Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger was an American political consultant who served as the United States National Security Advisor for President Bill Clinton from March 14, 1997, until January 20, 2001. Before that he served as the Deputy National Security Advisor for the Clinton Administration from January 20, 1993, until March 14, 1997. In 2005, he was sentenced to serve two years of probation plus community service, he gave up his license to practice law. Berger was born to a Jewish family in New York, where his parents ran an Army-Navy store, he graduated from Webutuck High School in 1963, earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in government from Cornell University in 1967, his earned Juris Doctor degree from Harvard Law School in 1971. At Cornell, Berger was a member of the Quill and Dagger society with Paul Wolfowitz and Stephen Hadley. Opposed to the Vietnam War, Berger began working for Senator George McGovern's presidential campaign in 1972. While there, he met Bill Clinton. Berger urged Clinton to run for President of the United States.
After the McGovern campaign, Berger gained experience working in a variety of government posts, including serving as Special Assistant to Mayor of New York City John Lindsay and Legislative Assistant to U. S. Senator Harold Hughes of Iowa and Congressman Joseph Resnick of New York, he was Deputy Director of Policy Planning for the U. S. Department of State from 1977 to 1980 under Secretary of State Cyrus Vance during the Carter administration. After leaving the State Department, Berger went on to join the law firm Hogan & Hartson where he helped expand the firm's international law practice; as a partner, he opened the firm's first two international offices, in Brussels. "Sandy Berger", Nancy Pelosi said in 1997, "was the point-man at... Hogan & Hartson... for the trade office of the Chinese government. He was a lawyer-lobbyist." Berger served as Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to Governor Clinton during the campaign, as Assistant Transition Director for National Security of the 1992 Clinton-Gore Transition.
Berger served eight years on the National Security Council staff, first from 1993 - 1997 as deputy national security advisor, under Anthony Lake, whom Berger had recommended for the role, succeeding Lake as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs from 1997 to 2001. Berger was a central figure in formulating the foreign policy of the Clinton Administration, played an integral role advancing the administration's self-described objectives of advancing "democracy, shared prosperity, peace." In President Clinton's words, "Nobody was more knowledgeable about policy or smarter about how to formulate it. He was both great in figuring out what to do about it, his gifts proved invaluable time and time again, in Latin America, the Balkans, Northern Ireland, the Middle East."Key achievements during Berger's NSC tenure included the 1995 peso recovery package in Mexico, NATO enlargement, Operation Desert Fox, the Dayton Accords that ended the killing in Bosnia, the NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia that stopped the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, the Good Friday Agreement that helped bring about peace in Northern Ireland, the administration's policy of engagement with the People's Republic of China.
In a March 2005 oral history interview at the University of Virginia's Miller Center, Berger noted, "I think during the'90s we took China from outside the international system and brought it inside the international system through trade, economics, otherwise."On July 4, 1999, in what South Asia expert Bruce Reidel called Berger's "finest hour," Berger advised President Clinton through a pivotal negotiation with Pakistan's prime minister Nawaz Sharif to pull that country's troops back from Kashmir, averting a cataclysmic nuclear war with India. Berger advised the President regarding the Khobar Towers bombing and responses to the terrorist bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. In the final years of the Clinton administration, combating terrorism was the paramount foreign policy priority. In November 1997, Berger paid a $23,000 civil penalty to settle conflict of interest allegations stemming from his failure to sell his stock of Amoco Corporation as ordered by the White House.
Berger was advised by the White House to sell the stock in early 1994. He said he had planned to sell the stock, but forgot, he denied knowingly participating in decisions. With no evidence that Berger intended to break the law, the United States Department of Justice determined a civil penalty was adequate for a "non-willful violation" of the conflict of interest law. In 1999, Berger was criticized for failing to promptly inform President Clinton of his knowledge that the People's Republic of China had managed to acquire the designs of a number of U. S. nuclear warheads. Berger was briefed of the espionage by the Department of Energy in April 1996, but did not inform the president until July 1997. A number of Republicans, including presidential hopeful Lamar Alexander, called for Berger's resignation, they accused him of ignoring the allegations of Chinese espionage. "For his unwillingness to act on this serious matter, Mr. Berger should resign", Alexander said. "If he does not, he should be relieved of his duties by President Clinton."
President Clinton rejected the calls: "The record is that we acted aggressively," Clinton said. "Mr
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977. Before his accession to the presidency, Ford served as the 40th vice president of the United States from December 1973 to August 1974. Ford is the only person to have served as both vice president and president without being elected to either office by the United States Electoral College. Born in Omaha and raised in Grand Rapids, Ford attended the University of Michigan and Yale Law School. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, he enlisted in the U. S. Naval Reserve, serving from 1942 to 1946. Ford began his political career in 1949 as the U. S. representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district. He served in this capacity for the final nine of them as the House Minority Leader. In December 1973, two months after the resignation of Spiro Agnew, Ford became the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment by President Richard Nixon.
After the subsequent resignation of President Nixon in August 1974, Ford assumed the presidency. His 895 day-long presidency is the shortest in U. S. history for any president who did not die in office. As president, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords. With the collapse of South Vietnam nine months into his presidency, U. S. involvement in Vietnam ended. Domestically, Ford presided over the worst economy in the four decades since the Great Depression, with growing inflation and a recession during his tenure. In one of his most controversial acts, he granted a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. During Ford's presidency, foreign policy was characterized in procedural terms by the increased role Congress began to play, by the corresponding curb on the powers of the President. In the Republican presidential primary campaign of 1976, Ford defeated former California Governor Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination, he narrowly lost the presidential election to the Democratic challenger, former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter.
Following his years as president, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. His moderate views on various social issues put him at odds with conservative members of the party in the 1990s and early 2000s. After experiencing a series of health problems, he died at home on December 26, 2006. Ford was born Leslie Lynch King Jr. on July 14, 1913, at 3202 Woolworth Avenue in Omaha, where his parents lived with his paternal grandparents. He was Leslie Lynch King Sr. a wool trader. His father was a son of Martha Alicia King. Gardner separated from King just sixteen days after her son's birth, she took her son with her to Oak Park, home of her sister Tannisse and brother-in-law, Clarence Haskins James. From there, she moved to the home of her parents, Levi Addison Gardner and Adele Augusta Ayer, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Gardner and King divorced in December 1913, she gained full custody of her son. Ford's paternal grandfather Charles Henry King paid child support until shortly before his death in 1930.
Ford said that his biological father had a history of hitting his mother. In a biography of Ford, James M. Cannon, a member of the Ford administration, wrote that the separation and divorce of Ford's parents were sparked when, a few days after Ford's birth, Leslie King took a butcher knife and threatened to kill his wife, his infant son, Ford's nursemaid. Ford told confidants that his father had first hit his mother when she smiled at another man during their honeymoon. After living with her parents for two-and-a-half years, Gardner married Gerald Rudolff Ford on February 1, 1916. Gerald was a salesman in a family-owned varnish company, they now called her son Gerald Rudolff Ford Jr. The future president was never formally adopted and did not change his name until December 3, 1935, he was raised in Grand Rapids with his three half-brothers from his mother's second marriage: Thomas Gardner "Tom" Ford, Richard Addison "Dick" Ford, James Francis "Jim" Ford. Ford had three half-siblings from the second marriage of Leslie King Sr. his biological father: Marjorie King, Leslie Henry King, Patricia Jane King.
They never saw one another as children, he did not know them at all until 1960. Ford was not aware of his biological father until he was 17, when his parents told him about the circumstances of his birth; that year his biological father, whom Ford described as a "carefree, well-to-do man who didn't give a damn about the hopes and dreams of his firstborn son", approached Ford while he was waiting tables in a Grand Rapids restaurant. The two "maintained a sporadic contact" until Leslie King Sr.'s death in 1941. Ford said, "My stepfather was a magnificent person and my mother wonderful. So I couldn't have written a better prescription for a superb family upbringing."Ford was involved in the Boy Scouts of America, earned that program's highest rank, Eagle Scout. He is the only Eagle Scout to have ascended to the U. S. Presidency. Ford attended Grand Rapids South High School, where he was a star athlete and captain of the football team. In 1930, he was selected to the All-City team of the Grand Rapids City League.
He attracted the attention of college recruiters. Ford attended the University of Michigan, he washed dishes at his f
James Braidy "Jim" Steinberg is an American academic and political advisor, former United States Deputy Secretary of State. He is a Professor of Social Science, International Affairs, Law at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. Steinberg was born to a Jewish family in Massachusetts, he was educated at Phillips Academy, Harvard College, Yale Law School. His previous positions included a senior fellowship for US Strategic Policy at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, UK, senior analyst at RAND Corporation. Steinberg served as a Senior Advisor to the Markle Foundation and was a member of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. During the national elections which brought U. S. President Jimmy Carter into office, Steinberg worked on the presidential campaign of the Carter-Mondale ticket. Steinberg served as U. S. State Department Director of Policy Planning Deputy National Security Advisor to US President Bill Clinton.
He served on the Project on National Security Reform's Guiding Coalition. After serving in the Clinton administration, Steinberg was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C. and the Institution's vice director of Foreign Policy Studies. Steinberg was Dean of the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin until his appointment as U. S. Deputy Secretary of State on January 28, 2009, taking a leave of absence from the School for the duration of his term in office. According to The Wall Street Journal, along with Daniel C. Kurtzer and Dennis Ross, were among the principal authors of Barack Obama’s address on the Middle East to AIPAC in June 2008, viewed as the Democratic Party nominee’s most expansive on international affairs, he was mentioned as being "at the top" of Obama's list of candidates for the post of National Security Advisor, but Andrea Mitchell reported on November 24, 2008 that Hillary Clinton would appoint Steinberg United States Deputy Secretary of State.
On December 23, 2008, Steinberg himself confirmed the appointment in a letter addressed to students and faculty at the Johnson school. As Deputy Secretary of State and principal Deputy to US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Steinberg notably coined the phrase "strategic reassurance" to describe China–United States relations suggestive of the idea that the United States should reassure China about welcoming China's rise while China would reassure the US and its neighbors that it would not conflict with their interests. In October 2010, Steinberg met with Israel’s Deputy Foreign Minister, Danny Ayalon, in Washington, D. C. where they discussed how to improve regional security and stability through boosting and growing the strong cooperation between their two nations. During the talks, both delegates expressed their commitment to a lasting peace between Israel and its neighbors and their grave concern regarding Iran’s continued non-compliance with its international obligations through pursuit of a military nuclear program.
The following spring, they met in Jerusalem where they again took advantage of the opportunity to work together to identify and strategize against the threats both countries face including the changing political situation in the Middle East and the ongoing Iranian nuclear program. In March 2011, Steinberg was named Dean of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. On July 28, 2011, he assumed his new position, his term as dean ended in 2016. Steinberg is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he has participated in eight conferences of the Bilderberg Group. Turning to the Pacific: U. S. Strategic Rebalancing toward Asia, coauthored by James Steinberg, Asia Policy He is married to Sherburne B. Abbott, vice president for sustainability initiatives and University Professor of Sustainability Science and Policy at Syracuse University, they have two daughters: Emma. James Steinberg at The American Assembly's Next Generation Project James B. Steinberg at US State Department Research and commentary at the Brookings Institution Appearances on C-SPAN James Steinberg on Charlie Rose Works by or about James Steinberg in libraries James Steinberg collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English James Steinberg collected news and commentary at Fox News James Steinberg collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post "James Steinberg collected news and commentary".
The New York Times. Preventive war, a useful tool. December 4, 2005 Policy Challenges and Opportunities for the United States in Asia
Peter Warren Rodman was a lawyer, government official and foreign policy expert. Born in Boston, he was educated at The Roxbury Latin School, at Harvard College, Worcester College and Harvard Law School. In March 2007 he left his position as United States Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs to become a Senior Fellow at Brookings Institution, he was the author of More Precious Than Peace, a book on the Cold War in the Third World in which he praises the Reagan administration for warding off communism in places like Afghanistan and Cambodia. He was one of the signers of the January 26, 1998, Project for the New American Century sent to the U. S. President Bill Clinton, he worked extensively with Henry Kissinger, former Secretary of State, amongst other things helping him write his memoirs. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of Freedom House, Vice President and member of the Board of Directors of the World Affairs Council of Washington, DC, a Fellow of the Foreign Policy Institute of SAIS.
He died from complications of leukemia. 1969–1977: National Security Council staff member, Special Assistant to Dr. Henry Kissinger January 1977 – March 1983: Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. April 1984 – March 1986: Director of the State Department Policy Planning Staff. March 1986 – January 1987: Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. 1987–1990: Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and National Security Council Counselor. 1991–1999: senior editor of National Review 1995–2001: Director of National Security Programs, Nixon Center. July 16, 2001 – March 2007: Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs March 5, 2007 – August 2008: Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution Development administration: Obstacles and implications for planning More Precious Than Peace: Fighting and Winning the Cold War in the Third World ISBN 0-684-19427-9 Nato's role in a new European security order Arms Control and the U.
S.-Russian Relationship 1 America adrift: A strategic assessment Broken triangle: China and America after 25 years Between friendship and rivalry: China and America in the 21st century editor of NATO at FIFTY: Perspectives on the Future of the Transatlantic Alliance ISBN 0-9670233-0-0 Drifting apart?: Trends in U. S.-European relations Uneasy giant: The challenges to American predominance Presidential Command: Power and the Making of Foreign Policy from Richard Nixon to George W. Bush "the key to multilateralism is not what one thinks of the United Nations but what one thinks of the United States; those who believe the United States guilty of too many sins in the past—and these include some Americans—will be eager to see restraints on American unilateral action. Those who believe that global freedom and peace and the cause of human rights have more than not been advanced if not sustained by the United States, acting out of some combination of its own self-interest and a general interest, will find multilateralism a potential source of paralysis."
1 A couple of old articles from the Middle East Quarterly. Speaker biography at The Center for the Study of the Presidency. Tributes and Eulogies More Tributes and Eulogies Telegraph obituary Appearances on C-SPAN Appearances on C-SPAN
Colin Luther Powell is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. During his military career, Powell served as National Security Advisor, as Commander of the U. S. Army Forces Command and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. Powell was the first, so far the only, Jamaican American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U. S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first black person to serve in that position. Powell was raised in the South Bronx, his parents and Maud Powell, immigrated to the United States from Jamaica. Powell was educated in the New York City public schools, graduating from the City College of New York, where he earned a bachelor's degree in geology, he participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University.
Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held myriad command and staff positions and rose to the rank of 4-star General. His last assignment, from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, he formulated the Powell Doctrine. Following his military retirement, Powell wrote My American Journey. In addition, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Prior to his appointment as Secretary of State, Powell was the chairman of America's Promise – The Alliance for Youth, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to mobilizing people from every sector of American life to build the character and competence of young people, he was nominated by President Bush on December 2000 as Secretary of State. After being unanimously confirmed by the U.
S. Senate, he was sworn in as the 65th Secretary of State on January 20, 2001. Powell is the recipient of numerous U. S. and foreign military awards and decorations. Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medal of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country. Powell is married to the former Alma Vivian Johnson of Alabama; the Powell family includes son Michael. In 2016, while not a candidate for that year's election, Powell received three electoral votes for the office of President of the United States. Powell was born on April 5, 1937, in Harlem, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, to Jamaican immigrants, Maud Arial and Luther Theophilus Powell, his parents were both of mixed Scottish ancestry.
Luther worked as Maud as a seamstress. Powell was raised in the South Bronx and attended Morris High School, from which he graduated in 1954. While at school, Powell worked at a local baby furniture store, where he picked up Yiddish from the eastern European Jewish shopkeepers and some of the customers, he served as a Shabbos goy, helping Orthodox families with needed tasks on the Sabbath. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology from the City College of New York in 1958 and has said he was a'C average' student, he earned an MBA degree from the George Washington University in 1971, after his second tour in Vietnam. Despite his parents' pronunciation of his name as, Powell has pronounced his name since childhood, after the World War II flyer Colin P. Kelly Jr. Public officials and radio and television reporters have used Powell's preferred pronunciation. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of General.
Powell described joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps during college as one of the happiest experiences of his life. According to Powell: It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and, ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military, and I not only liked it. That's what you have to look for in life, something that you like, something that you think you're pretty good at, and if you can put those two things together you're on the right track, just drive on. Cadet Powell joined the Pershing Rifles, the ROTC fraternal organization and drill team begun by General John Pershing. After he had become a general, Powell kept on his desk a pen set he had won for a drill team competition. Upon graduation, he received a commission as an Army second lieutenant. After attending basic training at Fort Benning, Powell was assigned to the 48th Infantry, in West Germany, as a platoon leader. In his autobiography, Powell said he is haunted by the nightmare of the Vietnam War and felt that the leadership was ineffective.
Captain Powell served a tour in Vietnam as a South Vietnamese Army advisor from 1962 to 1963. While on patrol in a Viet Cong-held area, he was wounded by stepping on a punji stake; the large infection
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, CIA director; until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was known as George Bush. Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, became one of its youngest aviators, he served until September 1945, attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, he was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs. Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency. Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States and Mexico. Domestically, Bush signed a bill to increase taxes, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U. S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019. George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush; the Bush family moved from Milton to Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, known as "Pop", young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.
Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U. S. Navy after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday, he became a naval aviator. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 as the photographic officer; the following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II. Bush was promoted to lieutenant on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, he piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima on September 2, 1944.
His crew included Lt. William White, his aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue, he participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, their livers were eaten by their captors; this experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, the Presiden
Jack Dyer Crouch II
Jack Dyer Crouch II is a former American federal government official and academic. Since 2014 he has been president and chief executive officer of United Service Organizations. Crouch was educated at the University of Southern California, located in Los Angeles, where he received a bachelor's degree, master's degree, a Ph. D. in international relations. Between 1984 and 1986, he worked in the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency for the Assistant Director for Strategic Programs and served as an advisor to the United States / Soviet Union Nuclear and Space Arms Talks. Between 1986 and 1990, he was military legislative assistant to U. S. Senator from Wyoming Malcolm Wallop. From 1990 to 1992, he served in the administration of U. S. President George H. W. Bush as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs From 1993 to 2001, Crouch was Associate Professor of Defense and Strategic Studies at Southwest Missouri State University, located in Springfield, Missouri.
He was a member of the board of editors of Comparative Strategy and a member of the board of advisors of the Center for Security Policy. While at Missouri, he served as a reserve deputy sheriff in Christian County, he was appointed Deputy National Security Advisor by U. S. President George W. Bush in March 2005, he served as the U. S. Ambassador to Romania and as an Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Policy, among other positions in government under Republican administrations. List of people from Springfield, Missouri List of University of Southern California people White House biography Appearances on C-SPAN