Lord of Mann
The title Lord or Lady of Mann is used on the Isle of Man to refer to the island's Lord Proprietor and head of state. The current holder of the title is Elizabeth II; the title is not used on its own. Since 1399, the kings and lords of Mann were vassals of the kings of England, subsequently of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, the ultimate sovereign of the island; this right of'Lord Proprietor' was revested into the Crown by the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 and hence ceased to exist separately. King George III became the first British monarch to reign over the Isle of Man as Lord of Mann in 1765. However, for reasons of culture and tradition, the title Lord of Mann continues to be used. For these reasons, the correct formal usage, as used on the Isle of Man for the Loyal Toast, is The Queen, Lord of Mann; the title is now Lord of Mann regardless of gender. However, during her reign, Queen Victoria was styled as Lady of Mann; the formal Latin style is Dominus Manniae. Prior to 1504, the ruler of the Isle of Man was styled King of Mann.
Thomas, Earl of Derby, 1504–1521 Edward, Earl of Derby, 1521–1572 Henry, Earl of Derby, 1572–1593 Ferdinando, Earl of Derby, 1593–1594 In 1598, a succession dispute between the daughters of Ferdinando and their uncle, Earl of Derby was heard by the Privy Council. They decided that the right to the Isle of Man belonged to Queen Elizabeth I, the letters patent of 1405 which conferred the lordship of the Isle of Man on the Stanley family were declared null and void as the previous ruler, Earl of Northumberland, had not been subject to legal attainder, despite his treason, the 1405 and 1406 letters patent had therefore not taken effect; the Queen, in consideration of the "many eminent services performed to herself and to her royal predecessors by the honourable and noble House of Stanley", withdrew her right and referred the contending claimants to the decision of the Privy Council as to the best claim of inheritance. The Law Lords on the Privy Council decided "the grant being by letters patent under the Great Seal of England, such right would descend according to the Common Law of England to the heirs general, not to the heirs male", the island was therefore awarded to Ferdinando's daughters.
The original letters patent having been declared void, the Parliament of England in 1609 under James I passed a Private Act of Parliament entitled "An Act for assuring and establishing the Isle of Man in the name and blood of William, Earl of Derby" which established the title in law as Lord of Mann. The lordship was conferred by letters patent dated 7 July 1609 upon William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby. Subsequent succession was under the terms of this grant. Following the resolution of the succession dispute, it was ruled that the daughters of Ferdinando Stanley were the rightful heirs; as the oldest of them would not reach the age of majority until 1609, two temporary Lords of Mann were appointed by James I by letters patent, so that the daughters could benefit from the Island's revenues. Henry, Earl of Northampton, 1607–1608 Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 1608–1609Following the coming of age of the heirs, the rights over the island were sold to their uncle, William Stanley, he took up the title of Lord of Mann following the passing of an Act of Parliament.
William, Earl of Derby, 1609–1612 Elizabeth, Countess of Derby, 1612–1627 James, Earl of Derby, 1627–1651 Thomas, Lord Fairfax of Cameron, 1651–1660 Charles, Earl of Derby, 1660–1672 William, Earl of Derby, 1672–1702 James, Earl of Derby, 1702–1736 James, Duke of Atholl, 1736–1764 Charlotte, Duchess of Atholl and John, Duke of Atholl, 1764–1765 In 1765, Charlotte Murray, Duchess of Atholl, 8th Baroness Strange, sold the suzerainty of the island to the British government for £70,000 and an annuity of £2,000. By the passage of the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 the title of Lord of Mann was revested into the British Crown, it has therefore since been used on the Isle of Man to refer to the reigning Monarch of the United Kingdom. In 1828 all remaining property interests and rights of the Dukes of Atholl on the island were sold to HM Treasury, a department of the British government, for the sum of £417,144, equivalent to £35,093,319 in 2018; this was accomplished by two Private Acts of Parliament: "An Act empowering the Lords of the Treasury to Purchase all the Manorial Rights of the Duke of Atholl in the Isle of Man" 10 June 1824 "An Act to empower the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Treasury to purchase a certain Annuity in respect of Duties and Customs levied in the Isle of Man, any reserved sovereign rights in the said Island belonging to John Duke of Atholl" 10 June 1825 The Lord of Mann is now represented by the Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man.
Governor of the Isle of Man Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 History of the Isle of Man List of Manx consorts Noble and royal titles of the Isle of Man
Cregneash or Cregneish is a small village and tourist destination in the extreme south-west of the Isle of Man, about one mile from Port Erin. Annual Manx festivals are held in Cregneash and it is home to a flock of the rare four-horned Loaghtan sheep. Much of the village forms a "Living Museum" dedicated to the preservation of the traditional Manx ways of life. Opened in 1938, the Cregneash Folk Village shows the typical way of life of a small Manx village in the 19th century. Many original Manx cottages have been exhibit Victorian farming and fishing equipment. Most of the cottages were thatched, this is reflected on many of the cottages. There are a number of private homes in the village, but their external appearance is controlled to maintain an older look. A central museum holds a wealth of historical information, whilst many of the cottages in the village allow visitors to see rural activities performed by museum workers in traditional dress. Harry Kelly's cottage in the centre of the village typifies a Manx villager's home, where weaving or knitting took place in the living area.
In the workshop a blacksmith demonstrates some of the tools and techniques used to make horseshoes and other metal equipment of the time. Ned Beg's cottage holds an exhibition about the Manx language, as Cregneash was important in the survival of the language around the start of the 20th century. Ned Maddrell, sometimes called the last native speaker of Manx, was brought up in the village; the historic village backdrop has been used in film and television shows, including Waking Ned Devine, Rocket's Island, Keeping Mum and Solace in Wicca. Photos tagged'Cregneash' on Flickr A Walking tour around Cregneash with Stanley Karran, produced in 2009 by Culture Vannin
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh
Ballure, Isle of Man
Ballure is a small hamlet about 0.75 mile southeast of Ramsey on the Isle of Man. A stop on the Manx Electric Railway which runs through it is the Ballure Halt station; the latter lies just to the south of the boundary of Ramsey, thus lies in the ward of Maughold within the current administrative parish of Garff. Arthur William Moore reported that there was a sighting of the glashtin or Cabbyl-Ushtey, a water-horse of Manx legend at Ballure Glen in 1859
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Malew is one of the seventeen parishes of the Isle of Man. It is located in the south of the island in the sheading of Rushen. Administratively, part of the historic parish of Malew is now covered by the town of Castletown; as a result, there is a small exclave of the parish district. Other settlements in the parish include Derbyhaven and St Mark's. For the purposes of local government, The majority of the historic parish forms a single parish district with five elected Commissioners. Since 1883, an area in the south of the historic parish of Malew has been part of the separate town of Castletown, with its own town Commissioners; the Captain of the Parish is Roy H. Gelling. Malew parish is part of the Arbory, Castletown & Malew constituency, which elects two Members to the House of Keys. From 1986 until 2016 the majority of the historic parish was in the Malew and Santon constituency, before 1986 it was in the Rushen constituency. From 1867 until 2016 Castletown formed its own constituency, it is named after the Celtic saint, Malew known as Saint Moluag, whose feast day is 25 June.
Malew parish Scarlett up to Foxdale. The area includes the Isle of Man Airport; the parish is bordered on the east by Santon Burn. It contains about 15 square miles. Most of the parish is low and undulating, forming much of the southern plain of the island; the northern portion is more hilly, including the South Barrule, the highest point of the south of the island at 483 metres. The Silver Burn river rises near the South Barrule and flows under the Monks Bridge at Ballasalla, reaching the sea at Castletown harbour; the coast line is rocky and dangerous. Castletown Bay is a deep but dangerous inlet between Langness and Scarlett; the headlands are Dreswick Point and Langness Point, the two southern extremities of Langness peninsula. At the northern end of Langness is St Michael's Isle; the district is chiefly agricultural. Near the village of Ballasalla are the ruins of Rushen Abbey, founded in 1098, dissolved late in the reign of Elizabeth I of England, an ancient packhorse bridge over the Silver Burn, called the Crossag, or Monk's Bridge, too narrow for vehicles.
Derbyhaven is a tiny hamlet on an isthmus, with a natural harbour, protected by a small breakwater. St. Mark's, in the north of the parish, is a small agricultural village clustered round a chapel of ease; the Isle of Man census of 2016 returned a parish population of 2,167, a decrease of 10% from the figure of 2,385 in 2011. The former Manx Airlines had its head office on the grounds of Isle of Man Airport. BA Connect had an engineering base in Ronaldsway. After Flybe acquired BA Connect, Flybe announced. Manxnotebook - Malew Malew Parish Commissioners website Malew church website