click links in text for more info


The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues, that consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. It is divided into two layers, the superficial area adjacent to the epidermis called the papillary region and a deep thicker area known as the reticular dermis; the dermis is connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, extrafibrillar matrix, it contains mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and thermoreceptors that provide the sense of heat. In addition, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are present in the dermis; those blood vessels provide waste removal for both dermal and epidermal cells. The dermis is composed of three major types of cells: fibroblasts and mast cells. Apart from these cells, the dermis is composed of matrix components such as collagen and extrafibrillar matrix, an extracellular gel-like substance composed of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins.

The papillary dermis is the uppermost layer of the dermis. It intertwines with the rete ridges of the epidermis and is composed of fine and loosely arranged collagen fibers; the papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue. This is named for its fingerlike projections called papillae, that extend toward the epidermis and contain either terminal networks of blood capillaries or tactile Meissner's corpuscles; the reticular dermis is the lower layer of the dermis, found under the papillary dermis, composed of dense irregular connective tissue featuring densely packed collagen fibers. It is the primary location of dermal elastic fibers; the reticular region is much thicker than the overlying papillary dermis. It receives its name from the dense concentration of collagenous and reticular fibers that weave throughout it; these protein fibers give the dermis its properties of strength and elasticity. Within the reticular region are the roots of the hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors and blood vessels.

The orientation of collagen fibers within the reticular dermis creates lines of tension called Langer's lines, which are of some relevance in surgery and wound healing. The dermal papillae are nipple-like extensions of the dermis into the epidermis. At the surface of the skin in hands and feet, they appear as papillary ridges. Blood vessels in the dermal papillae nourish all hair follicles and bring nutrients and oxygen to the lower layers of epidermal cells; the pattern of ridges they produce in hands and feet are genetically determined features that develop before birth. They remain unaltered throughout life, therefore determine the patterns of fingerprints, making them useful in certain functions of personal identification; the dermal papillae are part of the uppermost layer of the dermis, the papillary dermis, the ridges they form increase the surface area between the dermis and epidermis. Because the main function of the dermis is to support the epidermis, this increases the exchange of oxygen and waste products between these two layers.

Additionally, the increase in surface area prevents the dermal and epidermal layers from separating from each other by strengthening the junction between them. With age, the papillae tend to flatten and sometimes increase in number. Dermal papillae play a pivotal role in hair formation and cycling. In mucous membranes, the equivalent structures to dermal papillae are termed "connective tissue papillae", which interdigitate with the rete pegs of the superficial epithelium. List of cutaneous conditions Epidermis Subcutaneous layer

Arena (band)

Arena are an English neo-progressive rock musical group founded in 1995. The band's style ranges from symphonic to hard rock. Arena was founded in 1995 by Clive Nolan keyboardist of Pendragon and Shadowland, Mick Pointer, the original drummer of Marillion, his tenure lasting from 1979 until 1983; the other founding members of the band were guitarist Keith More, vocalist John Carson, bassist Cliff Orsi. Orsi was replaced by John Jowitt in the band's inaugural year, whilst Carson and More left the band in 1996 and 1997, were replaced by Paul Wrightson and John Mitchell respectively. Both Jowitt and Wrightson left the band in 1998, to be replaced by Ian Salmon and Rob Sowden, creating the band's most stable lineup to date; this lineup came to an end with Paul Manzi replacing Sowden in 2010. In 2011, Jowitt rejoined the band to replace the departing Salmon, leaving again in 2014 and being replaced by Kylan Amos. Most of the band's lyrics are written by Nolan, though Pointer contributed lyrics to Sirens and other tracks on the first two albums.

Musically the band's style ranges from symphonic to hard rock. Some of the band's recent albums have a similar sound to Shadowland. Allmusic called them one of the dominant neo-prog groups of the 1990s. Songs from the Lion's Cage Pride The Visitor Immortal? Contagion Pepper's Ghost The Seventh Degree of Separation The Unquiet Sky Double Vision Welcome to the Stage Breakfast in Biarritz Live & Life Arena: Live Arena: XX The Cry Contagious Contagium Ten Years On Caught in the Act Smoke & Mirrors Rapture Arena: XX Re-Visited Official site Arena at AllMusic The Shattered Room Official Arena Forum Interview with Clive Nolan for "TSDoS"

RTÉ News Now

RTÉ News Now is an Irish free-to-air news television network operated by Irish State-broadcaster RTÉ. The channel launched as RTÉ News Now available online on 12 June 2008; the channel began broadcasting as a free-to-air channel on 29 October 2010 on Saorview. The channel broadcasts commercial-free, it is available in Ireland and globally online, on mobile phones and an iPhone/iPad application is widely available free. It is operated by RTÉ's department RTÉ News and Current Affairs and broadcasts in the Irish, English and ISL languages. RTÉ News Now was available only to online users of the RTÉ website and on mobile phones when the channel launched on 12 June 2008. Availability of the channel improved during test trials of Saorview in December 2009; the channel has been made available since May 2010 on train services within Dublin city and surrounding regions under a special agreement between CIÉ and RTÉ. Sky News provided such a service. Since October 29, 2010 the channel is available free-to-air to 98% of homes throughout the Republic of Ireland through Saorview.

Upon the announcement in February 2011 that RTÉ News Now would become a permanent fixture to the Saorview line-up a number of media organizations criticized such a move claiming RTÉ would continue to have a monopoly over news output within Ireland. In 2017 Head of News and Current Affairs at RTÉ Jon Williams has suggested he could discontinue RTÉ News Now to save money. RTÉ News Now is one of only two RTÉ channels that does not carry advertising; the other being RTÉjr. In January 2015 it was reported that RTÉ intend to ask the Minister for Communications to allow them carry advertising on RTÉ News Now as part of an overhaul of the service; the broadcaster has put forward a proposal to add advertising to the channel in the near future, such a proposal needs government sanction. The channel simulcasts live news bulletins and current affairs programmes as they are broadcast on RTÉ One and/or RTÉ Two; the remaining programming on the channel serves as a replay service of the most recent news and weather bulletins, the streaming of raw feeds of breaking news stories and'filler' programmes such as'news headlines'.

The channel airs the latest breaking news stories from Ireland and around the world. The channel airs live news programmes such as Six One, as they are broadcast on other RTÉ channels, along with weather forecasts. During other periods, live current affairs programmes such as Prime Time are shown. Outside of these hours the most recent show is repeated, unless interrupted by live feeds of breaking news stories. Up-to-the-minute financial data and weather are broadcast on-air; as with many other stations, a live ticker is provided, across the bottom of the screen, providing headlines sourced from content on the broadcaster's website. RTÉ have a number of bulletins on the channel that do not air on RTÉ Two, they provide special reports from different news and current affairs programming, this is identified as RTÉ News Now Highlights. News2Day appears on the channel. RTÉ have proposed some other changes to the RTÉ News Now schedule: Television news bulletins at 08:00 and 09:00 during Morning Ireland Sporting events that RTÉ have rights to but cannot provide coverage due to scheduling conflicts Extra sporting analysis that runs on RTÉ's live Internet service The channel broadcasts a mix of news and current affairs shows.

The channel airs the following RTÉ news programmes live: Morning Ireland RTÉ News: One O'Clock RTÉ News: Six One RTÉ News: Nine O'Clock RTÉ News @ 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 15.00, 16.00 & 23:00 Nuacht RTÉ at 17.00 and at 17.40 News2day Regular news bulletins and weather forecasts shown on RTÉ One and Two throughout the day are simulcast on RTÉ News Now. As of April 2019, the following is a typical weekday schedule broadcast on the channel: 7.00am - Morning Ireland: Live simulcast of the RTE Radio 1 morning news programme, broadcast from their studio webcam 9.00am - Euronews Good Morning Europe: Live simulcast of Euronews 10.00am - RTE News followed by a live simulcast of RTE Radio 1's Today with Sean O'Rourke 11.00am - RTE News Bulletin at 11, repeated through on a loop for the rest of the hour 12.00pm - RTE News Bulletin at 12, repeated through on a loop for the rest of the hour 1.00pm - RTE News: One O'Clock. Live simulcast of RTE One's lunchtime news bulletin 1.30pm - The One O'Clock News is repeated on a loop until 3.00pm 3.00pm - RTE News Bulletin at 3, repeated through on a loop for the rest of the hour 4.00pm - RTE News Bulletin at 4, repeated through on a loop for the rest of the hour 5.00pm - Nuacht RTE le TG4, repeated on a loop until 5.40pm 5.40pm - Nuacht RTE le TG4 and News for the Deaf: Live simulcast with RTE One 6.01pm - RTE Six One News: Live simulcast of RTE One's flagship early evening news bulletin 7.00pm - Euronews Raw Politics: Live simulcast of Euronews 8.00pm - RTE Six One News repeated 9.00pm - RTE News: Nine O'Clock.

Live simulcast of RTE One's main evening news bulletin 9.35pm - Depending on the day of the week, RTE News Now simulcasts live RTE One current affairs shows such as The Late Debate, Clare Byrne Live and Prime Time. If any of these shows are not on the air, RTE News Now repeats the Nine O'Clock News. 11.00pm - After a late live RTE News Update at 11.00pm, the channel hands over to Euronews, simulcast through the night until 7.00am. Up-to-date changes in the schedule of the channel are outlined on the official schedules website of RTE. euronews' Raw Politics broadcasts on the channel each day since Novembe

Indonesia, Etc.: Exploring the Improbable Nation

Indonesia, Etc.: Exploring the Improbable Nation is a travel book published in June 2014. The book follows Elizabeth Pisani, an epidemiologist, on her travels throughout Indonesia in 2012-2013, she visits Sumba, Sulawesi, the Maluku Islands, Sumatra and Java, but not New Guinea. She visits smaller cities and villages, most of which see few tourists. Along the way, she discusses recent Indonesian history, culture and economics, as well as the logistics of her trip and the people she meets during it. Among the themes of the book are the conflict between Java and the rest of the country. According to Pisani, the Indonesian elites are dominated by the Javanese those from Jakarta, so Java dominates the outside image of Indonesia; as an attempt to counter this bias, Pisani spends most of her time on smaller islands. Indonesia, Etc. received favorable reviews, was listed among the best non-fiction books of the year by The Economist and by The Wall Street Journal. The Guardian gave Indonesia, Etc. a positive review, describing it as "project a more optimistic and warmer picture of a fascinating country than most outside commentators".

On the other hand, The New York Times gave a negative review, noting that "the book does not grapple with Java or several of the other populous Indonesian islands". Indonesia, Etc. website

Charles Crosthwaite

Sir Charles Haukes Todd Crosthwaite served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from March 1887 to December 1890. He was born in Dublin, educated at Merchant Taylors' School, and St John's Oxford. Crosthwaite entered into the Bengal Civil Service 1857 and served chiefly in the N. W. P, he was Chief Commissioner of British Burma from 1883 to 1884. From 1887 to 1890 Sir Charles Hawkes Todd Crosthwaite was Chief Commissioner of Burma, he was a Member of the Governor-General's Supreme Council from 1890 to 1895. W. P and Oudh, he was a member of the Council of India from 1895 to 1905. 1835–1887: Charles Hawkes Todd Crosthwaite 1887–1888: Charles Hawkes Todd Crosthwaite, CSI 1888–1915: Sir Charles Hawkes Todd Crosthwaite, KCSI "India: Past and Future". The Empire and the century. London: John Murray. 1905. Pp. 621–650. Http://

County Hospital, Durham

County Hospital, Durham was a mental health facility in Durham. It closed in 2010 after services were moved to the Lanchester Road Hospital on the outskirts of the city, it was managed by the Tees and Wear Valleys Foundation NHS Trust. In 2018 the building opened as a private student hall under the name Rushford Court; the hospital, designed in the Elizabethan style and built at a cost of £7,500, opened in 1853. Additional wards, which were financed by donations from Dean Waddington and John Eden, opened in 1867 and 1886 respectively; the hospital joined the National Health Service in 1948. After services had transferred to the Lanchester Road Hospital, the site closed in 2010. In 2014 planning permission was sought to return the main building back to its original state and to create additional new-build student residences. Construction work began on the new scheme in May 2017 and was completed in August 2018, it is named Rushford Court. During 2019-20, the site was the home of John Snow College while the college awaited completion of its new buildings on the Mount Oswald site..

List of hospitals in England