Cyril Newall, 1st Baron Newall
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Cyril Louis Norton Newall, 1st Baron Newall, was a senior officer of the British Army and Royal Air Force. He commanded units of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force in the First World War, served as Chief of the Air Staff during the first years of the Second World War. From 1941 to 1946 he was the Governor-General of New Zealand. Born to a military family, Newall studied at the Royal Military College, before taking a commission as a junior officer in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in 1905. After transferring to the 2nd Gurkha Rifles in the Indian Army, he saw active service on the North West Frontier, but after learning to fly in 1911 turned towards a career in military aviation. During the First World War he rose from flying instructor to command of 41st Wing RFC, the main strategic bombing force, was awarded the Albert Medal for putting out a fire in an explosives store, he served in staff positions through the 1920s and was Air Officer Commanding the Middle East Command in the early 1930s before becoming Air Member for Supply and Organisation in 1935.
Newall was appointed Chief of the Air Staff in 1937 and, in that role, supported sharp increases in aircraft production, increasing expenditure on the new armed and Spitfire fighters, essential to re-equip Fighter Command. However, he was sacked after the Battle of Britain after political intrigue caused him to lose Churchill's confidence. In 1941 he was appointed Governor-General of New Zealand, holding office until 1946. Newall was born to Edith Gwendoline Caroline Newall. After education at Bedford School, he attended Sandhurst. After leaving Sandhurst, he was commissioned into the Royal Warwickshire Regiment on 16 August 1905, he was promoted to lieutenant on 18 November 1908, transferred to the 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles on 16 September 1909. He served on the North-West Frontier. Newall began to turn towards a career in aviation in 1911, when he learned to fly in a Bristol Biplane at Larkhill whilst on leave in England, he held certificate No. 144 issued by the Royal Aero Club.
He passed a formal course at the Central Flying School, Upavon in 1913, began working as a pilot trainer there from 17 November 1913. On the outbreak of war, Newall was in England. On 12 September 1914, he was given the temporary rank of captain, attached to the Royal Flying Corps as a flight commander, to serve with No. 1 Squadron on the Western Front. He was promoted to the permanent rank of captain on 22 September, effective from 16 August. On 24 March 1915 he was promoted to major and appointed to command No. 12 Squadron, flying BE2c aircraft in France from September onwards. The squadron took part in the Battle of Loos, bombing railways and carrying out reconnaissance missions in October 1915. On taking command of the squadron, he chose to stop flying in order to concentrate on administration, a decision, regarded dismissively by his men, he was awarded the Albert Medal for this act on the personal recommendation of General Hugh Trenchard, in February 1916 was promoted to lieutenant colonel and given command of Training No. 6 Wing in England.
In December 1916 he took command of No. 9 Wing in France, a long-range bomber and reconnaissance formation, in October 1917 took command of the newly formed No. 41 Wing. This was upgraded as the 8th Brigade in December, with Newall promoted accordingly to the temporary rank of brigadier-general on 28 December 1917. During 1918, it joined the Independent Bombing Force, the main strategic bombing arm of the newly formed Royal Air Force. In June 1918 Newall was appointed the Deputy Commander of the Independent Bombing Force, serving under Trenchard. Newall was awarded the Croix d'Officier of the French Legion of Honour on 10 October 1918, appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George on 1 January 1919, a Commander of the Order of the British Empire on 3 June 1919 and an Officer of the Belgian Order of Leopold on 18 April 1921. Newall was granted a permanent commission in the Royal Air Force as a lieutenant colonel on 1 August 1919 and promoted to group captain on 8 August 1919.
He became Deputy Director of Personnel at the Air Ministry in August 1919 and Deputy Commandant of the apprentices' technical training school in August 1922. He married May Weddell in 1922, he had three children with a son and two daughters. Newall was promoted to air commodore on 1 January 1925, took command of the newly formed Auxiliary Air Force in May 1925, he was appointed to a League of Nations disarmament committee in December 1925 and became Deputy Chief of the Air Staff and Director of Operations and Intelligence on 12 April 1926. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1929 Birthday Honours and, having been promoted to air vice marshal on 1 January 1930, he stood down as Deputy Chief on 6 February 1931, he became Air Officer Commanding Wessex Bombing Area in February 1931 and Air Officer Commanding Middle East Command in September 1931. He returned to the Air Ministry, where he became Air Member for Supply and Organisation on 14
Air Marshal Sir Geoffrey William Tuttle, was a senior Royal Air Force officer who served as Deputy Chief of the Air Staff from 1956 to 1959. Tuttle joined the Royal Air Force in 1925, he was appointed Officer Commanding No. 105 Squadron in 1937. He served in World War II as Commander of the Photographic Reconnaissance Unit and as Officer Commanding No. 324 Wing before being appointed Senior Air Staff Officer at Headquarters Mediterranean Allied Coastal Air Force and Air Officer Commanding AHQ Greece. In Greece his initial force consisted of Nos 94, 108, 221 Squadrons. After the War he became Director of Operational Requirements at the Air Ministry and Air Officer for Administration at Headquarters RAF Coastal Command, he went on to be Assistant Chief of the Air Staff in 1951, Air Officer Commanding No. 19 Group in 1954 and Deputy Chief of the Air Staff in 1956 before retiring in 1959. In retirement Tuttle became General Manager at Vickers-Armstrongs Limited
Air Marshal Sir Peter Guy Wykeham, born Peter Guy Wykeham-Barnes was a Royal Air Force fighter pilot and squadron commander, a flying ace of the Second World War. He was credited with 3 shared aerial victories. Wykeham-Barnes joined the Royal Air Force as an apprentice in 1932, he served in the Second World War as a Flight Commander with No. 274 Squadron and as Officer Commanding No. 73 Squadron before commanding the fighters at Headquarters Desert Air Force. He continued his war service Officer Commanding No. 257 Squadron and as Officer Commanding No. 23 Squadron before becoming Sector Commander at RAF Kenley and commanding No. 140 Wing. Remaining in the RAF after the War, Wykeham-Barnes was employed as a test pilot before serving with the USAF Fifth Air Force in the Korean War. On his return to Great Britain, Wykeham-Barnes served as station commander at RAF North Weald and RAF Wattisham before becoming Assistant Chief of Staff at Headquarters Allied Air Forces Central Europe in 1953, he went on to join the Air Staff at Headquarters RAF Fighter Command in 1956 and became Director of Fighter & Theatre Air Force Operations in 1958.
He served as Air Officer Commanding No. 38 Group from 1960, the Director of the Joint Warfare Staff from 1962, the Commander of the Far East Air Force from 1964 and the Deputy Chief of the Air Staff from 1967 before retiring in 1969. Wykeham is the author of a history of Fighter Command published in 1960 and a biography of Alberto Santos-Dumont, published in 1962. In 1949 Wykeham married Barbara Priestley.
Robert Marsland Groves
Air Commodore Robert Marsland Groves, was a Royal Navy officer involved with naval aviation during the First World War. He was awarded his Aviator's Certificate no. 969 on 15 November 1914. After transferring to the Royal Air Force in 1918, he served as Deputy Chief of the Air Staff and held high command in the Middle East, he was killed in a flying accident in 1920 aged 40 whilst serving in Egypt. Robert Marsland Groves was born on 3 January 1880 at Stretford in Lancashire, the son of James Grimble Groves, a brewer and Conservative MP. Robert Groves was educated at Rossall School, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman in the 1890s, rising to sub-lieutenant by the summer of 1899 and lieutenant on 15 February 1900. In September 1902 Groves was posted to the torpedo school ship HMS Vernon, to qualify for torpedo lieutenant. Groves was promoted to commander on 22 June 1911 and the following year on 26 November 1912, he was appointed Flag Commander to the Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean on HMS Inflexible.
He served in the First World War as Assistant Director of the Air Department at the Admiralty and as Officer Commanding No. 1 Squadron RNAS before returning to the Admiralty to be Assistant Secretary of the Air Board. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order in 1919, the citation for, published in a supplement to the London Gazette on 22 June, reading: Commander Robert Marsland Groves. R. N.. In recognition of his services in command of a Wing of the Royal Naval Air Service at Dunkirk. Commander Groves has by his personal skill as a pilot, by his untiring zeal, effected a marked advancement in the general standard of flying on active service, he has on several occasions carried out successful reconnaissances to Ostend under fire, by his own example has proved the utility and great importance of night flying." After the War he became Director of Operations and Intelligence. He went on to be Acting Air Officer Commanding RAF Middle East Area in 1919 and Air Officer Commanding Egyptian Group in 1920.
Grove died aged 40 on 27 May 1920 in Egypt from injuries received in an aircraft crash, he was buried at the Cairo New British Protestant Cemetery. Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation – Air Commodore R M Groves
Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside
Marshal of the Royal Air Force William Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force. After serving as a pilot a flight commander and as a squadron commander during the First World War, he served a flying instructor during the inter-war years before becoming Director of Staff Duties and Assistant Chief of the Air Staff at the Air Ministry. During the Second World War Douglas clashed with other senior commanders over strategy in the Battle of Britain. Douglas argued for a more aggressive engagement with a'Big Wing' strategy i.e. using massed fighters to defend the United Kingdom against enemy bombers. He became Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Fighter Command in which role he was responsible for rebuilding the command's strength after the attrition of the Battle of Britain, but for bringing it on the offensive to wrest the initiative in the air from the German Luftwaffe. Douglas went on to be Air Officer Commanding in Chief of RAF Middle East Command in which role he was an advocate of Operation Accolade, a planned British amphibious assault on Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands in the Aegean Sea, was disappointed when it was abandoned.
He became commander of the British Zone of Occupation in Germany after the war. Born the son of Professor Robert Langton Douglas and his wife Margaret Jane Douglas, Douglas was educated at Emanuel School, Tonbridge School and Lincoln College, Oxford. Douglas was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Royal Field Artillery on 15 August 1914. In January 1915, following a disagreement with his commanding officer, he transferred to the Royal Flying Corps joining No. 2 Squadron as an observer. He soon trained as a pilot and earned Royal Aero Club certificate No 1301. Promoted to lieutenant on 9 June 1915, he became a pilot with No. 14 Squadron at Shoreham in July 1915 and transferred to No. 8 Squadron, flying B. E.2c aircraft on the Western Front, in August 1915. Appointed a flight commander with the rank of temporary captain in December 1915, he joined No. 18 Squadron at Montrose in January 1916. He was awarded the Military Cross on 14 January 1916. Douglas went on to be officer commanding No. 43 Squadron, flying Sopwith 1½ Strutters on the Western Front, in April 1916 and, having been promoted to temporary major on 1 July 1916, he became officer commanding No. 84 Squadron, flying S.
E.5s on the Western Front, in August 1917. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on 8 February 1919. After the war Douglas worked for Handley Page and as a commercial pilot before rejoining the Royal Air Force in 1920 after a chance meeting with Hugh Trenchard. After being granted a permanent commission as a squadron leader on 25 March 1920, Douglas attended the RAF Staff College and served as a flight instructor four years. Promoted to wing commander on 1 January 1925, he continued his work as an instructor before attending the Imperial Defence College in 1927, he became station commander at RAF North Weald in January 1928 and joined the Air Staff at Headquarters Middle East Command in Khartoum in August 1929. Promoted to group captain on 1 January 1932, he became an instructor at the Imperial Defence College in June 1932 and having been promoted to air commodore on 1 January 1935, he became Director of Staff Duties at the Air Ministry on 1 January 1936. Promoted to air vice marshal on 1 January 1938, he went on to be Assistant Chief of the Air Staff on 17 February 1938.
On 22 April 1940, with the Second World War well under way, he was made Deputy Chief of the Air Staff. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 11 July 1940. During 1940, Douglas and Trafford Leigh-Mallory clashed with the head of No. 11 Group, Keith Park, the head of Fighter Command, Hugh Dowding, over strategy in the Battle of Britain. Douglas argued for a more aggressive engagement with a'Big Wing' strategy i.e. using massed fighters to defend the United Kingdom against enemy bombers. When Charles Portal was made Chief of the Air Staff in October 1940 he supported Douglas, moving Park and Dowding and appointing Douglas to replace Dowding as Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Fighter Command, with the temporary rank of air marshal on 25 November 1940, he was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 1 July 1941 and promoted to the substantive rank of air marshal on 14 April 1942. At around this time Prime Minister Winston Churchill recommended Douglas to command the China Burma India Theater but General George Marshall refused to accept the appointment due to Douglas's well known dislike of Americans.
As commander-in-chief of Fighter Command, Douglas was responsible for rebuilding the command's strength after the attrition of the Battle of Britain, but for bringing it on the offensive to wrest the initiative in the air from the German Luftwaffe. He was therefore one of the main orchestrators of the only successful Circus offensive whereby large wings of fighters accompanied by bombers would take advantage of good weather to sweep over Northern France. Douglas was promoted to temporary air chief marshal on 1 July 1942. On 28 November 1942 Douglas was replaced at Fighter Command by Trafford Leigh-Mallory and was transferred to Egypt, becoming Air Officer Commanding in Chief of RAF Middle East Command in January 1943. In that capacity Douglas was an advocate of Operation Accolade, a planned British amphibious assault on Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands in the Aegean Sea, was disappointed when it was abandoned. Douglas returned to England in January 1944 to head Coastal Command during the invasion of Normandy and having been confirmed in the rank of air chief marshal on 6 June 1945, he became Commander in Chief, British Air Forces of Occupation in July 1945.
He was advanced to Knig
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Air Chief Marshal Sir Edgar Rainey Ludlow-Hewitt, was a senior Royal Air Force commander. Educated at Eastman's School, Radley College and Sandhurst, Ludlow-Hewitt was commissioned into the Royal Irish Rifles in 1905, but transferred to the Royal Flying Corps before the First World War, where he qualified on 11 September 1914 for the Royal Aero Club's Aviator's Certificate no. 886. During the war he served first as a pilot in No. 1 Squadron Royal Flying Corps and later as the Officer Commanding No. 15 Squadron and No. 3 Squadron on the Western Front. In 1916 Ludlow-Hewitt took up command of the 3rd Wing as a temporary lieutenant colonel. Late in the following year, he was promoted to brigadier general and made the Inspector of Training at the headquarters of the RFC Training Division. Like other members of the RFC, he transferred to the Royal Air Force on its creation on 1 April 1918, it was on that date that he became General Officer Commanding the Training Division. Less than two months he was appointed GOC the 10th Brigade.
He was appointed Air Secretary in 1922 and Commandant of the RAF Staff College in 1926. He went on to be Air Officer Commanding Iraq Command in 1930, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff and Director of Operations and Intelligence in 1933 and Air Officer Commanding the RAF India in 1935. In 1937 Ludlow-Hewitt was promoted to Air Chief Marshal and appointed Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Bomber Command. In the Second World War, Ludlow-Hewitt was replaced by Portal in April 1940 because of Ludlow-Hewitt's insistence on the formation of Operational Training Units, at the expense of the availability of front line airmen, he spent the remainder of the war as Inspector-General of the RAF and did not retire until November 1945, making him the RAF officer with the longest service as an Air Chief Marshal throughout the history of the RAF