Soro led the Patriotic Movement of Côte d'Ivoire, the New Forces as its Secretary-General. Since March 2012, Soro has been President of the National Assembly of Côte d'Ivoire. Soro led the Patriotic Movement of Côte d'Ivoire in a September 2002 rebellion against President Laurent Gbagbo that triggered the Ivorian Civil War. In December 2002 Soro's MPCI combined with two other rebel groups, the Ivorian Popular Movement of the Great West and the Movement for Justice and Peace, to form the New Forces, he was appointed as Secretary-General of the New Forces. Following a peace agreement in January 2003, Soro was appointed to the government as Minister of Communications; the New Forces ministers began a boycott of cabinet meetings in September 2003, returning in January 2004. After an opposition demonstration held in Abidjan in March 2004 was violently broken up, President Gbagbo dismissed Soro and two other ministers from their positions.
Soro denounced the dismissals, saying they were a coup by Gbagbo against the peace agreement. On 9 August 2004 Soro was reinstated. On 28 December 2005, Soro was appointed as Minister of Reconstruction and Reintegration by Prime Minister Charles Konan Banny, he attended his first cabinet meeting in this capacity on 15 March 2006. Following a peace deal signed on 4 March 2007, Soro was considered a possible candidate for Prime Minister and received Gbagbo's endorsement. In an interview published on 26 March, Soro said. Gbagbo appointed him on 29 March, Soro took office on 4 April, his 32 ministers were named on 7 April, many of whom served under his predecessor. In a speech on 13 April, Soro apologized "to everybody and on behalf of everybody" for the harm caused by the rebellion. On 30 July and Gbagbo participated in a "peace flame" disarmament ceremony, which involved the burning of weapons to symbolize the end of the conflict; the peace agreement barred Soro from standing in the 2010 presidential election, he told Jeune Afrique in a March 2008 interview that he would discuss his political future after the election.
It was rumored that Soro and Gbagbo made a secret agreement whereby Soro would support Gbagbo in the election and, in exchange, Gbagbo would back Soro in the subsequent presidential election. Soro dismissed this as "gossip," describing himself as an "arbiter of the electoral process," and further said the New Forces would not back any candidate and that its members could vote for whomever they wished; when the Gbagbo-allied Constitutional Council announced their results of the 2010 poll and Gbagbo was sworn in, Soro resigned as prime minister, supporting opposition candidate Alassane Ouattara. Ouattara had been declared the winner by the electoral commission, he reappointed Soro after taking the oath of office at a rival ceremony. Soro was elected to the National Assembly in the December 2011 parliamentary election. After serving as Ouattara's prime minister for over a year, Soro resigned on 8 March 2012, he was elected as President of the National Assembly on 12 March 2012, a move that ensured that he would remain a key figure on the political scene.
There were no other candidates for the post. In 2016 Burkina Faso issued an international arrest warrant for Soro for his alleged role in the 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état. Standing as the candidate of the ruling coalition, the Rally of Houphouëtists for Democracy and Peace, in the city of Ferkessédougou, Soro was re-elected to the National Assembly in the December 2016 parliamentary election with 98.7% of the vote. When the National Assembly began meeting for the new parliamentary term, Soro was re-elected as President of the National Assembly on 9 January 2017, he received 230 votes from the 252 deputies present. On 29 June 2007, a Fokker 100 carrying Prime Minister Soro, members of his delegation, 20 journalists was taxiing on a runway at an airport in Bouaké when it was targeted by rocket and Kalashnikov fire. One rocket struck and exploded in the cabin, one missed, a third bounced off the fuselage and did not detonate. Soro wasn't injured; those who died were Security Chief Drissa Ouattara, the Prime Minister's bodyguard Siaka Diomandé, Protocole d’Etat members Sékou Doumbia and Souleymane Sérifou.
Arrests were subsequently reported. MPCI Official website Review of Guillaume Soro: Pourquoi je suis devenu un rebelle éditions Hachette Littératures
Second Ivorian Civil War
The Second Ivorian Civil War broke out in March 2011 when the crisis in Ivory Coast escalated into full-scale military conflict between forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, supporters of the internationally recognised president-elect Alassane Ouattara. After months of unsuccessful negotiations and sporadic violence between supporters of the two sides, the crisis entered a critical stage as Ouattara's forces seized control of most of the country with the help of the UNO, with Gbagbo entrenched in Abidjan, the country's largest city. International organizations have reported numerous instances of human rights violations by both sides, in particular in the city of Duékoué where Ouattara's forces killed hundreds of people. Overall casualties of the war are estimated around 3000; the UN and French forces took military action, with the stated objective to protect their forces and civilians. France's forces arrested Gbagbo at his residence on 11 April 2011. A civil war was fought in Ivory Coast between 2002–04 between the incumbent President Laurent Gbagbo and the rebel Forces Nouvelles de Côte d'Ivoire, representing Muslim northerners who felt that they were being discriminated against by the politically dominant and Christian southerners.
In 2002 France sent its troops to Ivory Coast as peacekeepers. In February 2004 the United Nations established the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire "to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003". Most of the fighting ended by late 2004, with the country split between a rebel-held north and a government-held south. In March 2007 the two sides signed an agreement to hold fresh elections, though they ended up being delayed until 2010, five years after Gbagbo's term of office was supposed to have expired. After northern candidate Alassane Ouattara was declared the victor of the 2010 Ivorian presidential election by the country's Independent Electoral Commission, the President of the Constitutional Council – an ally of Gbagbo – declared the results to be invalid and that Gbagbo was the winner. Both Gbagbo and Ouattara took the presidential oath of office; the international community, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the European Union, the United States, former colonial power France affirmed their support for Ouattara, "almost universally acknowledged to have defeated at the ballot box," and called for Gbagbo to step down.
On 18 December, Gbagbo ordered all UN peacekeepers to leave the country. The UN refused and the UN Security Council extended the mandate of the UN Mission in Ivory Coast until 30 June 2011. However, negotiations to resolve the dispute failed to achieve any satisfactory outcome. Hundreds of people were killed in escalating violence between pro-Gbagbo and pro-Ouattara partisans and at least a million people fled from Abidjan. After the disputed election, sporadic outbreaks of violence took place in Abidjan, where supporters of Ouattara clashed with government forces and militias. Gbagbo's forces were said to be responsible for a campaign of assassinations and abductions directed against Ouattara's supporters; the violence escalated through March 2011 with a number of incidents in Abidjan in which dozens of people were reported killed. In one of the deadliest single incidents, up to 30 people were killed on 17 March in a rocket attack on a pro-Ouattara suburb of Abidjan; the UN issued a statement saying that the shelling was "an act, perpetrated against civilians, could constitute a crime against humanity."
52 people were killed in further violence in Abidjan Between 26 March. Fighting broke out in western Ivory Coast at the end of February 2011. On 25 February, the New Forces captured the towns of Zouan Hounien and Binhouye near the border with Liberia and took control of nearby Toulepleu on 7 March; the town of Doké fell on 12 March as the New Forces pushed on towards Bloléquin, which they took on 21 March after heavy fighting. On 28 March, the New Forces – now renamed the Republican Forces of Côte d'Ivoire – launched a full-scale offensive across the country. Ouattara issued a statement declaring: "All the peaceful routes to lead Laurent Gbagbo to admit his defeat have been exhausted." The towns of Duékoué and Daloa in the west of the country were captured by the RFCI, as were Bondoukou and Abengourou near the border with Ghana in the east. On 30 March, Ivory Coast's political capital Yamoussoukro and the western town of Soubré were taken without resistance; the port city of San Pédro, the world's largest cocoa exporting port, fell to the RFCI in the early hours of 31 March as did the nearby coastal town of Sassandra.
On the same day Ivory Coast's borders with neighbouring countries were ordered to be sealed by Ouattara's forces. On 30 March United Nations Security Council Resolution 1975 was issued which, in particular, urged all Ivorian parties to respect the will of the people and the election of Alassane Ouattara as President of Ivory Coast, as recognised by ECOWAS, the African Union and the rest of the international community and reiterated that UNOCI could use "all necessary measures" in its mandate to protect civilians under imminent threat of attack; the fighting was reported to have caused heavy damage in some contested towns, from which the inhabitants were said to have fled en masse. Large numbers of people were said to have found dead after Ouattara's forces took control of the central Ivorian towns. Ouattara's gover
United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire
The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire was a peacekeeping mission whose objective was "to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003". The two main Ivorian parties here are the Ivorian Government forces who control the south of the country, the New Forces, who control the north; the UNOCI mission aims to control a "zone of confidence" across the centre of the country separating the two parties. The Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary-General is Aïchatou Mindaoudou Souleymane from Niger, she has succeeded Bert Koenders from the Netherlands in 2013 who himself succeeded Choi Young-jin from South Korea in 2011. The mission ended on 30 June 2017; the approved budget for the period July 2016 - June 2017 is $153,046,000. The last UN Security Council Resolution is 2284; the mission was authorized by Security Council Resolution 1528 on 27 February 2004 to take over from MINUCI from 4 April 2004. The mandate was subsequently extended several times, including 31 October 2008, 31 January 2010, 27 May 2010, 20 December 2010, most on 27 July 2011.
In February 2006, following an appeal by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, the United Nations Security Council agreed to strengthen the ONUCI forces by sending a battalion from United Nations Mission in Liberia with 800-soldiers to Ivory Coast. As of November 2006, the mission consisted of about 8,000 uniformed soldiers from a total of 41 countries, they have included, from 56th and 57th Battalions, East Bengal Regiment. They were deployed alongside 4,000 French soldiers of the Operation Licorne intervention. On 29 July 2008, the day before UNOCI's mandate was set to expire, the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend its mandate to 31 January 2009 so that the peacekeepers could "support the organization of free, open and transparent elections". A presidential election is planned after numerous delays arising from postwar issues. In January 2006, supporters of President Laurent Gbagbo attacked the base of the United Nations peacekeepers after the Ivorian Popular Front withdrew from the Ivorian Civil War peace process.
About 1,000 protesters invaded the UN base at Guiglo. In the aftermath of the 2010 presidential election, incumbent president Gbagbo said UNOCI troops should leave the country. However, the UN refused to do so, upon which Gbagbo's aides said UN troops would be treated as "rebels" should they stay in the country, where they are protecting the internationally recognised though domestically disputed winner of the election. On 30 March United Nations Security Council Resolution 1975 was issued which, in particular, urged all Ivorian parties to respect the will of the people and the election of Alassane Ouattara as President of Ivory Coast, as recognised by the Economic Community of West African States, the African Union and the rest of the international community and reiterated that UNOCI could use "all necessary measures" in its mandate to protect civilians under imminent threat of attack. Heavy fighting broke out on 31 March 2011 as forces of Alassane Ouattara advanced on Abidjan from several directions.
The United Nations peacekeepers took control of Abidjan's airport when Gbagbo's forces abandoned it and United Nations forces were reported to be carrying out protective security operations in the city. The UN peacekeeping mission said its headquarters were fired on by Gbabgo's special forces on 31 March, returned fire in an exchange lasting about three hours. UN convoys have come under attack by Gbagbo loyalists four times since 31 March, with three peacekeepers injured in one of the attacks; the peacekeepers had exchanged fire with Gbagbo loyalists in several parts of the city. On 4 April 2011 UN and French helicopters began firing on pro-Gbagbo military installations, a French military spokesman said the attacks were aimed at heavy artillery and armoured vehicles. Eyewitnesses reported seeing two UN Mi-24P attack helicopters firing missiles at the Akouédo military camp in Abidjan. UN helicopters were flown by Ukrainian Ground Forces crews seconded to the United Nations; the attacks sparked protests by a Gbagbo spokesperson, who said that such actions were "illegal and unacceptable."
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon defended the actions, saying that "the mission has taken this action in self-defence and to protect civilians." He noted that Gbagbo’s forces had fired on United Nations patrols and attacked the organization’s headquarters in Abidjan “with heavy-caliber sniper fire as well as mortars and rocket-propelled grenades,” wounding four peacekeepers. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that Russia intends to look into the legitimacy of the use of force by UN peacekeepers; the position of the Russian government was that any foreign interference would only lead to increasing violence. On 9 April, pro-Gbagbo forces were reported to have fired on the Golf Hotel, where Ouattara was located; the attackers used both sniper rifles and mortars. The following day, United Nations and French forces carried out further air strikes against Gbagbo's remaining heavy weapons, using Mi-24 and Aérospatiale Gazelle attack helicopters; the attack was reported to have caused heavy damage to the presidential palace.
On 11 April, UN forces arrested him. The final assault was assisted by French forces using helicopters and armoured vehicles, although the actual capture was made by Ouattara's troops. Gbagbo, his wife and about 50 members of his entourage were captured unharmed and were taken to the Golf Hotel, Ouattar