In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
Route of administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include intravenous administration. Routes can be classified based on where the target of action is. Action may be enteral, or parenteral. Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery. Routes of administration are classified by application location; the route or course the active substance takes from application location to the location where it has its target effect is rather a matter of pharmacokinetics. Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still referred to as routes of administration; the location of the target effect of active substances are rather a matter of pharmacodynamics. An exception is topical administration, which means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, sometimes as a local application location regardless of location of the effects.
Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration. Enteral/enteric administration includes oral and rectal administration, in the sense that these are taken up by the intestines. However, uptake of drugs administered orally may occur in the stomach, as such gastrointestinal may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. Furthermore, some application locations classified as enteral, such as sublingual and sublabial or buccal, are taken up in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract without reaching the intestines. Enteral administration can be used for systemic administration, as well as local, such as in a contrast enema, whereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging. However, for the purposes of classification based on location of effects, the term enteral is reserved for substances with systemic effects. Many drugs as tablets, capsules, or drops are taken orally. Administration methods directly into the stomach include those by gastric feeding tube or gastrostomy.
Substances may be placed into the small intestines, as with a duodenal feeding tube and enteral nutrition. Enteric coated tablets are designed to dissolve in the intestine, not the stomach, because the drug present in the tablet causes irritation in the stomach; the rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications those used at the end of life. The walls of the rectum absorb many medications and effectively. Medications delivered to the distal one-third of the rectum at least avoid the "first pass effect" through the liver, which allows for greater bio-availability of many medications than that of the oral route. Rectal mucosa is vascularized tissue that allows for rapid and effective absorption of medications. A suppository is a solid dosage form. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration.
The parenteral route is any route, not enteral. Parenteral administration can be performed by injection, that is, using a needle and a syringe, or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter. Locations of application of parenteral administration include: central nervous systemepidural, e.g. epidural anesthesia intracerebral direct injection into the brain. Used in experimental research of chemicals and as a treatment for malignancies of the brain; the intracerebral route can interrupt the blood brain barrier from holding up against subsequent routes. Intracerebroventricular administration into the ventricular system of the brain. One use is as a last line of opioid treatment for terminal cancer patients with intractable cancer pain. Epicutaneous, it can be used both for local effect as in allergy testing and typical local anesthesia, as well as systemic effects when the active substance diffuses through skin in a transdermal route. Sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally.
Sublingual administration is. The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue." Buccal administration involves placement of the drug between the cheek. These medications can come in the form of films, or sprays. Many drugs are designed for sublingual administration, including cardiovascular drugs, barbiturates, opioid analgesics with poor gastrointestinal bioavailability and vitamins and minerals. Extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes nasal administration (th
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation. Side effects depend on the specific drug, but include an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeds, heart attack and kidney disease; the term nonsteroidal distinguishes these drugs from steroids, which while having a similar eicosanoid-depressing, anti-inflammatory action, have a broad range of other effects. First used in 1960, the term served to distance these medications from steroids, which where stigmatised at the time due to the connotations with anabolic steroid abuse. NSAIDs work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes. In cells, these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of key biological mediators, namely prostaglandins which are involved in inflammation, thromboxanes which are involved in blood clotting. There are two types of NSAID available: COX-2 selective. Most NSAIDs are non-selective, inhibit the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2.
These NSAIDs, while reducing inflammation inhibit platelet aggregation and increase the risk of gastrointestinal ulcers/bleeds. COX-2 selective inhibitors have less gastrointestinal side effects, but promote thrombosis and increase the risk of heart attack; as a result, COX-2 selective inhibitors are contraindicated due to the high risk of undiagnosed vascular disease. These differential effects are due to the different roles and tissue localisations of each COX isoenzyme. By inhibiting physiological COX activity, all NSAIDs increase the risk of kidney disease and, through a related mechanism, heart attack; the most prominent NSAIDs are aspirin and naproxen, all available over the counter in most countries. Paracetamol is not considered an NSAID because it has only minor anti-inflammatory activity, it treats pain by blocking COX-2 in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body. NSAIDs are used for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions where pain and inflammation are present.
NSAIDs are used for the symptomatic relief of the following conditions: Aspirin, the only NSAID able to irreversibly inhibit COX-1, is indicated for antithrombosis through inhibition of platelet aggregation. This is useful for the management of arterial thrombosis and prevention of adverse cardiovascular events like heart attacks. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting the action of thromboxane A2. In a more specific application, the reduction in prostaglandins is used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in neonates if it has not done so physiologically after 24 hours. NSAIDs are useful in the management of post-operative dental pain following invasive dental procedures such as dental extraction; when not contra-indicated they are favoured over the use of paracetamol alone due to the anti-inflammatory effect they provide. When used in combination with paracetamol the analgesic effect has been proven to be improved. There is weak evidence suggesting that taking pre-operative analgesia can reduce the length of post operative pain associated with placing orthodontic spacers under local anaesthetic.
Combination of NSAIDs with pregabalin as preemptive analgesia has shown promising results for decreasing post operative pain intensity. The effectiveness of NSAID's for treating non-cancer chronic pain and cancer-related pain in children and adolescents is not clear. There have not been sufficient numbers of high-quality randomized controlled trials conducted. NSAIDs may be used with caution by people with the following conditions: Irritable bowel syndrome Persons who are over age 50, who have a family history of GI problems Persons who have had past GI problems from NSAID useNSAIDs should be avoided by people with the following conditions: The widespread use of NSAIDs has meant that the adverse effects of these drugs have become common. Use of NSAIDs increases risk of a range of gastrointestinal problems, kidney disease and adverse cardiovascular events; as used for post-operative pain, there is evidence of increased risk of kidney complications. Their use following gastrointestinal surgery remains controversial, given mixed evidence of increased risk of leakage from any bowel anastomosis created.
An estimated 10–20% of NSAID patients experience dyspepsia. In the 1990s high doses of prescription NSAIDs were associated with serious upper gastrointestinal adverse events, including bleeding. Over the past decade, deaths associated with gastric bleeding have declined. NSAIDs, like all drugs, may interact with other medications. For example, concurrent use of NSAIDs and quinolones may increase the risk of quinolones' adverse central nervous system effects, including seizure. There is an argument over the benefits and risks of NSAIDs for treating chronic musculoskeletal pain; each drug has a benefit-risk profile and balancing the risk of no treatment with the competing potential risks of various therapies is the clinician's responsibility. If a COX-2 inhibitor is taken, a traditional NSAID should not be taken at the same time. In addition, people on daily aspirin therapy must be careful if they use other NSAIDs, as these may inhibit the cardioprotective effects of aspirin. Rofecoxib was shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions compared with naproxen.
This study, the VIGOR trial, raised the issue of the cardiovascular safety of the coxibs. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of myocardial infarctions was observed in patients on rofecoxib. Further data, from the APPROVe trial, s
Mouthwash, mouth rinse, oral rinse, or mouth bath is a liquid, held in the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, may be gargled, where the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth. Mouthwashes are antiseptic solutions intended to reduce the microbial load in the oral cavity, although other mouthwashes might be given for other reasons such as for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory or anti-fungal action. Additionally, some rinses act as saliva substitutes to neutralize acid and keep the mouth moist in xerostomia. Cosmetic mouthrinses temporarily control or reduce bad breath and leave the mouth with a pleasant taste. Rinsing with water or mouthwash after brushing with a fluoride toothpaste can reduce the availability of salivary fluoride; this can lower antibacterial effects of fluoride. Fluoridated mouthwash may mitigate this effect or in high concentrations increase available fluoride. A group of experts discussing post brushing rinsing in 2012 found that although there was clear guidance given in many public health advice publications to "spit, avoid rinsing with water/excessive rinsing with water" they believed there was a limited evidence base for best practice.
Common use involves rinsing the mouth with about 20-50 ml of mouthwash. The wash is swished or gargled for about half a minute and spat out. Most companies suggest not drinking water after using mouthwash. In some brands, the expectorate is stained, so that one can see debris. Mouthwash should not be used after brushing the teeth so as not to wash away the beneficial fluoride residue left from the toothpaste; the mouth should not be rinsed out with water after brushing. Patients were told to "spit don't rinse" after toothbrushing as part of a National Health Service campaign in the UK. Gargling is where the head is tilted back, allowing the mouthwash to sit in the back of the mouth while exhaling, causing the liquid to bubble. Gargling is practiced in Japan for perceived prevention of viral infection. One used way is with infusions or tea. In some cultures, gargling is done in private in a bathroom at a sink so the liquid can be rinsed away; the most common use of mouthwash is commercial antiseptics, which are used at home as part of an oral hygiene routine.
Examples of commercial mouthwashes companies include Cēpacol, Corsodyl, Dentyl pH, Odol, Oral-B, Scope, Tantum verde, Biotene. Mouthwashes combine ingredients to treat a variety of oral conditions. Variations are common, mouthwash has no standard formulation so its use and recommendation involves concerns about patient safety; some manufacturers of mouthwash state that antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse kill the bacterial plaque that causes cavities and bad breath. It is, however agreed that the use of mouthwash does not eliminate the need for both brushing and flossing; the American Dental Association asserts that regular brushing and proper flossing are enough in most cases, in addition to regular dental check-ups, although they approve many mouthwashes. For many patients, the mechanical methods could be tedious and time-consuming and additionally some local conditions may render them difficult. Chemotherapeutic agents, including mouthrinses, could have a key role as adjuncts to daily home care and controlling supragingival plaque and oral malodor.
Minor and transient side effects of mouthwashes are common, such as taste disturbance, tooth staining, sensation of a dry mouth, etc. Alcohol-containing mouthwashes may make dry mouth and halitosis worse. Soreness and redness may sometimes occur if the person is allergic or sensitive to mouthwash ingredients such as preservatives, coloring and fragrances; such effects might be reduced or eliminated by diluting the mouthwash with water, using a different mouthwash, or foregoing mouthwash entirely. Prescription mouthwashes are used prior to and after oral surgery procedures such as tooth extraction or to treat the pain associated with mucositis caused by radiation therapy or chemotherapy, they are prescribed for aphthous ulcers, other oral ulcers, other mouth pain. Magic mouthwashes are prescription mouthwashes compounded in a pharmacy from a list of ingredients specified by a doctor. Despite a lack of evidence that prescription mouthwashes are more effective in decreasing the pain of oral lesions, many patients and prescribers continue to use them.
There has been only one controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of magic mouthwash. Current guidelines suggest that saline solution is just as effective as magic mouthwash in pain relief or shortening of healing time of oral mucositis from cancer therapies; the first known references to mouth rinsing is in Ayurveda for treatment of gingivitis. In the Greek and Roman periods, mouth rinsing following mechanical cleansing became common among the upper classes, Hippocrates recommended a mixture of salt and vinegar; the Jewish Talmud, dating back about 1,800 years, suggests a cure for gum ailments containing "dough water" and olive oil. Before Europeans came to the Americas, Native North American and Mesoamerican cultures used mouthwashes made from plants such as Coptis trifolia. Indeed, Aztec dentistry was more advanced than European dentistry of the age. Peoples of the Americas used salt water mouth
A lollipop is a type of sugar candy consisting of hard candy mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking. Different informal terms are used in different places, including lolly, sticky-pop, etc. Lollipops shapes. Lollipops are available in a number of colors and flavors fruit flavors. With numerous companies producing lollipops, the candy now comes in dozens of flavors and many different shapes, they range from small ones which can be bought by the hundred and are given away for free at banks and other locations, to large ones made out of candy canes twisted into a circle. Most lollipops are eaten at room temperature, but "ice lollipops", "ice lollies", or "popsicles" are frozen water-based lollipops. Similar confections on a stick made of ice cream with a flavored coating, are not called by this name; some lollipops contain fillings, such as soft candy. Some novelty lollipops have more unusual items, such as mealworm larvae, embedded in the candy. Other novelty lollipops have non-edible centers, such a flashing light, embedded within the candy.
In the Nordic countries and the Netherlands, some lollipops are flavored with salmiak. Lollipops can be used to carry medicines; some lollipops have been marketed for use as diet aids, although their effectiveness is untested, anecdotal cases of weight loss may be due to the power of suggestion. Flavored lollipops containing medicine are intended to give children medicine without fuss. Actiq is a powerful analgesic lollipop; this makes for fast action. The idea of an edible candy on a stick is simple, it is probable that the lollipop has been invented and reinvented numerous times; the first confectioneries that resemble what we call lollipops date to the Middle Ages, when the nobility would eat boiled sugar with the aid of sticks or handles. The invention of the modern lollipop is still something of a mystery but a number of American companies in the early 20th century have laid claim to it. According to the book Food For Thought: Extraordinary Little Chronicles of the World, they were invented by George Smith of New Haven, who started making large boiled sweets mounted on sticks in 1908.
He named them after a racehorse of the time, Lolly Pop - and trademarked the lollipop name in 1931. The term'lollipop' was recorded by English lexicographer Francis Grose in 1796; the term may have derived from the term "lolly" and "pop". The first references to the lollipop in its modern context date to the 1920s. Alternatively, it may be a word of Romany origin being related to the Roma tradition of selling toffee apples sold on a stick. Red apple in the Romany language is loli phaba; the main ingredient in a standard lollipop is sugar. Sugars are hydrated carbon chains meaning that there is a water molecule attached to each carbon. Sugars come in two forms; when sugars are in straight-chain form and ketone groups are open which leaves them susceptible to reaction. In this state, sugars are unstable. In ring form, sugars therefore exist in this form in most foods, including lollipops. Sugar is a versatile ingredient and is used in many of food and products we consume every single day. What makes sugar different is the way it interacts with the other ingredients and systems within the food as well as how it is treated.
When it is heated enough to break the molecules apart, it generates a complex flavor, changes the color, creates a pleasing aroma. Sugar can form two types of solids in foods. Crystalline solids can be found in food products like fondant and butter creams. Glassy amorphous solids can be found in products like lollipops and caramels. Glassy amorphous solids result when moderate sugar concentrations are heated to high temperatures which nearly eliminates all moisture; the final moisture content is around 1%-2%, whereas the final moisture content in crystalline candies is 8%-12%. The non-crystalline nature of glassy amorphous solids is due to the presence of inhibitors in the solution. Without an inhibitor, crystallization would occur spontaneously and as sugar cools due to its high concentration; some common inhibitors used in lollipop production are corn syrup, cream of tartar and butter. The second most important ingredient in lollipop production is water. Though at the end of the lollipop making process, the moisture content falls to less than 2%, the starting process involves water.
All other ingredients used in the process of lollipop production are optional. The use of inhibitors is dependent on the type of sugar used; the amount of inhibitor in the lollipop is small in comparison to the amount of sugar used. On top of that, additional flavors and inclusions can be added to the final product, but are not a part of the main structure of a simple lollipop. Although the main functional ingredients of a lollipop are quite simple, the actual process of making this product is where things start to get complicated, it has been stated that a glassy amorphous structure is a non-crystalline solid. However, the formation and physical state of this glass has a lot of chemistry and physics behind it; the first step in making lollipops after mixing the main ingredients is the heating process. During heating, the molecules increase in their translational mobili
A throat lozenge is a small medicated tablet intended to be dissolved in the mouth to temporarily stop coughs and lubricate and soothe irritated tissues of the throat from the common cold or influenza. Cough tablets have taken the name lozenge, based on a diamond. Lozenges may contain an anaesthetic, or eucalyptus oil. Non-menthol throat lozenges use either zinc gluconate glycine or pectin as an oral demulcent. Several brands of throat lozenges contain dextromethorphan. Still other varieties, such as Halls, contain menthol, peppermint oil and/or spearmint as their active ingredient. Honey lozenges are available. Candies to soothe the throat date back to 1000 BC in Egypt's Twentieth Dynasty, when they were made from honey flavored with citrus and spices. In the 19th century, physicians discovered morphine and heroin, which suppress coughing at its source—the brain. Popular formulations of that era included Smith Brothers Cough Drops, first advertised in 1852, Luden's, created in 1879. Concern over the risk of opioid dependence led to the development of alternative medications.
Pastille Ingredients of a throat lozenge, Health Canada
Molecular encapsulation in supramolecular chemistry is the confinement of a guest molecule inside the cavity of a supramolecular host molecule. Examples of supramolecular host molecule include endohedral fullerenes. An important implication of encapsulating a molecule at this level is that the guest is prevented from contacting other molecules that it might otherwise react with, thus the encapsulated molecule behaves differently from the way it would when in solution. The guest molecule tends to be unreactive and has much different spectroscopic signatures. Compounds highly unstable in solution, such as arynes or cycloheptatetraene, have been isolated at room temperature when molecularly encapsulated. One of the first examples of encapsulating a structure at the molecular level was demonstrated by Cram and coworkers. Isolation of cyclobutadiene allowed chemists to experimentally confirm one of the most fundamental predictions of the rules of aromaticity. In another example the cage consists of a gallium tetrahedral cluster compound stabilized by 6 bidentate catechol amide ligands residing at the tetrahedron edges.
The guest is a 16 electron and thus reactive ruthenium metallocene with a cyclopentadienyl ligand and a 1,3,7-octatriene ligand. The total charge for this anion is 11 and the counterions are 5 tetramethyl ammonium cations and 6 potassium cations; the ruthenium compound decomposes in water within minutes but encapsulated it survives in water for weeks. Large metalla-assemblies, known as metallaprisms, contain a conformationally flexible cavity that allows them to host a variety of guest molecules; these assemblies have shown promise as agents of drug delivery to cancer cells. An application of encapsulation is controlling reactivity and structure. For instance, excited state reactivity of free 1-phenyl-3-tolyl-2-proponanone yields products A-A, B-B, AB, which result from decarbonylation followed by random recombination of radicals A• and B•. Whereas, the same substrate upon encapsulation reacts to yield the controlled recombination product A-B, rearranged products. Other applications: the encapsulation of filaments of a self-assembling bi-copper complex in polymer nanowires.
According to food chemist Udo Pollmer of the European Institute of Food and Nutrition Sciences in Munich, alcohol can be molecularly encapsulated in cyclodextrines, a sugar derivate. In this way, encapsuled in small capsules, the fluid can be handled as a powder; the cyclodextrines can absorb an estimated 60 percent of their own weight in alcohol. A US patent has been registered for the process as early as 1974. Cryptophane ^ Cram, D. J.. The taming of Cyclobutadiene Angewandte Chemie International Edition Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1024 - 1027 1991 Abstract ^ Stabilization of Reactive Organometallic Intermediates Inside a Self-Assembled Nanoscale Host Dorothea Fiedler, Robert G. Bergman, Kenneth N. Raymond Angewandte Chemie International Edition Volume 45, Issue 5, Pages 745 - 748 2006 Abstract Fraser Hof. "Molecular Encapsulation". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 41: 1488–1508. Doi:10.1002/1521-377341:9<1488::AID-ANIE1488>3.0. CO.