Paul Benjamin Auster is an American writer and film director. His notable works include The New York Trilogy, Moon Palace, The Music of Chance, The Book of Illusions, The Brooklyn Follies, Sunset Park, Winter Journal, 4 3 2 1, his books have been translated into more than forty languages. Paul Auster was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Jewish middle-class parents of Polish descent and Samuel Auster, he grew up in South Orange, New Jersey and Newark and graduated from Columbia High School in Maplewood. After graduating from Columbia University with B. A. and M. A. degrees in 1970, he moved to Paris, France where he earned a living translating French literature. Since returning to the U. S. in 1974, he has published poems and novels, as well as translations of French writers such as Stéphane Mallarmé and Joseph Joubert. Following his acclaimed debut work, a memoir entitled The Invention of Solitude, Auster gained renown for a series of three loosely connected stories published collectively as The New York Trilogy.
Although these books allude to the detective genre they are not conventional detective stories organized around a mystery and a series of clues. Rather, he uses the detective form to address existential issues and questions of identity, space and literature, creating his own distinctively postmodern form in the process. According to Auster, "...the Trilogy grows directly out of The Invention of Solitude."The search for identity and personal meaning has permeated Auster's publications, many of which concentrate on the role of coincidence and random events or the relationships between people and their peers and environment. Auster's heroes find themselves obliged to work as part of someone else's inscrutable and larger-than-life schemes. In 1995, Auster co-directed the films Smoke and Blue in the Face. Auster's more recent works, from Oracle Night to 4 3 2 1, have met with critical acclaim, he was on the PEN American Center Board of Trustees from 2004 to 2009, Vice President during 2005 to 2007.
In 2012, Auster was quoted as saying in an interview that he would not visit Turkey, in protest of its treatment of journalists. The Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan replied: "As if we need you! Who cares if you come or not?" Auster responded: "According to the latest numbers gathered by International PEN, there are nearly one hundred writers imprisoned in Turkey, not to speak of independent publishers such as Ragıp Zarakolu, whose case is being watched by PEN Centers around the world". Auster's most recent book, A Life in Words, was published in October 2017 by Seven Stories Press, it brings together three years of conversations with the Danish scholar I. B. Siegumfeldt about each one of his works, both fiction and non-fiction, it is a primary source for understanding Auster's approach to his work. Auster is willing to give Iranian translators permission to write Persian versions of his works in exchange for a small fee. Much of the early scholarship about Auster's work saw links between it and the theories of such French writers as Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, others.
Auster himself has denied these influences and has asserted in print that "I've read only one short essay by Lacan, the "Purloined Letter," in the Yale French Studies issue on poststructuralism—all the way back in 1966." Other scholars have seen influences in Auster's work of the American transcendentalists of the nineteenth century, as exemplified by Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The transcendentalists believed that the symbolic order of civilization has separated us from the natural order of the world, that by moving into nature, as Thoreau did, as he described in Walden, it would be possible to return to this natural order. Edgar Allan Poe, Samuel Beckett, Nathaniel Hawthorne have had a strong influence on Auster's writing. Auster has referred to characters from Poe and Hawthorne in his novels, for example William Wilson in City of Glass or Hawthorne's Fanshawe in The Locked Room, both from The New York Trilogy. Paul Auster's reappearing subjects are: coincidence frequent portrayal of an ascetic life a sense of imminent disaster an obsessive writer as central character or narrator loss of the ability to understand loss of language loss of money – having a lot, but losing it little by little without earning some new money any more depiction of daily and ordinary life failure absence of a father writing and story telling, metafiction intertextuality American history American space "Over the past twenty-five years," opined Michael Dirda in The New York Review of Books in 2008, "Paul Auster has established one of the most distinctive niches in contemporary literature."
Dirda has extolled his loaded virtues in The Washington Post: Ever since City of Glass, the first volume of his New York Trilogy, Auster has perfected a limpid, confessional style used it to set disoriented heroes in a familiar world suffused with mounting uneasiness, vague menace and possible hallucination. His plots – drawing on elements from suspense stories, existential récit, autobiography – keep readers turning the pages, but sometimes end by leaving them uncertain about what they've just been through. Writing about Auster's most recent novel, 4 3 2 1, Booklist critic Donna Seaman remarked:Auster has been turning readers' heads for three decades, bending the conventions of storytelling, blurring the line between fiction and autobiography, infu
Banff is a town within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located in Alberta's Rockies along the Trans-Canada Highway 126 km west of Calgary and 58 km east of Lake Louise. At 1,400 to 1,630 m above sea level, Banff is the community with the second highest elevation in Alberta, after Lake Louise; the Town of Banff was the first municipality to incorporate within a Canadian national park. The town is a member of the Calgary Regional Partnership. Banff is one of Canada's most popular tourist destinations. Known for its mountainous surroundings and hot springs, it is a destination for outdoor sports and features extensive hiking, biking and skiing destinations within the area. Sunshine Village, Ski Norquay and Lake Louise Ski Resort are the three nearby ski resorts located within the national park. Banff was first settled in the 1880s, after the transcontinental railway was built through the Bow Valley. In 1883, three Canadian Pacific Railway workers stumbled upon a series of natural hot springs on the side of Sulphur Mountain.
In 1885, Canada established a federal reserve of 26 km2 around the Cave and Basin hot springs, began promoting the area as an international resort and spa as a way to support the new railway. In 1887, the reserve area was increased to 673 km2 and named "Rocky Mountain Park"; this was the beginning of Canada's National Park system. The area was named Banff in 1884 by George Stephen, president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, recalling his birthplace in Banff, Scotland; the Canadian Pacific built a series of grand hotels along the rail line and advertised the Banff Springs Hotel as an international tourist resort. The Banff townsite was developed near the railway station as a service centre for tourists visiting the park, it was administered by the Government of Canada's national parks system until 1990 when the Town of Banff became the only incorporated municipality within a Canadian national park. An Internment camp was set up at Banff and Castle Mountain in Dominion Park from July 1915 to July 1917.
The prisoners of the internment camp were used as free labour to build the infrastructure of the national park. In 1985, the United Nations declared Banff National Park, as one of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, a World Heritage Site. Banff remains one of the most popular tourist destinations in Canada. One of the most notable figures of Banff was Norman Luxton, known as "Mr. Banff", he published the Crag and Canyon newspaper, built the King Edward Hotel and the Lux Theatre, founded the Sign of the Goat Curio Shop, which led to the development of the Luxton Museum of Plains Indians, now the Buffalo Nations Museum. He and his family helped organize the Banff Winter Carnival. In 1976, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature adopted the name Banff for a crater on Mars, after the town in Alberta; the crater is at latitude 17.7 ° longitude 30.8 ° west. Its diameter is 5 km, it is surrounded by mountains, notably Mount Rundle, Sulphur Mountain, Mount Norquay, Cascade Mountain.
The town is above Bow Falls near the confluence of the Bow Spray River. Soils are calcareous and imperfectly to poorly drained in their natural state with textures from fine sandy loam to silty clay loam. Banff experiences a subarctic climate. Winter temperatures range from an average low of −13.3 °C to an average high of −0.2 °C. Summer temperatures in the warmest month are pleasant with an average high of 21.6 °C and an average low of 7.3 °C. Snow has been recorded in all months of the year; the annual snowfall averages 191.0 cm. The highest temperature recorded was 34.8 °C on August 10, 2018 during a great heat wave. The population of the Town of Banff according to its 2017 municipal census is 8,875, a change of 5.4% from its 2014 municipal census population of 8,421. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Banff recorded a population of 7,851 living in 2,543 of its 2,729 total private dwellings, a 3.5% change from its 2011 population of 7,584. With a land area of 4.77 km2, Banff had a population density of 1,645.9/km2 in 2016.
In the 2011 Census, the Town of Banff had a population of 7,584 living in 2,565 of its 2,850 total dwellings, a 13.2% change from its 2006 population of 6,700. With a land area of 4.88 km2, it had a population density of 1,554.1/km2 in 2011. Parks Canada enforces requirements that individuals must meet in order to reside in the town, in order "to ensure that a broad supply of housing types are available for those who work and raise families in the community". There are a number of popular mountains located adjacent to the townsite which include Mount Rundle. Mount Norquay has a ski slope as well as mountain biking trails on the Stoney Squaw portion. A popular tourist attraction, the Banff Gondola, is available to ascend Sulphur Mountain where a boardwalk beginning from the upper terminal takes visitors to Sanson Peak. Sulphur Mountain is the location of one of Banff's most popular attractions, the Banff Upper Hot Springs. Lake Minnewanka located six minutes north of the townsite is a popular day use area with a variety of activities.
Mountain biking and fishing are all activities allowed in this part of the park. A popular Lake Cruise, motor boat rentals and a small food concession are available at the m
Calgary Board of Education
Calgary School District No. 19 or the Calgary Board of Education is the public school board in Calgary, Canada. As a public system, the CBE is required to accept any students who meet age and residency requirements, regardless of religion, it was founded in 1885 as the Calgary Protestant Public School District No. 19. In terms of student population and school count, the CBE is the largest school board in Alberta, over twice the size of the other major school district board in Calgary, the Calgary Catholic School District, which teaches but not Catholic students; the other two districts based in the city, both Francophone, are a fraction of the size of the CBE with only a handful of schools each. In land area, the CBE is the smallest of the four Calgary districts, as its territory is limited to municipal limits of Calgary; as the city limits have expanded, the CBE boundary has remained in sync. All CBE land overlaps the other three districts; the CBE operates 226 schools in grades K-12. Non-adult student enrollment was 111,518, there is an additional enrollment of 2,982 for continuing education, CBE-Learn and Chinook Learning.
A total Enrollment of 114,472 in Sept 2014. The operating budget was $1.3 billion for the 2015/16 fiscal year. A group of seven elected trustees govern the CBE; each trustee represents two wards in the city. They are elected every four years, in the regular municipal election. In the election, Calgary voters can only vote for a trustee to one of the two main school boards; the last election was in October 2013. The public and Catholic systems operate independently of each other, are both under the direct authority of the provincial government of Alberta. Long serving Trustee and Chair of the Board, Pat Cochrane declined to run in the 2013 municipal elections. Cochrane was first elected in 1999 and has devoted much effort and time to the causes of Public Education. Fellow trustee George Lane was defeated by a wide margin in Wards 6 & 7; the CBE operates a number of special programs but not always operated out of regular schools. The CBE operates an adult and continuing education program through Chinook Learning Services.
It offers High School Upgrading, Continuing Education and adult English as a Second Language programs. The Louise Dean Centre is a school designed for female students that become pregnant before completing high school, it provides daycare for the children, flexible schedules for the students, special counseling. The CBE's Gifted and Talented Education program assists qualified students with more advanced instruction. GATE accelerates the typical curriculum, it provides extra experts and mentors. Nine CBE schools offer the GATE program. In 2003, the CBE opened Alice Jamieson Girls' Academy. In the same year, over the board's objections, the Calgary Girls' School public charter school was opened. Both schools teach grades 4-9, are founded on the premise that females learn differently from boys, will under-perform for social reasons when in the presence of male peers. In 2011, the CBE opened the board's first all-male alternative program, based in the Sir James Lougheed School; the program teaches grades K-5, similar to the all-girls schools - the program is founded on the premise that boys learn differently from girls, they may behave differently in order to meet "macho" expectations, that they require a more active, hands-on teaching style.
The board operates a French immersion program in a limited number of schools. The program is geared for English-speaking families who wish their children to become fluent in French, it offers late adoption programs. Up until 2000, the CBE provided French instruction to children from French families; when the Greater Southern Francophone School Board was formed in 2000, the CBE relinquished its authority over such schools, handed over Ecole Queen's Park to the Francophone board. In Alberta, a senior high school teaches grades 10-12. However, some may not teach all three grades; some are combined with junior high schools, which teach grades 7-9. The following is a list of senior high schools operated by the CBE as of 2005, taken from the CBE's complete list; the board divides the city into five areas. The CBE, in 2010, launched the CBE Chief Superintendent's Student Advisory Council - a group of high school students with student representation from each of the CBE's high school programs, they meet with the CBE's Chief Superintendent, David Stevenson, to discuss issues in the system and propose solutions.
Rideau Park School first opened in 1930. List of Alberta school boards List of high schools in Alberta "CBE will lose only Francophone school" By Colette Derworiz, Joe Bachmier, Calgary Herald. Calgary, Alta.: May 4, 2000. Pg. B.10 The official site of the Calgary Board of Education CBe-learn Online School Chinook Learning Services
Alberta University of the Arts
The Alberta University of the Arts known as Alberta College of Art + Design and as the Alberta College of Art, is a publicly funded Canadian degree-granting art and design university located in Calgary, Canada. The university's beginnings date back to the founding of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in 1916. Beginning with evening and Saturday classes, day classes were offered starting in 1926 with Lars Haukaness appointed as the first Head of the Art Department. In 1960, PITA was renamed the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Art Department was renamed the Alberta College of Art. In 1973, after eight years of planning and construction, the Alberta College of Art moved into a brand new purpose-built building designed by architectural firm Cohos and Evamy, on the edge of Calgary's North Hill, next to the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium; the Alberta College of Art gained autonomy from SAIT in 1985, in 1995 amended its name to become the Alberta College of Art and Design.
On February 1, 2019, ACAD became the Alberta University of the Arts. AUArts' degree programs are housed within four administrative schools: The School of Craft + Emerging Media The School of Visual Arts The School of Communication Design The School of Critical + Creative Studies As a college, the institution had the authority to grant certificates and diplomas. In 1995 the Alberta Government authorized granting the degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts and in 2000 gave authority to grant the Bachelor of Design degree; the Master of Fine Arts in Craft Media was launched in 2015 with the inaugural class receiving their degrees in May 2017. In March 2018, ACAD was named a university by the Minister of Advanced Education, it is the only institution in the province to offer and confer university-level undergraduate and now, graduate degree programs in art and design. On January 17, 2019, the Government of Alberta announced that ACAD was to become the Alberta University of the Arts; the transition began on the same day while the name and university status became effective formally on February 1, 2019.
AUArts' Luke Lindoe Library is named after alumnus and founder of the Ceramics Department Luke Lindoe, maintains a collection of over 25,000 art and design-related titles. The university is home to two professional galleries, the Illingworth Kerr Gallery and the Marion Nicoll Gallery, nine student-run gallery and pop-up spaces; the Alberta College or Art Gallery was renamed after artist and teacher Illingworth Kerr when ACA moved into its new home in 1973, expanding into a 9,500 square-foot facility. The MNG, named after artist and teacher Marion Nicoll, is based on a not-for-profit model and run by the AUArts Students' Association. MNG manages three locations, focuses on exhibiting student work. AUArtSA manages nine student exhibition spaces on campus. Given its name by AUArts' Elder Council to reflect the supportive nature of the lodgepole, traditionally placed at the centre of the tipi to carry the weight of the covering, AUArts' indigenous resource centre, the Lodgepole Center opened on campus in September 2016.
An all-inclusive space, the Lodgepole Center facilitates Elder advising and support, traditional ceremonies, workshops, is a quiet study and gathering space. Joni Mitchell Alex Janvier Brittney Bear Hat Elaine Cameron-Weir Faye HeavyShield Katie Ohe Richelle Bear Hat Fiona Staples Alana Bartol Derek Beaulieu Mireille Perron Rita McKeough Ashleigh Bartlett Shelley Ouellet Alan Dunning Education in Alberta List of universities and colleges in Alberta Alberta University of the Arts Alberta College of Art + Design ACAD Student Association
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966, it is composed over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center, its enrollment is 25,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students with over 170,000 alumni in 152 countries, including James Gosling, who invented the Java computer language, Garrett Camp, who co-founded Uber, former Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, former Canadian astronaut Robert Thirsk, Lululemon Athletica founder, Chip Wilson. A member of the U15, the University of Calgary is one of Canada's top research universities; the university has a sponsored research revenue of $380.4 million, with total revenues exceeding $1.2 billion, one of the highest in Canada.
Being in Calgary, with Canada's highest concentration of engineers and geoscientists, the university maintains close ties to the petroleum and geoscience industry through the Department of Geosciences and the Schulich School of Engineering while maintaining a history of environmental research and leadership through the Faculty of Environmental Design, the School of Public Policy and the Faculty of Law. The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada; the main campus covers 200 hectares. The University of Calgary was established in 1966, but its roots date back more than half a century earlier to the establishment of the Normal School in Calgary in 1905; the Alberta Normal School was established in Calgary to train primary and secondary school teachers in the new province. The Calgary Normal School was absorbed by the University of Alberta's Faculty of Education in 1945, operated as a part of its Calgary branch campus, a satellite campus of the University of Alberta.
Operating from the west wing of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, the Calgary University Committee was formed 1946, in an effort to lobby for separate permanent facilities for the branch campus. In July 1957, the University of Alberta signed a one dollar lease with the City of Calgary, for 121.4 hectares of land. In 1958, the University of Alberta changed the name of the branch campus to the "University of Alberta in Calgary," and unveiled plans for new permanent facilities on the leased land; the new campus opened its first permanent facilities in October 1960, the Arts and Education Building, the Science and Engineering Building. In May 1965, the satellite campus was granted academic and financial autonomy from the University of Alberta. In the following year, in April 1966, the institution was formally made into an independent university, with the passage of the Universities Act by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research.
The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was a link between the bodies to perform institutional leadership. In the early 20th century, professional education expanded beyond theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the university's first president, Herbert Stoker Armstrong, held a strong belief that "although the university is accountable to the society that supports it, the university must insist on playing a leadership role in intellectual matters if it is to be worthy of the name."During the late 1960s, the University of Calgary's campus expanded with new buildings for engineering and science, the opening of the new University Theatre in Calgary Hall and, in 1971, the launch of the program in architecture.
In addition, the Banff Centre affiliated with the University of Calgary in 1966. The University of Calgary played a central role in facilitating and hosting Canada's first winter olympic games, the XV Olympic Winter Games in 1988. In May 2001, the University of Calgary tartan was accredited in a ceremony presided over by the president of the Scottish Tartans Society, the director of the Register of All Publicly Known Tartans; the accreditation ceremony for the university's tartan was the first to take place in Canada. Use of the black and gold tartan is limited to formal ceremonies, a small number of items sold by the University; the tartan is used by the university's pipe band. On January 4, 2018, 21-year-old Connor Neurauter was sentenced to 90-days in jail, 2 years probation and had to register as a sex offender in Kamloops, B. C after obtaining and threatening to share photos of a minor under 16, it was revealed that Neurauter would not serve his sentence until May 2018, in order to allow him to finish his semester at the University of Calgary.
On January 6, the University of Calgary said that they were "reviewing the situation"