Tackle (football move)
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend; the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it describes one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball, it can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move. In Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to handle. By the 14th century, this had come to be used for the equipment used for fishing, referring to the rod and reel, etc. and for that used in sailing, referring to rigging, equipment, or gear used on ships. By the 18th century, a similar use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the earlier sport of rugby, where the word was used in the 19th century. In American football and Canadian football, to tackle is to physically interfere with the forward progress of a player in possession of the ball, such that his forward progress ceases and is not resumed, or such that he is caused to touch some part of his body to the ground other than his feet or hands, or such that he is forced to go out of bounds.
In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, play ceases until the beginning of the next play. A tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled at or behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the opposing running back or wide receiver; this happens when the quarterback is sacked, when either a rusher or a receiver is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, or when the ball is fumbled behind the line of scrimmage and was picked up by an offensive player who does not manage to move past the line before being tackled. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down, it is referred to as a block. Tacklers are not required to wrap their arms around the ball carrier before bringing him to the ground. Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carrier's jersey and pulling him to the ground; as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carrier's forward progress has been stopped if he has not been taken to the ground.
To protect players from catastrophic injury, there are some restrictions on tackles and blocks. At no time may a defensive player tackle an offensive player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet. Although spear tackles are allowed in gridiron football, a player may not use his helmet to tackle an opponent as the technique can cause serious injury to both players and warrants a 15-yard penalty as well as a fresh set of downs if committed by the defending team. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to make contact with his helmet against another opponent's helmet, known as a helmet-to-helmet collision. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a "horse collar", a method, made illegal at all levels of American football, it is illegal to tackle a player who has thrown a forward pass after he has released the ball. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, which means that a player, committed to attacking the quarterback will still make a tackle.
Place kickers and punters are afforded an greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted. Blocks that occur in the back of the legs and below the knees, initiated below the waist, or clotheslines are generally prohibited and players who use them are subject to much more severe penalties than other illegal tackles. However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is within five yards of the line and the player they block is in front of them and not engaged by another blocker. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as an unofficial statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team. Though the statistic is cited, the league does not verify that the counts are accurate. Unlike other codes, tackles in association football have to be predominantly directed against the ball rather than the player in possession of it; this is achieved by using either leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or sliding in on the grass to knock the ball away.
A defender is permitted to use their body to obstruct the motion of a player with the ball, this may be part of a successful tackle. Pulling a player to the ground in the style of tackle common to other codes is absent from the game. Although some contact between players is allowed, the rules of association football limit the physicality of tackles, explicitly forbidding contacts which are "careless, reckless or excessive force
Kevin Sheedy (Australian footballer)
Kevin John Sheedy AO is a former Australian rules football coach and player in the Australian Football League. He played and coached in a combined total of 929 games over 47 years from 1967 until 2013, a VFL/AFL record. Sheedy was inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame in 2008 and on the 29th of May 2018 was elevated to legend status. On the field, Sheedy represented Richmond in the Victorian Football League during the 1960s and 1970s, captaining the side in 1978 and winning three premierships, he coached Essendon in the VFL/AFL for nearly three decades from 1981 until 2007, winning four premierships and earning acclaim for his unusual and creative approaches to promoting the club and the game. Sheedy conceived the first Anzac Day game in 1995 involving Collingwood and the club he coached at the time, Essendon. In 2009, Sheedy joined the newly formed Greater Western Sydney as its inaugural AFL coach, coached there from 2012 until 2013. Sheedy was born in Melbourne to devout Catholic parents.
He played junior football with the local Try Boys society team whilst attending De La Salle College, where future teammate Kevin Bartlett spent a brief time. In 1963, he joined Prahran in the Victorian Football Association and spent a year with the Under 19s; the next year, at the age of 16, he played senior football with the Two Blues and was soon a regular with the team. His home was in Melbourne's zone, so he took up an invitation to try out with the Demons, playing a few practice matches, but he did not feel comfortable there and returned to Prahran, playing in the club's Second Division premiership team in 1966. By now, Richmond had shown some interest in the young centreman and received permission from Melbourne to speak with him. Sheedy jumped at the chance to join the up-and-coming Tigers, but a problem emerged when he shifted to Punt Road: the VFA refused to endorse his clearance due to a wider disagreement with the VFL relating to transfer fees; the VFA had weeks earlier set a minimum transfer fee of $3,000 for any of its players crossing to the VFL, Sheedy's transfer fee was set higher at $5,000.
For crossing without a transfer, Sheedy was suspended from VFA competition for five years, but he remained free to play in the VFL during this time. Another hurdle to jump was Billy Barrot. Barrot, a star player loved by the Tiger fans, played in Sheedy's favoured position of centre. However, Barrot was somewhat prone to miss some matches; when he was injured in the third game of the year, Sheedy was selected in his place for his debut. But Sheedy struggled and after six games in the seniors found himself back in the reserves for the remainder of the year, his season was ended by a serious knee injury. From the sidelines, he watched. Returned to fitness, Sheedy faced an enormous challenge in 1968. Coach Tom Hafey saw something in Sheedy's willingness to listen, his determination and fierce desire for the ball. Placed in a back pocket, Sheedy consolidated his place in the senior side and began to emerge as key player in the team's defence, he won a Victorian guernsey in 1969 and was a stand out in the Tigers' three finals games, which culminated in a second flag in three years.
He finished runner-up best and fairest to claim a remarkable turn around in just two years. By now, Sheedy's on-field persona marked him as a "villain" to be watched, he enjoyed niggling his opponents and verbally and seemed to be at the centre of every melee on the ground. His teammates blanched at some of his more theatrical attempts to win free kicks or fifteen-metre penalties and he had the ability to drive opposing supporters into a frenzy. Since his injury, Sheedy had lived on the edge knowing that if he failed at Richmond it would be the end of the line because of the impending five-year suspension, but he seemed to have an innate ability to read how far he could push the envelope and indeed he was never reported during his career, a fact that would surprise most who saw him play. He was now acknowledged the best in his position in a key personality at Punt Road. A turning point came in the 1972 season. In an earlier final, Sheedy had ruffled Carlton's captain coach John Nicholls, suggesting that he was finished as a player and that Richmond had the wood on the Blues.
Nicholls and his men, stung by media criticism and the attitude of the Richmond players, played a whirlwind first half in the Grand Final, booting eighteen goals to lead by 45 points. Sheedy, caught embarrassingly out of position a number of times, was switched to the unfamiliar position of ruck rover for the last half. Although the Tigers lost, Sheedy was a revelation in his new role. Now permanently playing on the ball, he set up Richmond's Grand Final win in 1973 with three goals in the first quarter. In 1974, he was best afield in the Grand Final with 30 disposals highlighted by an uncanny piece of play in the second quarter. Sheedy marked next to the goalpost, went back to take his kick from the impossible angle surrounded by opposition players casually ran in and handballed over the head of the man on the mark to lone teammate in the goalsquare who booted the easiest goal of his life, it was this mixture of flamboyance and cunning that attracted the media to him, Sheedy was voted player of the year by journalists.
Sheedy made good copy.
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
The Sydney Swans are a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League. Established in Melbourne as the South Melbourne Football Club in 1874, the Swans relocated to Sydney in 1982, thus making it the first club in the competition to be based outside Victoria. Playing in the Victorian Football Association, the Swans joined seven other clubs in founding the breakaway Victorian Football League in 1896, it won premierships in 1909, 1918 and 1933 before experiencing a 72-year premiership drought—the longest in the competition's history. The club broke the drought in 2005 and won another premiership in 2012; the club has proven to be one of the most consistent teams in the nationalised AFL, failing to make the finals in only three seasons since 1995, playing the most number of finals matches and winning the second-most matches overall since 2000 and boasting a finals winning record of over 50% in the same time period. The Swans' headquarters and training facilities are located at the Sydney Cricket Ground, the club's playing home ground since 1982.
The inauguration date of the club is 19 June 1874, it adopted the name "South Melbourne Football Club" four weeks on 15 July. In 1880, South Melbourne amalgamated with the nearby Albert-park Football Club, which had a senior football history dating back to May 1867. Following the amalgamation, the club retained the name South Melbourne, adopted the club's now familiar red and white colours from Albert-park. Nicknamed the "Southerners", the team was more colourfully known as the "Bloods", in reference to the bright red sash on their white jumpers; the colorful epithet the "Bloodstained Angels" was in use. The club was based at Lake Oval home of the South Melbourne Cricket Club. South Melbourne was a junior foundation club of the Victorian Football Association in 1877, attained senior status in 1879. Over its first decade as an amalgamated club, South Melbourne won five VFA premierships – in 1881, 1885, three-in-a-row in 1888, 1889 and 1890 – and was runner-up to the provincial Geelong Football Club in 1880, 1883 and 1886.
At the end of the 1896 season and South Melbourne finished equal at the top of the VFA's premiership ladder with records of 14–3–1, requiring a playoff match to determine the season's premiership. The match took place on 3 October 1896 at the East Melbourne Cricket Ground. Collingwood won the match, six goals to five, in front of an estimated crowd of 12,000; this grand final would be the last match South Melbourne would play in the VFA, as the following season they would be one of eight founding clubs forming the breakaway Victorian Football League. The other clubs were St Kilda Football Club, Essendon Football Club, Fitzroy Football Club, Melbourne Football Club, Geelong Football Club, Carlton Football Club and Collingwood Football Club. South Melbourne was one of the original founding clubs of the Victorian Football League, formed in 1897; the club had early success and won three VFL premierships in 1909, 1918 and 1933. The club was at its most successful in the 1930s, when key recruits from both Victoria and interstate led to a string of appearances in the finals, including four successive grand final appearances from 1933 to 1936, albeit with only one premiership in 1933.
The collection of players recruited from interstate in 1932/1933 became known as South Melbourne's "Foreign Legion". On grand final eve, 1935, as the Swans prepared to take on Collingwood, star full-forward Bob Pratt was clipped by a truck moments after stepping off a tram and subsequently missed the match for South; the truck driver was a South Melbourne supporter. It was during this period; the nickname, suggested by a Herald and Weekly Times artist in 1933, was inspired by the number of Western Australians in the team, was formally adopted by the club before the following season 1934. The name stuck, in part due to the club's association with nearby Albert Park and Lake known for its swans. After several years with only limited success, South Melbourne next reached the grand final in 1945; the match, played against Carlton, was to become known as "the Bloodbath", courtesy of the brawl that overshadowed the match, with a total of 9 players being reported by the umpires. Carlton won the match by 28 points, from on, South Melbourne struggled.
In the following years, South Melbourne struggled, as their traditional inner-city recruiting district emptied as a result of demographic shifts. The club missed the finals in 1946 and continued to fall such that by 1950 they were second-last on the ladder, they nearly made the finals in 1952, but from 1953 to 1969, they never finished higher than eighth on the ladder. By the 1960s it was clear that South Melbourne's financial resources would not be capable of allowing them to compete in the growing market for country and interstate players, their own local zone was never strong enough to compensate for this; the introduction of country zoning failed to help, as the Riverina Football League proved to be one of the least profitable zones. Between 1945 and 1981, South Melbourne made the finals only twice: under legendary coach Nor
Hawthorn Football Club
The Hawthorn Football Club, nicknamed the Hawks, is a professional Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League. The club, founded in 1902, is the youngest of the Victorian-based teams in the AFL and has won thirteen VFL/AFL premierships, it is renowned as the only club having won premierships in each decade of the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. The team play in gold vertically striped guernseys; the club's Latin motto is spectemur agendo, the English translation being "Let us be judged by our acts". The Hawks' origins are in the inner-eastern Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn and at Glenferrie Oval, the club's former administrative and training base and social club. Matches, have not been played there since 1973. In 2006, Hawthorn's training and administration facilities were relocated to Waverly Park, located 27.8 km from the CBD and in the middle of the club's major supporter base in Melbourne's outer-eastern region. The mascot of Hawthorn FC is a hawk. Since 2007 Hawthorn have played four games a year at their second ground of York Park in Launceston, with the remaining games played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the club's current playing home ground.
Hawthorn's current Victorian Football League affiliate team is the Box Hill Hawks Football Club. The official club history books and many supporters believe that the club's origins date back to its founding in 1873 at a meeting at the Hawthorne Hotel. Although a Hawthorn Football Club did indeed form at this time—and the region has since continuously been represented by a football team—it was not the Hawthorn which competes at AFL level today, it is that today's club is the third club to carry the name'Hawthorn Football Club'. In The Daily Telegraph of 12 May 1883 it is stated that "The Hawthorn Club having disbanded, all engagements for the ensuing season have been cancelled." In 1889 the Riversdale Football Club is reported to have changed its name to the Hawthorn Football Club. This club ceased in 1890. No Hawthorn club existed from 1890 to 1892. A new representative club, called the'Hawthorn Football Club', was formed in 1893, it competed in the Victorian Junior Football Association until 1898.
Without a ground to play on, the club was disbanded in 1899. In March 1902, Alf Kosky formed a club from the various district clubs under the banner of Hawthorn Football Club to compete in the Metropolitan Junior Football Association; the club merged with Boroondara in 1905 and adopted Boroondara's colours of a black guernsey with red sash but retained the name of Hawthorn. In 1906 Hawthorn merged with successful junior club the Hawthorn Rovers to form the Hawthorn City Football Club as a result of Glenferrie Oval opening; the club opted to change the gold guernsey with a blue V of the Hawthorn Rovers. The council applied to the Victorian Football Association for inclusion, granted in 1914 when Hawthorn replaced the disbanded Melbourne City club; the first task for the club was to decide on club colours, their jumper of blue and gold was taken by Williamstown so a change was required. At a Special General Meeting held on 17 February 1914, a Mr J. Brain proposed brown and gold as the new colours and the motion was carried.
The Mayblooms won three games and a draw in their first season in the VFA. The effect of World War I with players enlisting caused the club to finish last in 1915; the VFA went into recess in 1916 and 1917, Hawthorn did not compete when resumption occurred in 1918. Upon Hawthorn's resumption in 1919 it was more competitive winning eight games and finishing sixth out of ten teams. Hawthorn dropped to eighth in 1920 but in 1921 they won seven games and finished sixth. Bill Walton was appointed captain-coach of Hawthorn in 1922, he was, refused a clearance by Port Melbourne and as a result spent the season playing for them, while coaching Hawthorn during the week. Twice that season, he had the unusual situation of playing a VFA game against the club that he coached. In one of those matches a Port Melbourne teammate had to be restrained from striking Walton over Walton's vocal support for the player's opponent. In 1922 the club missed the finals by percentage and Hawthorn set a new record score in the VFA scoring 30.31.211 to Prahran 6.9.45.
In 1923 Walton was granted his clearance and the club made the finals finishing in fourth place and losing to Port Melbourne in the first semi-final. 1924 the club finished fifth. Since 1919 the VFL had nine clubs; the VFL was keen to do away with this bye via the admission of a tenth club. In 1924 a group calling itself the Hawthorn Citizens' League Campaign Committee began gathering support for the football club admittance to the VFL. Other representations came from Brighton, Footscray, North Melbourne, Prahran and Caulfield. On 9 January 1925 a committee meeting of the VFL, chaired by Reg Hunt of Carlton, examined the question of expanding the competition from nine clubs to twelve; the Mayblooms, as they were known became the perennial whipping boys of the competition. Hawthorn had an casual attitude towards playing football and, lying remote from major industrial areas and devoid of the business or political patrons available to Carlton and Collingwood, were not able to pay their players the match payment allowed by the Coulter Law.
Despite the presence of a number players of true class such as Bert Hyde, Bert Mills, Stan Spinks, Alec Albiston and Co
Glossary of Australian rules football
This list is an alphabetical glossary of Australian rules football terms and slang. While some of these entries are shared with other sports, Australian rules football has developed a unique and rich terminology. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. 1-2: an action where a player handpasses to a teammate, who handpasses back. 12-10 Rule: A rule in the VFL concerning the selection of AFL-listed players in teams with an AFL affiliate team. When a team, affiliated with an AFL team plays against a team, not affiliated with an AFL team, the affiliated team must play at least 12 VFL-listed players and no more than 10 AFL-listed players; the 12-10 rule does not apply when two AFL-affiliated teams play each other, in those games, teams may play as many AFL-listed players as they wish. This rule has since been abolished. 19th man: at a time in the game before the substitute bench was introduced in 1930, one reserve player was named in addition to the 18 players who started the game on the ground.
These players could enter the game only if one of the original 18 did not return. This was extended to the 20th man when a second reserve was introduced in 1946. Free interchange of the 19th and 20th players has been allowed in the VFL since 1978; this can refer to the philosophy of the South Australian crowd being the 19th man for the Adelaide Crows, who have retired the number 19 guernsey, sell sporting merchandise with the number 19 on it. Advantage paid: umpiring decision in which play continues after an infringement if the team with the ball is infringed upon. AFL: Australian Football League; this acronym is used colloquially as an alternative name for the sport when distinguishing it from other football codes in Queensland and New South Wales. After the siren: a set shot for goal. All-Australian: a player, chosen in the best team of the AFL competition each year, the All-Australian Team. Angle: the geometric angle formed by an imaginary line between a player taking a set shot and the centre of the goals, another imaginary line perpendicular to the goal line.
So, a player with "no angle" is taking a kick from directly in front. Arena: the playing surface. Assist: to kick or handpass to a player who scores either a goal or a behind; the term is common across many world sports. Australian football: name used by the AFL for the sport. Bag: colloquialism for five or more goals scored by one player. Ball!: yelled by spectators when an opposition player is tackled in possession of the ball. Short for "holding the ball". Ball burster: colloquialism for a massive kick a torpedo punt which travels over 70 metres. Ball-up: the act of a field umpire putting the ball back into play, either by throwing it vertically upwards into the air, or by bouncing the ball in such a way that it mimics the throwing action. See bounce-down. A ball-up is required at the start of each quarter, after a goal is scored or to restart the game from neutral situations in the field of play. Banana: see checkside. Banner: a large crêpe paper and sticky-tape banner that players run through prior to a match.
Barrack: to cheer for a team. A fan is known as a "barracker", while to ask someone who they barrack for is to ask which team they support. Barrel: see torpedo. Baulk: a manoeuvre where a player holds the ball out to the side in one hand runs in the other direction to evade a defender. Behind: a score worth one point, earned by putting the ball between a goal post and a behind post, or by the ball hitting a goal post, or by the ball being touched prior to passing between the goalposts. Behind posts: two shorter vertical posts 19.2m apart on the goal line at each end of the ground, centred about the taller goal posts. Bench: the interchange area; the "bench" refers to the seat used by the players in this area. Best on ground: player judged the best player taking part in any game. Sometimes referred to as BOG, pronounced "bee-oh-gee". Big dance: colloquial term for a grand final. Blinder: an exceptional performance by a player or team. Bounce-down: the act of a field umpire putting the ball back into play by bouncing the ball in such a way that it mimics a vertical throw.
See ball-up. Boundary line: the line drawn on the ground to delimit the field of play. Boundary throw-in: the act of throwing the ball back into play by the boundary umpire; the boundary umpire throws the ball backwards over their head. This is used to restart play from neutral situations. Boundary umpire: an official who patrols the boundary line, indicating when it has crossed the line, who executes boundary throw-in to return the ball to play. There are two of these umpires per game, one on each side of the oval, but there will be four in top grade games. Break: short for "break in play". Brownlow: the Brownlow Medal is awarded the week of the Grand Final to the player judged to be the fairest and best player in the league for the season, based on accumulated votes awarded by the field umpires at the conclusion of each match during the season. Bump: a contact
Interstate matches in Australian rules football
Australian rules football matches between teams representing Australian colonies and territories have been held since 1879. For most of the 20th century, the absence of a national club competition and international matches meant that football games between state representative teams were regarded with great importance. Football historian John Devaney has argued that: "some of the state of origin contests which took place during the 1980s constituted arguably the finest expositions of the game seen"; until 1976, interstate Australian rules football games were played by teams representing the major football leagues or organisations. From 1977 to 1999, players were selected under State of Origin selection rules and they were chosen from the Australian Football League. Since 2000, all matches have been between teams representing the second-tier state or territorial leagues. Players from the AFL no longer take part in interstate matches; the matches have been held on a stand-alone basis. However, an Australian Football Carnival, a national championship series, held in either one or two cities, took place between 1908 and 1993 at three year intervals.
Teams which have taken part have included Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and an Australian Amateurs team. Between 1937 and 1988 the player judged the best at each of these carnivals was awarded the Tassie Medal. Between 1953 and 1988, the selection of All Australian Teams was based on players performance during Australian Football Carnivals, the team was named after each carnival concluded. Victoria the birthplace of Australian rules and, with contributing factors such as population and finances, dominated the first hundred years of intercolonial and interstate football; this was the case in the first interstate game, held on Tuesday, 1 July 1879, at East Melbourne Cricket Ground. The final score was Victoria 7.14 to South Australia 0.3. The match was attended by more than 10,000 people; the third and fourth teams to commence intercolonial competition were New South Wales and Queensland, playing each other in a two-game series in Brisbane in 1884.
Tasmania played its first game, against Victoria, in 1887. New Zealand entered the competition with a victory over NSW in Sydney, in 1889. Victoria's long-term dominance faltered in the 1890s, when other Colonies recorded their first wins over the Victoria: South Australia in Adelaide in 1890 and 1891 and Tasmania in Hobart in 1893. In 1897, the VFL split from the VFA and the two selected separate representative teams, further weakening Victoria in intercolonial competition, which became interstate competition following Federation of the six British colonies in Australia, in 1901. Western Australia played its first two interstate games in 1904, including a win over SA in Adelaide; the VFL's dominance, at least within Victoria, was established by the time an interstate carnival was held for the first time — in Melbourne in 1908 — to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of "Australasian football". The widening gap between the three major footballing States/leagues and the others was shown in the organisation of the competition: Victoria represented by the, SA and WA constituted "Section A", Tasmania, NSW, Queensland and NZ were relegated to "Section B".
The VFA did not take part and the carnival was New Zealand's last appearance in representative football. The Victorian team went through the competition undefeated; this impression was reiterated by the 1911 Carnival, in Adelaide, which set the pattern of a carnival every three years. South Australia went Victoria won three of their four matches. At the Sydney carnival of 1914, Victoria was once again undefeated. Following the onset of World War I interstate matches went into a five-year hiatus. During this period interstate matches were held every year, interstate carnivals were held every 3 years, with a few exceptions. In most carnivals, the stronger states competed separately from the minor states. At the peak of its popularity, the carnival was known symbolically as "the Ashes" of Australian rules football. Victoria continued its dominance in interstate football by winning 15 of the 17 carnivals held during this time, winning the individual matches held every year. Neil Kerley and Graham Cornes are of significance in the rivalry between Victoria and South Australia, who played for and coached the South Australia team during this period.
Neil Kerley when coaching the South Australian team would inject a hatred for Victoria, telling his players all Victorian umpires cheated, all Victorians would cheat if they got the chance. Graham Cornes, coached by Kerley for South Australia, has stated his hatred for Victoria came from Neil Kerley. Cornes would go on to coach South Australia, with great successes and was a promoter of the South Australian team. Cornes has stated that the success that South Australia had against Victoria during his coaching reign was all to do with the culture in South Australia of wanting to prove they're better than Victoria; the 1963 game between Victoria and South Australia at the MCG was of significance in the rivalry between the two states. Before the game Jack Dyer was asked what he would do if he was coaching Victoria, said, "I'd give them a Pep Talk and go to the races". Neil Kerley, playing, was in an interview before the game when this was mentioned. After it was said the interviewer said to Kerley "what do you think of that young Kerley"