The Rafael Python is a family of air-to-air missiles built by the Israeli weapons manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems RAFAEL Armament Development Authority. Starting with the Shafrir series, the Shafrir-1 missile was developed in 1959, followed by the Shafrir-2 in early 1970s. Subsequently, the missiles were given the western name of "Python" by the parent company for export purposes, starting with the Python-3 in 1978. Since it has been further developed and evolved into the Python-4, Python-5, Derby and the SPYDER, an advanced ground-based air-defence system; the missiles are in service with the armed forces of over fifteen countries from around the world. In the 1950s, the Israeli Air Force submitted requirements for a domestically-made air-to-air missile, to promote domestic defense industry and reduce reliance on imports. Rafael Armament Development Authority was contracted to develop the Shafrir in 1959; the missile entered operational status with Israeli Mirage jets in 1963, but the IAF was unhappy with its performance and no air combat kills were achieved with it during the Six-Day War, kills being made with guns instead.
The improved Shafrir-2 was soon introduced in 1971, it proved to be one of the most successful air-to-air missiles made. During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the IAF launched 176 Shafrir-2 missiles, destroying 89 enemy aircraft; the Shafrir-2 was exported along with Israeli-made aircraft to South American countries. After the Shafrir-2, the new missiles made by Rafael were given the western name of Python; this is why the next missile built by Rafael in early 1970s was named Python-3, but there is no Python-1 or Python-2. The Python-3 has improved range and all-aspect attack ability, it proved itself before and during the 1982 Lebanon War, destroying 35 enemy aircraft; the People's Republic of China was impressed with its performance and license-built the Python-3 as the PiLi-8 AAM. Further improvements to the Python-3 led to the development of Python-4 in mid-1980s, which had limited "fire-and-forget" ability but added the option for helmet-sight guidance. In the 1990s Rafael started development on the Python-5 AAM, equipped with an advanced electro-optical imaging seeker with lock-on after-launch ability.
The new missile was show-cased in 2003 Paris Air Show, intended for service with IAF the F-15I Ra'am and the F-16I Sufa. The Python-5 is said to have full sphere launch ability or is an all-aspect missile, meaning it can be launched at a target regardless of the target's location relative to the direction of the launching aircraft, it can lock onto targets after launch when they are up to 100 degrees off the boresight of the launching aircraft. The Shafrir-1 was developed in 1959–1964 to fulfill IAF's requirement for a domestic air-to-air missile, it was intended to build the domestic defense industry's abilities, reduce reliance on foreign imports. The fear on foreign dependence was proven when France banned arms export to Israel; the Shafrir-1 was intended for use on French-built Mirage jets. The first testing took place in France in 1963; however the missile's performance was so poor that they started on the next improved version, the Shafrir-2. Length: 250 cm Span: 55 cm Diameter: 14 cm Weight: 65 kg Guidance: IR Warhead: 11 kg blast explosive 30 kg Range: 5 km Speed:??
The Shafrir-2 was credited with 89 kills in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. During its whole service life, it is credited with a total of 106 kills. Length: 250 cm Span: 55 cm Diameter: 15 cm Weight: 93 kg Guidance: IR Warhead: 11 kg Range: 5 km Speed:?? The Python-3 is a much-improved AAM with all-aspect attack ability, higher speed and performance, it performed well during the 1982 Lebanon War, scoring 35 kills. China's PLAAF was quite impressed with this missile, paid for licensed production as the PL-8 AAM in the 1980s; the program code named "Number 8 Project" and formally started on September 15, 1983. From March 1988 to April 1989, technology transfer to China was complete while license assembly and license built parts continued, by the spring of 1989, the complete domestic Chinese built missile received state certification; the major supplier of the missile was Xi'an Eastern Machinery Factory located at Xi'an, China is reported to have developed a helmet-mounted sight system for the PL-8. Length: 295 cm Span: 80 cm Diameter: 16 cm Weight: 120 kg Guidance: IR Warhead: 11 kg, active proximity fuse Range: 15 km Speed: Mach 3.5 The Python-4 is a 4th generation AAM with all-aspect attack ability, integration with a helmet-mounted sight system.
It entered service in the 1990s, like its predecessor Python-3, it is integrated with the Elbit Systems DASH HMS system for Israeli F-15s and F-16s, Chilean F-16s, F-5E/F Tiger III, South-Americans Kfirs and SAAB JAS 39 Gripen. The missile's seeker is reported to use dual band technology array similar to that of US FIM-92 Stinger, with IRCCM ability to reduce background IR radiation to reduce the effectiveness of enemy flares. Length: 300 cm Span: 50 cm Diameter: 16 cm Weight: 120 kg Guidance: IR Warhead: 11 kg, active laser proximity fuse with back-up impact fuse Range: 15 km Speed: Mach 3.5 or more The Python-5 is the most capable air-to-air missile in Israel's inventory and one of the most advanced AAMs in the world. As a beyond-visual-range missile, it
Derby Records was an independent record label founded by Larry Newton in 1949. The label's logo featured a Derby hat. First headquartered in New York City, it moved to Los Angeles shortly before going out of business in 1964; the label offered selections in various styles of pop music of the era, including jazz and blues, Western swing. Derby recording artists included singer Mel Carter, saxophonist Freddie Mitchell and session artist Billy Preston, Vann "Piano Man" Walls. Singer Jaye P. Morgan made her recording debut for Derby in 1950. Sunny Gale had a hit for Derby in 1952 with "Wheel of Fortune", which reached No. 13 and sold c. 50,000 copies. List of record labels Derby Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
Derby is a Brazilian brand of cigarettes, launched in 1993 and owned and manufactured by Souza Cruz, a subsidiary of British American Tobacco. After the introduction of the brand, it soon became the market leader in Brazil in the segment of lower income consumers, with the slogan "The taste that won Brazil" and "100% Brazil Flavor"; the seal was for many years one of the cheaper cigarette brands in Brazil, which made it achieve high sales and the leadership of cigarette sales in the third month after launch. In 1996, the company had sales of 6.2 billion Brazilian real, with Derby as the leader in cigarette sales with 42.4% of the total. This success is translated with the slogan "The taste that won Brazil", so well received by the market that the advertising agency Of Paola & Lanzetta won the Golden Lion in 1997, it is estimated that today every three cigarettes sold in Brazil are of the mark Derby. Because of the success and wide spread in different regions of the country, Derby was considered a trademark of high renown by the Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial, equivalent to the highest level of recognition that a brand can achieve in Brazil.
The brand is sold in Brazil, but is or was sold in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Venezuela, East Germany, Germany and China Derby Vermelho Derby Azul Derby Prata Below are all the current varieties of Derby cigarettes sold, with the levels of tar and carbon monoxide included. Cigarette Tobacco smoking
Derby is a city in New Haven County, United States 8 miles west-northwest of New Haven, Connecticut. Derby is located in southwest Connecticut at the confluence of the Naugatuck Rivers, it borders the cities of Ansonia to the north and Shelton to the southwest, the towns of Orange to the south, Seymour to the northwest, Woodbridge to the east. The population was 12,903 at the 2010 census, it is the smallest city in Connecticut by area at 5.3 square miles. Derby was settled in 1642 as an Indian trading post under the name Paugasset, it was named after Derby, England, in 1675. It included what is now Ansonia, Seymour and parts of Beacon Falls. Derby is home to the first electric trolley system in New England, only the second in the Unites States, it is home to the first electric locomotive in U. S. history to be built and used commercially for hauling freight. The locomotive, built in 1888 is still kept in running condition by the Shore Line Trolley Museum. Derby was settled in 1642 as an Indian trading post under the name Paugasset by John Wakeman of New Haven, though fur traders had been in the area before and Native Americans had lived there for centuries.
In 1651, the first year-round houses were completed, at that time the New Haven Colony had recognized Paugasset as a town. The residents of the town of Milford protested Paugassets' recognition as an independent town and, as a result, the order was rescinded and Paugasset returned to the Milford jurisdiction. In 1675, the former plantation of Paugasset was admitted as the township of Derby by the state legislature, named after Derby, England. Derby was incorporated on May 13, 1775. In 1836, The Colman Brothers began The Birmingham Iron Foundry on the corner of Main Street and Water Street, it employed between 100-125 and was one of the many manufacturing businesses thriving in the city in the 1800s. In 1927, the company merged with Farrel Corporation of nearby Ansonia and renamed Farrel-Birmingham Corporation; the Derby Facility was razed in 2000 to make way for a Home Depot. The Ansonia division is still in business and opened their new plant in the Fountain Lake Commerce Park in 2017. In the 19th century, both corsets and hoop skirts were manufactured in the city.
The Kraus Corset Factory is the oldest major factory building to survive from Derby's corset manufacturing period. It was built by Sidney A. Downs, opened in 1879, expanded in 1910. In 1987 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In the 1990s it was converted to apartments and underwent a second addition, a first floor parking garage and three stories of apartments added on the north side along Roosevelt Drive. In 1872, the Derby Silver Company began production. In 1898, the company became a division of the International Silver Company headquartered in Meriden, CT, but continued making silver with its brand name until 1933. Charlton Comics, a comic book publishing company that existed from 1944 to 1986, was based in town. Oxford in 1798 Seymour in 1850 Beacon Falls in 1871 Ansonia in 1889 Downtown West Derby Derby Neck East Derby Hilltop According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 5.4 square miles, of which, 5.0 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water.
The city is home to the 417 acres Osbornedale State Park. Derby is divided into two main sections by the Naugatuck River: Derby Center; the center of Derby is 66 miles from New York City. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Derby has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. January is on average the coolest month and July is on average the warmest month; as of the census of 2010, there were 12,902 people, 5,388 households, 3,241 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,563 people per square mile. There were 5,849 housing units at an average density of 1,169.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.08% White, 7.06% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.60% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 4.2% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.2% of the population. There were 5,388 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.8% were non-families.
32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 23% under the age of 19, 6.2% from 20 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years; the median income for a household in the town was $32,438, the median income for a family was $57,790. The per capita income for the town was $32,438. 12.7% of the population is below the poverty line. Polish immigrants have left a large mark on the demographics of the town, with 18% of all residents claiming Polish as their ethnicity and 2% as having been born in Poland. Due to this large population, the town features several Polish shops and clubs. Saint Michael's the Archangel Parish, a Roman Catholic church serves mass in Polish as well as English. Mill Rate Fiscal Year 2019 - 39.37 Fiscal Year 2015 - 35.74Notable Businesses Derby Silver Company - International silver company based in Derby.
Charlton Comics - Comic book company based in De
Soap Box Derby
The Soap Box Derby is a youth soapbox car racing program, run in the United States since 1934. World Championship finals are held each July at Derby Downs in Ohio. Cars competing in this and related events are unpowered, relying upon gravity to move. In the wake of the first car races, local youth auto races took place in the US at a early stage. In 1914 the motion picture Kid Auto Races at Venice starring Charlie Chaplin was shown in the cinemas. In 1933 Myron Scott, a photographer for Dayton, newspaper Dayton Daily News, put together an impromptu race for 19 boys. There was so much interest that Scott arranged a bigger race, with prize money for August 19. "An amazing crowd of 362 kids showed up with homemade cars built of orange crates, sheet tin and baby-buggy wheels...."The following year, the first All-American race was held on August 19, 1934. The national winner was Robert Turner of Muncie, who made his car from the wood of a saloon bar. In 1935, the race was moved from Dayton to Akron because of hilly terrain.
An accident in 1935 captured the public's interest, boosted the event's profile. A car went off the track and struck NBC's top commentator and sportscaster Graham McNamee while he was broadcasting live on the air. Despite a concussion and other injuries, McNamee described the collision to his listeners and finished his broadcast. In 1936, Akron civic leaders recognized the need for a permanent track site for the youth racing classic, through the efforts of the Works Progress Administration, Derby Downs became a reality. In 1946, the town of Mission, British Columbia, acquired the rights to the Western Canada Soapbox Derby Championships and the Mission Regional Chamber of Commerce named the Mission City & District Board of Trade, organized the event annually until 1973. During the All American Soapbox Derby's heyday in the 1950s and 1960s, when Chevrolet was a sponsor and famous TV and movie stars made guest appearances, as many as 70,000 people gathered in August to eat snow cones and cheer hundreds of youthful racer/builders ages 11–15 who were the champions of local races around the nation and from several foreign countries.
In 1947, actor James Stewart was appearing in the Broadway play Harvey. At its peak, the Derby was one of the top five sporting events in terms of attendance. John DeLorean ended the 35-year Chevrolet sponsorship in 1972, claiming that the Derby was outdated and too expensive to hold. Starting in 1993, the All-American Soap Box derby began the Rally World Championship; the Rally derby is a grand prix style of race in which each district, ten in all, sends back a number of champions based on number of racers and races in each district. Today there are broader categories that extend the age range to younger racers and permit adults to assist in construction; this is helpful for younger children who cannot use power tools, as well as to provide an outlet for adults. Using standardized wheels with precision ball bearings, modern gravity-powered racers start at a ramp on top of a hill, attaining speeds of up to 35 miles per hour. Rally races and qualifying races in cities around the world use advanced timing systems that measure the time difference between the competing cars to the thousandth of a second to determine the winner of a heat.
Each heat of a race lasts less than 30 seconds. Most races are double elimination races in which a racer that loses a heat can work their way through the Challenger's Bracket in an attempt to win the overall race; the annual World Championship race in Akron, however, is a single elimination race which uses overhead photography, triggered by a timing system, to determine the winner of each heat. 500 racers compete in two or three heats to determine a World Champion in each divisions. There are three racing divisions at the All-American competition; the Stock division is designed to give the first-time builder a learning experience. Boys and girls, ages 7 through 13, compete in simplified cars built from kits purchased from the All-American; these kits assist the Derby novice by providing a step-by-step layout for construction of a basic lean forward style car. The Super Stock Car division, ages 10 through 17, gives the competitor an opportunity to expand their knowledge and build a more advanced model.
Both of these beginner levels make use of shells available from the All-American. These entry levels of racing are popular in race communities across the country, as youngsters are exposed to the Derby program for the first time; the Masters division offers boys and girls, ages 10 through 20, an advanced class of racer in which to try their creativity and design skills. Masters entrants may purchase a Scottie Masters Kit with a fiberglass body from the All-American Soap Box Derby; the Ultimate Speed Challenge is an All American Soap Box Derby sanctioned racing format, developed in 2004 to preserve the tradition of innovation and craftsmanship in the design of a gravity powered racing vehicle while generating intrigue and engaging the audience at the annual All-American Soap Box Derby competition. The goal of the event is to attract creative entries designed to reach speeds never before attainable on the historic Akron hill; the competition consists down Akron's 989-foot hill. The car and team that achieve the fastest single run is declared the winner.
The timed runs are completed during the All American Soap Box Derby race week. The open rules of the Ultimate speed Challenge have led to
The Derby is an IBA Official Cocktail composed of gin, peach bitters and mint leaves. Other cocktails are known by the same name, it is unclear. List of Cocktails