Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper and Istria. Dalmatia is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south; the hinterland ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south. Seventy-nine islands run parallel to the coast, the largest being Brač, Hvar; the largest city is Split, followed by Zadar, Šibenik. The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, who lived in the area in classical antiquity, it became a Roman province, as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language largely replaced with related Venetian. With the arrival of Croats to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland and Romance elements began to intermix in language and culture. During the Middle Ages, its cities were conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region.
The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was a province of the Austrian Empire known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in the First World War, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes which controlled most of it, the Kingdom of Italy which held several smaller parts, after World War II, SFR Yugoslavia took complete control over the area; the name Dalmatia derives from the name of the Dalmatae tribe, connected with the Illyrian word delme meaning "sheep". Its Latin form Dalmatia gave rise to its current English name. In the Venetian language, once dominant in the area, it is spelled Dalmàssia, in modern Italian Dalmazia; the modern Croatian spelling is Dalmacija, pronounced. Dalmatia is referenced in the New Testament at 2 Timothy 4:10, so its name has been translated in many of the world's languages.
In antiquity the Roman province of Dalmatia was much larger than the present-day Split-Dalmatia County, stretching from Istria in the north to modern-day Albania in the south. Dalmatia signified not only a geographical unit, but was an entity based on common culture and settlement types, a common narrow eastern Adriatic coastal belt, Mediterranean climate, sclerophyllous vegetation of the Illyrian province, Adriatic carbonate platform, karst geomorphology. Dalmatia is today a historical region only, not formally instituted in Croatian law, its exact extent is therefore subject to public perception. According to Lena Mirošević and Josip Faričić of the University of Zadar: …the modern perception of Dalmatia is based on the territorial extent of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia, with the exception of Rab island, geographically related to the Kvarner area and functionally to the Littoral–Gorski Kotar area, with the exception of the Bay of Kotor, annexed to another state after World War I; the southern part of Lika and upper Pounje, which were not a part of Austrian Dalmatia, became a part of Zadar County.
From the present-day administrative and territorial point of view, Dalmatia comprises the four Croatian littoral counties with seats in Zadar, Šibenik and Dubrovnik. "Dalmatia" is therefore perceived to extend to the borders of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia. However, due to territorial and administrative changes over the past century, the perception can be seen to have altered somewhat with regard to certain areas, sources conflict as to their being part of the region in modern times: The Bay of Kotor area in Montenegro. With the subdivision of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into oblasts in 1922, the whole of the Bay of Kotor from Sutorina to Sutomore was granted to the Zeta Oblast, so that the border of Dalmatia was formed at that point by the southern border of the former Republic of Ragusa; the Encyclopædia Britannica defines Dalmatia as extending "to the narrows of Kotor". Other sources, such as the Treccani encyclopedia and the "Rough Guide to Croatia" still include the Bay as being part of the region.
The island of Rab, along with the small islands of Sveti Grgur and Goli, were a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and are and culturally related to the region, but are today associated more with the Croatian Littoral, due to geographical vicinity and administrative expediency. Gračac municipality and northern Pag. A number of sources express the view that "from the modern-day administrative point of view", the extent of Dalmatia equates to the four southernmost counties of Croatia: Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva; this definition does not include the Bay of Kotor, nor the islands of Rab, Sveti Grgur, Goli. It excludes the northern part of the island of Pag, part of the Lika-Senj County. However, it includes the Gračac Municipality in Zadar County, not a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and is not traditionally associated with the region; the inhabitants of Dalmatia are culturally subdivided into two groups. The urban families of the coastal cities known as Fetivi, are culturally akin to the inhabitants of the Dalmatian islands.
The two are together distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their culture, fr
Gaiseric known as Geiseric or Genseric, was King of the Vandals and Alans who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. During his nearly 50 years of rule, he raised a insignificant Germanic tribe to the status of a major Mediterranean power. After he died, they entered eventual collapse. Succeeding his brother Gunderic at a time when the Vandals were settled in Baetica, Roman Hispania, Gaiseric defended himself against a Suebian attack and transported all his people, around 80,000, to Northern Africa in 428, he might have been invited by the Roman governor Bonifacius, who wished to use the military strength of the Vandals in his struggle against the imperial government. Gaiseric caused great devastation, he turned on Bonifacius, defeated his army in 430, crushed the joint forces of the Eastern and Western empires, sent against him. In 435 Gaiseric concluded a treaty with the Romans under which the Vandals retained Mauretania and part of Numidia as foederati of Rome.
In a surprise move on 19 October 439, Gaiseric captured Carthage, striking a devastating blow at imperial power. In a 442 treaty with Rome, the Vandals were recognized as the independent rulers of Byzacena and part of Numidia, he besieged Panormus (Palermo Sicily in 440 AD but was repulsed. He did in 455 seize the Balearic Islands, Sardinia and Malta, Gaiseric’s fleet soon came to control much of the western Mediterranean, he occupied Sicily in 468 for 8 years until the island was ceded in 476 to Odavacer except for a toehold on the far west coast, Lilybaeum was ceded in 491 to Theodoric.p. 410. His most famous exploit, was the capture and plundering of Rome in June 455. Subsequently, the King defeated two major efforts by the Romans to overthrow him, that of the emperor Majorian in 460 or 461 and that led by Basiliscus at the Battle of Cape Bon in 468. After dying in Carthage at the age of 77, Gaiseric was succeeded by his son Huneric. Gaiseric was an illegitimate son of King Godigisel. After his father's death in battle against the Franks during the Crossing of the Rhine 406 AD, Gaiseric became the second most powerful man among the Vandals, after the new king, his half-brother Gunderic.
After Gunderic's death in 428, Gaiseric was elected king. He began to seek ways of increasing the power and wealth of his people, who resided in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica in southern Hispania; the Vandals had suffered from attacks from the more numerous Visigothic federates, not long after taking power, Gaiseric decided to leave Hispania to this rival Germanic tribe. In fact, he seems to have started building a Vandal fleet before he became king. In 428 Gaiseric was attacked from the rear by a large force of Suebi under the command of Heremigarius who had managed to take Lusitania; this Suebic army was defeated near Mérida and its leader Hermigario drowned in the Guadiana River while trying to flee. Taking advantage of a dispute between Boniface, Roman governor of North Africa, Aetius, Gaiseric ferried all of his people across to Africa in 429. Once there, he won many battles over the weak and divided Roman defenders and overran the territory now comprising modern Morocco and northern Algeria.
His Vandal army laid siege to the city of Hippo Regius, taking it after 14 months of bitter fighting. A peace between Gaiseric and the Roman Emperor Valentinian III was concluded on 11 February 435, in return for recognizing Gaiseric as king of the lands he and his men had conquered the Vandals would desist from attacks on Carthage, pay a tribute to the Empire, send his son Huneric as a hostage to Rome. On 19 October 439, noting that the forces of the Western Empire were involved in Gaul, Gaiseric took possession of Carthage through some treachery. Stewart Oost observes, "Thus he undoubtedly achieved what had been his purpose since he first crossed to Africa." The Romans were caught unaware, Gaiseric captured a large part of the western Roman navy docked in the port of Carthage. The Catholic bishop of the city, was exiled to Naples, since Gaiseric demanded that all his close advisors follow the Arian form of Christianity. Gaiseric gave freedom of religion to the Catholics, while insisting that the regime's elite follow Arianism.
The common folk had low taxes under his reign, as most of the tax pressure was on the rich Roman families and the Catholic clergy. Added to his own burgeoning fleet, the Kingdom of the Vandals now threatened the Empire for mastery of the western Mediterranean Sea. Carthage, became the new Vandal capital and an enemy of Rome for the first time since the Punic Wars. With the help of their fleet, the Vandals soon subdued Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Gaiseric strengthened the Vandal defenses and fleet and regulated the positions of Arians and Catholics. In 442, the Romans acknowledged the Carthaginian conquests, recognized the Vandal kingdom as an independent
Pope Leo I
Pope Leo I known as Saint Leo the Great, was Pope from 29 September 440 and died in 461. Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "...was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history."He was a Roman aristocrat, was the first pope to have been called "the Great". He is best known for having met Attila the Hun in 452 and persuading him to turn back from his invasion of Italy, he is a Doctor of the Church, most remembered theologically for issuing the Tome of Leo, a document, a major foundation to the debates of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. The Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, dealt with Christology, elucidated the orthodox definition of Christ's being as the hypostatic union of two natures and human, united in one person, "with neither confusion nor division", it was followed by a major schism associated with Monophysitism and Dyophysitism. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a native of Tuscany. By 431, as a deacon, he was sufficiently well known outside of Rome that John Cassian dedicated to him the treatise against Nestorius written at Leo's suggestion.
About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome regarding a jurisdictional dispute with Juvenal of Jerusalem, but it is not clear whether the letter was intended for Leo, in his capacity of archdeacon, or for Pope Celestine I directly. Near the end of the reign of Pope Sixtus III, Leo was dispatched at the request of Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute between Aëtius, one of Gaul's chief military commanders, the chief magistrate Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus. Johann Peter Kirsch sees this commission as a proof of the confidence placed in the able deacon by the Imperial Court. During his absence in Gaul, Pope Sixtus III died, on 29 September Leo was unanimously elected by the people to succeed him. Soon after assuming the papal throne Leo learned that in Aquileia, Pelagians were received into church communion without formal repudiation of their errors. Manichaeans fleeing the Vandals had secretly organized there, his attitude was as decided against the Priscillianists. Bishop Turibius of Astorga, astonished at the spread of the sect in Spain, had addressed the other Spanish bishops on the subject, sending a copy of his letter to Leo, who took the opportunity to write an extended treatise against the sect, examining its false teaching in detail and calling for a Spanish general council to investigate whether it had any adherents in the episcopate.
From a pastoral perspective he galvanized charitable works in a Rome beset by famines, an influx of refugees, poverty. He further associated the practice of fasting with charity and almsgiving on the occasion of the Quattro tempora. Leo drew many learned men about him and chose Prosper of Aquitaine to act in some secretarial or notarial capacity. Leo was a significant contributor to the centralisation of spiritual authority within the Church and in reaffirming papal authority; the bishop of Rome had become viewed as the chief patriarch in the Western church. On several occasions Leo was asked to arbitrate disputes in Gaul. Patroclus of Arles had received from Pope Zosimus the recognition of a subordinate primacy over the Gallican Church, asserted by his successor Hilary of Arles. An appeal from Chelidonius of Besançon gave Leo the opportunity to assert the pope's authority over Hilary, who defended himself stoutly at Rome, refusing to recognize Leo's judicial status. Feeling that the primatial rights of the bishop of Rome were threatened, Leo appealed to the civil power for support and obtained, from Valentinian III, a decree of 6 June 445, which recognized the primacy of the bishop of Rome based on the merits of Peter, the dignity of the city, the legislation of the First Council of Nicaea.
Faced with this decree, Hilary submitted to the pope, although under his successor, Leo divided the metropolitan rights between Arles and Vienne. In 445, Leo disputed with Patriarch Dioscorus, St Cyril's successor as Patriarch of Alexandria, insisting that the ecclesiastical practice of his see should follow that of Rome on the basis that Mark the Evangelist, the disciple of St Peter and the founder of the Alexandrian Church, could have had no other tradition than that of the prince of the apostles; the fact that the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis had been preserved to the empire and thus to the Nicene faith during the Vandal invasion and, in its isolation, was disposed to rest on outside support, gave Leo an opportunity to assert his authority there. In 446 he wrote to the Church in Mauretania in regard to a number of questions of discipline, stressing the point that laymen were not to be appointed to the episcopate. In a letter to the bishops of Campania and Tuscany he required the observance of all his precepts and those of his predecessors.
Because of the earlier line of division between the western and eastern parts of the Roman Empire, Illyria was ecclesiastically subject to Rome. Pope Innocent I had const
Julius Nepos was Western Roman Emperor de facto from 474 to 475 and de jure until his death in 480. He was the ruler of Roman Dalmatia from 468 to 480; some historians consider Nepos to be the last Western Roman Emperor, while others consider the western line to have ended with Romulus Augustulus in 476. In contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire and its line of emperors survived this period of history intact. Nepos was elevated to Western Roman Emperor in 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I in order to replace the usurper Glycerius. Nepos was deposed by Orestes, who took control of the government at Ravenna on August 28, 475, forcing Nepos to flee by ship to Dalmatia. Orestes crowned his son, Romulus Augustulus, as emperor but they were soon deposed by Odoacer. Nepos continued to reign from Dalmatia as the "Emperor of the West" recognized by Constantinople, but in practical terms his power did not extend beyond Dalmatia. Nepos was assassinated in 480, Eastern Emperor Zeno formally abolished the Western division of the Empire.
Julius Nepos was appointed Western Roman Emperor in early 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I. Nepos was married to Leo's niece, but himself was the nephew of the sovereign governor of Dalmatia, hence his agnomen of nepos — "nephew". Leo intended to replace the western emperor Glycerius. Glycerius had been raised to the throne by the Burgundian magister militum Gundobad in the western capital of Ravenna; however under Roman law, Leo was the sole legitimate Emperor and had the right to select a new western counterpart. Julius Nepos succeeded his uncle, after the latter's murder in Sicily, as the governor of the province of Dalmatia, technically a part of the western empire but in practical terms an autonomous region since at least the time of Marcellinus' term of office. In June 474 Nepos entered Ravenna, forced Glycerius to abdicate, secured the western throne for himself. Nepos appointed him bishop of Salona. Nepos ruled over the whole of the remaining Western Roman Empire, centered in Italy, still the Empire's heartland, including his native Dalmatia and the remaining parts of Roman Gaul.
Nepos' rule in Italy ended in 475, when he was deposed by his magister militum, who took control of the government at Ravenna on August 28, forcing Nepos to flee by ship to Dalmatia. In the same year, Orestes enthroned his own teenage son as the new western emperor with the regnal name Romulus Augustus; the boy was around 15 years old when he became Emperor and is known to history as Romulus Augustulus, using the diminutive second element to mean Romulus the Little Augustus. The reasons for Orestes' decision to crown his son as a puppet-emperor, rather than become emperor himself, are somewhat unclear. However, Romulus' position was not constitutional inasmuch as he had not been recognised by the Emperor at Constantinople, in whose eyes Nepos was still the sole Augustus of the West. Romulus' short reign ended on September 4, 476, when Odoacer, head of the Germanic Foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes, deposed Romulus. Odoacer sent Romulus Augustulus to Campania in exile or retirement, after which he disappears from the historical record.
Although his successor had been deposed, Nepos never returned to Italy. He continued to reign from Dalmatia as "Emperor of the West", he still enjoyed some support from Constantinople. Odoacer, attempting to bypass Nepos, used the Roman Senate to petition the newly restored Eastern Emperor, requesting the title of Patrician. Patrician rank was granted, but at Zeno's insistence Odoacer grudgingly acknowledged Nepos' Imperial status, issued coinage in Nepos' name. In practical terms, Odoacer ruled as an independent King of Italy, nominally recognizing the Empire's suzerainty. In name at least, the Western Roman Empire continued to exist after 476, but only as a legal formality and as a sop to Imperial tradition; this political solution lasted four years. In about 479, Nepos began hoping to regain control of Italy for himself. Another possibility, is. What is certain is that Odoacer perceived Nepos as a threat, was determined to get rid of him. Nepos, still residing in Dalmatia, was murdered by one of his own soldiers in 480, on one of three possible dates — April 25, May 9 or June 22.
He was stabbed to death in his villa, near Salona. Since Diocletian had a residence in the area, it might have been the same building. Marcellinus Comes blames "the treachery of Ovida" for the murder. Malchus implicates the former Emperor Glycerius in the conspiracy. Adding to the suspicions about Glycerius is a report that Odoacer made him bishop of Milan. Ovida served as the next ruler of Dalmatia for a few months, but Odoacer used Nepos' murder as a pretext to invade. Odoacer defeated Ovida's forces on December 9, added the province to his own kingdom. After Nepos' death, Zeno formally abolished the division of the Empire, ending the last serious legal claim of a separate "western" Roman Empire until the time of Charlemagne; as is the case with many Roman Emperors who reigned for only a short period of time those from the final decades of the western empire, there is only limited information about Nepos available in
Licinia Eudoxia was a Roman Empress, daughter of Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II. Her husbands included the Western Roman Emperors Valentinian Petronius Maximus. Eudoxia was born in 422, the daughter of Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor and his consort Aelia Eudocia, a woman of Greek origin, her only known siblings and Flacilla, predeceased their parents. Their paternal grandparents were Aelia Eudoxia, their maternal grandfather was a sophist from Athens. The identity of her maternal grandfather was first given by Socrates of Constantinople. John Malalas gave a more detailed account of her mother's history; as summarised in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, "The celebrated Athenais was educated by her father Leontius in the religion and sciences of the Greeks. The jealousy and avarice of her brothers soon compelled Athenais to seek a refuge at Constantinople; that sagacious. She excited the curiosity of her brother, by an interesting picture of the charms of Athenais.
Theodosius, concealed behind a curtain in the apartment of his sister, was permitted to behold the Athenian virgin: the modest youth declared his pure and honorable love. Athenais, persuaded to renounce the errors of Paganism, received at her baptism the Christian name of Eudocia; the brothers of Eudocia obeyed, with her Imperial summons. The exact circumstances of the introduction of Eudocia to Theodosius II and Pulcheria are considered unknown; the historical study Theodosian Empresses. Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity by Kenneth Holum, further introduced the suggestion that Leontius was a native of Antioch rather than Athens, drawing from the "traditional link" between the two cities and their philosophers; the argument is considered doubtful as the building activity of Eudocia in the 420s focused on Athens rather than Antioch. The identity of Eudoxia's maternal grandmother is not recorded. In 424, Eudoxia was betrothed to her first cousin, once removed; the year of their betrothal was recorded by Marcellinus Comes.
At the time of their betrothal, Valentinian was four years old, Eudoxia only two. Gibbon attributes the betrothal to "the agreement of the three females who governed the Roman world", meaning Galla Placidia, her niece Pulcheria, Pulcheria's sister-in-law Eudocia. Galla Placidia was a younger, paternal half-sister of Arcadius. Valentinian III was at the time being prepared to claim the throne of the Western Roman Empire, held by Joannes; the latter was not a member of the Theodosian dynasty and thus regarded a usurper by the Eastern court. Within 424, Valentinian was proclaimed a Caesar in the Eastern court; the following year, Joannes was executed. Valentinian replaced him as Augustus of the West. Eudoxia and Valentinian III married on 29 October 437, in Constantinople, their marriage marking the reunion of the two halves of the House of Theodosius; the marriage was recorded by Socrates of Constantinople, the Chronicon Paschale and Marcellinus Comes. In 439, Eudoxia was granted the title of Augusta, with the birth of their first daughter Eudocia.
They had a second daughter, Placidia. The births and eventual fates of the two daughters were recorded by Priscus, John Malalas and the Chronicon Paschale. On 16 March 455, Valentinian III was killed in the Campus Rome by Optila and Thraustila. According to the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th-century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre, Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648 "Maximus, failing in both his hopes, was bitterly angry, he summoned Optila and Thraustila, brave Scythians who had campaigned with Aëtius and had been assigned to attend on Valentinian, talked to them. He gave and received guarantees, put the blame for Aëtius' murder on the Emperor, urged that the better course would be to take revenge on them; those who avenged the fallen man, would justly have the greatest blessings. Not many days Valentinian rode in the Field of Ares with a few bodyguards and the followers of Optila and Thraustila; when he had dismounted from his horse and proceeded to archery and his friends attacked him.
Optila struck Valentinian on his temple and when turned around to see the striker he dealt him a second blow on the face an
The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the older Goths. The Ostrogoths traced their origins to the Greutungi – a branch of the Goths who had migrated southward from the Baltic Sea and established a kingdom north of the Black Sea, during the 3rd and 4th centuries, they built an empire stretching from the Black Sea to the Baltic. The Ostrogoths were literate in the 3rd century, their trade with the Romans was developed, their Danubian kingdom reached its zenith under King Ermanaric, said to have committed suicide at an old age when the Huns attacked his people and subjugated them in about 370. After their annexation by the Huns, little is heard of the Ostrogoths for about 80 years, after which they reappear in Pannonia on the middle Danube River as federates of the Romans. After the collapse of the Hun empire after the Battle of Nedao, Ostrogoths migrated westwards towards Illyria and the borders of Italy, while some remained in the Crimea. During the late 5th and 6th centuries, under Theodoric the Great most of the Ostrogoths moved first to Moesia and conquered the Kingdom of Italy of the Germanic warrior Odoacer.
In 493, Theodoric the Great established a kingdom in Italy. A period of instability ensued, tempting the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian to declare war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the former western provinces of the Roman Empire; the Byzantines were successful, but under the leadership of Totila, the Goths reconquered most of the lost territory until Totila's death at the Battle of Taginae. The war lasted for 21 years and caused enormous damage and depopulation of Italy; the remaining Ostrogoths were absorbed into the Lombards who established a kingdom in Italy in 568. A division of the Goths is first attested in 291; the Tervingi are first attested around that date. The Greuthungi are first named by Ammianus Marcellinus, writing no earlier than 392 and later than 395, basing his account on the words of a Tervingian chieftain, attested as early as 376; the Ostrogoths are first named in a document dated September 392 from Milan. Claudian mentions. According to Herwig Wolfram, the primary sources either use the terminology of Tervingi/Greuthungi or Vesi/Ostrogothi and never mix the pairs.
All four names were used together, but the pairing was always preserved, as in Gruthungi, Tervingi, Vesi. That the Tervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi the Ostrogothi is supported by Jordanes, he identified the Visigothic kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the fourth-century Tervingian king Athanaric and the Ostrogothic kings from Theodoric the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungian king Ermanaric. This interpretation, though common among scholars today, is not universal. According to the Jordanes' Getica, around 400 the Ostrogoths were ruled by Ostrogotha and derived their name from this "father of the Ostrogoths", but modern historians assume the converse, that Ostrogotha was named after the people. Both Herwig Wolfram and Thomas Burns conclude that the terms Tervingi and Greuthungi were geographical identifiers used by each tribe to describe the other; this terminology therefore dropped out of use after the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions.
In support of this, Wolfram cites Zosimus as referring to a group of "Scythians" north of the Danube who were called "Greuthungi" by the barbarians north of the Ister. Wolfram asserts, he further believes that the terms "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were used by the peoples to boastfully describe themselves. On this understanding, the Greuthungi and Ostrogothi were less the same people; the nomenclature of Greuthungi and Tervingi fell out of use shortly after 400. In general, the terminology of a divided Gothic people disappeared after they entered the Roman Empire; the term "Visigoth", was an invention of the sixth century. Cassiodorus, a Roman in the service of Theodoric the Great, invented the term Visigothi to match Ostrogothi, which terms he thought of as "western Goths" and "eastern Goths" respectively; the western-eastern division was a simplification and a literary device of sixth-century historians where political realities were more complex. Furthermore, Cassiodorus used the term "Goths" to refer only to the Ostrogoths, whom he served, reserved the geographical term "Visigoths" for the Gallo-Hispanic Goths.
This usage, was adopted by the Visigoths themselves in their communications with the Byzantine Empire and was in use in the seventh century. Other names for the Goths abounded. A "Germanic" Byzantine or Italian author referred to one of the two peoples as the Valagothi, meaning "Roman Goths". In 484 the Ostrogoths had been called the Valameriaci because they followed Theodoric, a descendant of Valamir; this terminology survived in the Byzantine East as late as the reign of Athalaric, called του Ουαλεμεριακου by John Malalas. The Gothic name makes its first appearance sometime between 16 and 18 AD with earlier indications related to the Guti of Scandia or attributable to the Gutones. Procopius wrote of the Gauts in Thule and Cassiodorus mentioned the Gauthigoths amid his list of Scandinavian peoples. Two distinct groups of Gothic peoples are first attested to in 291, the western Tervingi-Vesi and the eastern Greutungi-Ostrogothi. "Greuthungi" may mean "steppe dwellers" or "people of t
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area, part of Scythia at the time. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders, causing many others to flee into Roman territory; the Huns under their King Attila made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, the Huns invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, in 452 they invaded Italy. After Attila's death in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire following the Battle of Nedao. Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries.
Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection; the issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the Iranian Huns are disputed. Little is known about Hunnic culture and few archaeological remains have been conclusively associated with the Huns, they are believed to have used bronze cauldrons and to have performed artificial cranial deformation. No description exists of the Hunnic religion of the time of Attila, but practices such as divination are attested, the existence of shamans likely, it is known that the Huns had a language of their own, however only three words and personal names attest to it. Economically, they are known to have practiced a form of nomadic pastoralism.
They do not seem to have had a unified government when they entered Europe, but rather to have developed a unified tribal leadership in the course of their wars with the Romans. The Huns ruled over a variety of peoples, who spoke various languages and some of whom maintained their own rulers, their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire; the memory of the Huns lived on in various Christian saints' lives, where the Huns play the roles of antagonists, as well as in Germanic heroic legend, where the Huns are variously antagonists or allies to the Germanic main figures. In Hungary, a legend developed based on medieval chronicles that the Hungarians, the Székely ethnic group in particular, are descended from the Huns. However, mainstream scholarship dismisses a close connection between the Huns. Modern culture associates the Huns with extreme cruelty and barbarism; the origins of the Huns and their links to other steppe people remain uncertain: scholars agree that they originated in Central Asia but disagree on the specifics of their origins.
Classical sources assert that they appeared in Europe around 370. Most Roman writers' attempts to elucidate the origins of the Huns equated them with earlier steppe peoples. Roman writers repeated a tale that the Huns had entered the domain of the Goths while they were pursuing a wild stag, or else one of their cows that had gotten loose, across the Kerch Strait into Crimea. Discovering the land good, they attacked the Goths. Jordanes' Getica relates that the Goths held the Huns to be offspring of "unclean spirits" and Gothic witches. Since Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have associated the Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu had retreated north-westward. Scholars discussed the relationship between the Xungnu, the Huns, a number of people in central Asia were known as or came to be identified with the name "Hun" or "Iranian Huns", the Chionites, the Kidarites, the Hephthalites being the most prominent.
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based on the study of written sources, to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Since Maenchen-Helfen's work, the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns' ancestors has become controversial. Additionally, several scholars have questioned the identification of the "Iranian Huns" with the European Huns. Walter Pohl cautions that none of the great confederations of steppe warriors was ethnically homogenous, the same name was used by different groups for reasons of prestige, or by outsiders to describe their lifestyle or geographic origin, it is therefore futile to speculate about identity or blood relationships between Hiung-nu, Attila's Huns, for instance. All we can safely say is that the name Huns, in