The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
Graffiti is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, it has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, the Roman Empire. In modern times and marker pens have become the most used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's permission is considered defacement and vandalism, a punishable crime. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different styles of graffiti. Both "graffiti" and its occasional singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato. "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface.
A related term is "sgraffito", which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares and scratch a design into it. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used; the word originates from Greek γράφειν—graphein—meaning "to write". The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii. Use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism; the only known source of the Safaitic language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern Syria, eastern Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD; the first known example of "modern style" graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus.
Local guides say. Located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint, a number, a carved image of a woman's head; the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than they carry in today's society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, simple words of thought, compared to today's popular messages of social and political ideals The eruption of Vesuvius preserved graffiti in Pompeii, which includes Latin curses, magic spells, declarations of love, political slogans, famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by mansueta tene. Disappointed love found its way onto walls in antiquity: Ancient tourists visiting the 5th-century citadel at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka scribbled over 1800 individual graffiti there between the 6th and 18th centuries.
Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose and commentary. The majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society: royalty, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and some metalworkers; the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art and poetry. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there. One reads: Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems. Yazid al-Himyari, an Umayyad Arab and Persian poet, was most known for writing his political poetry on the walls between Sajistan and Basra, manifesting a strong hatred towards the Umayyad regime and its walis, people used to read and circulate them widely. Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. Errors in spelling and grammar in these graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin.
Examples are 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed quactiliar rog. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co"; the 83 pieces of graffiti found at CIL IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a peristyle, being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens; the graffiti were left by his workers. The brothel at CIL VII, 12, 18–20 contains more than 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients; the gladiatorial academy at CIL IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens Another piece from Pompeii, written on a tavern wall about the owner of the establishment and his questionable wine: It was not only the Greeks and Romans who produced graffiti: the Maya s
Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
The rolling stock on the Berlin U-Bahn are the main types of cars for the underground railway. They are split into two general categories: Großprofil lines; the names refer to the size of the train's coaches. Großprofil coaches have a width of 2.65 metres and a height of 3.40 metres, Kleinprofil coaches are only 2.30 metres wide and 3.10 metres high. Therefore, the trains have to operate on separate networks. Both networks have 1,435 mm standard gauge track and are electrified at 750 volts DC; because Großprofil and Kleinprofil trains use different types of power supply the trains cannot operate on the same route. However, on the Nord-Süd-Bahn in the years between 1923 and 1927 and on the E line between 1961 and 1978, Kleinprofil trains with specially adapted power pickups ran on Grossprofil tracks, they were fitted with special wooden boards on the sides to close the gap between platform and train. These wooden boards were jokingly called Blumenbretter; the polarity of the power rails differs. On the Kleinprofil lines the power rail is positively charged and the track is negative, on the Großprofil lines it is the other way around.
In East Berlin the polarity of the track section Thälmannplatz/Otto-Grotewohl-Straße - Pankow, was the same as on the Großprofil lines. After reunification, this exception to the normal Kleinprofil polarity was reversed by the BVG though there are benefits to this arrangement; the newest types of U-Bahn are I for the Hk for the Kleinprofil. The oldest vehicles still in service are of the A3E type. Today, only trains of the GI/1E, A3E and A3L71-A3L92 types are in active service. Two test vehicles were ordered for the first Berlin U-Bahn line from the Cologne coach builders, van der Zypen & Charlier. One of these vehicles was used by Wilhelm II in 1908; the train width of 2.30 meters was fixed at this point. At that time and subways were still modelled on streetcars; the first production vehicles, which were appropriately titled A-I, were built in the Warschauer Brücke workshop. At the U-Bahn's opening in 1902, 42 multiple units and 21 pure railroad cars were ready for service. Unlike the test vehicles, the seating was placed along the walls of the train, considered more comfortable.
This arrangement is still used today. These trains had a top speed of 50 km/h. Between 1906 and 1913, a fifth batch of vehicles was delivered. There were smoking compartments and third class cars on the U-Bahn. Different classes were abandoned in 1927. In 1926 the Schöneberg U-Bahn, independent and had used their own vehicles up to that point, were taken over by the main U-Bahn network; because a connection to the rest of the network had been planned from the beginning, the Schöneberg trains had been built to the same specifications as the main network. From 1928 to 1929 a new type of Kleinprofil was introduced, the A-II cars; the most notable difference to the A-I type was that the A-II only had three windows and two sliding doors. Berliners called these trains Ammanullah-cars because the Afghan king Amanullah Khan had steered one of these trains during his 1928 Berlin visit. After World War II a new batch of vehicles became necessary - the trains had been badly damaged in the war. At this point the new A3 type, modelled on its big Großprofil brother DL, was designed.
There were three batches of this type in the years 1960/61, 1964 and 1966. However, because these were built from steel, the new trains required a large amount of electricity. A3 trains have begun refurbishment for A3-64 and A3-66 from 2003 to 2006, known as A3E, but 8 trains were scrapped in 2000. Based on the A3, the A3L type built from aluminum was developed. While in West Berlin newer and newer vehicles were built and used, in East Berlin the pre-war A-I and A-II trains were still running. In 1975 the Thälmannplatz — Pankow route got four prototypes of the new GI double multiple unit, called Gustav in popular parlance; as before, the seats were located alongside the train walls. The top speed was 70 km/h; the smallest unit of these trains were half trains made up of two double multiple units. After intensive testing the LEW Hennigsdorf factory began manufacturing the trains; the production models were technically the same. 114 cars were built until 1982. There were 24 more, they were returned to Berlin in 1984/85.
The GII trains were returned to Athens in 1997. In 1988 a new batch of GI-trains was delivered, but with technical changes that made coupling them with the older cars impossible; because of these changes the new trains were called GI/1. Their popular nickname was Gisela. A speciality of these cars was the fact that they had only two doors per side, unlike the other Kleinprofil trains, which had three. All the older G stock were sold to Pyongyang, the G cars went for scrap, all the GI/1 trains were refurbished into GI/1E from 2005 to 2007 in order to extend the lifespan. In allusion to the Großprofil series H two prototypes were built in 2000, which had the designation HK - the plan had been to call them A4. Unlike their Großprofil model, cars on these trains are not inter-connected for passengers. A full train can be divided into two half trains; the production of the