The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, CI, GCVO, GCStJ was the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth of the United Kingdom and the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II. Margaret spent much of her childhood in the company of her older sister and her life changed dramatically in 1936, when her paternal uncle, King Edward VIII, abdicated to marry a divorcée, Wallis Simpson. Margarets father became King, and her sister became heir presumptive. During World War II, the two stayed at Windsor Castle, despite suggestions to evacuate them to Canada. During the war years, Margaret was considered too young to perform any official duties, after the war, Margaret fell in love with Group Captain Peter Townsend. In 1952, Margarets father died, her sister became Queen, early the following year, he proposed to Margaret. Many in the government believed he would be a husband for the Queens 22-year-old sister. Margaret eventually abandoned her plans with him and in 1960, she accepted the proposal of the photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, Margaret was often viewed as a controversial member of the British royal family.
Her divorce earned her publicity, and she was romantically associated with several men. Her health gradually deteriorated in the two decades of her life. A heavy smoker for most of her life, she had a lung operation in 1985, a bout of pneumonia in 1993. She died at King Edward VII Hospital on 9 February 2002, Margaret was born on 21 August 1930 at Glamis Castle in Scotland, her mothers ancestral home, and was affectionately known as Margot within the royal family. The Home Secretary, J. R. Clynes, was present to verify the birth, the registration of her birth was delayed for several days to avoid her being numbered 13 in the parish register. At the time of her birth, she was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne and her father was Prince Albert, Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. Her mother was Elizabeth, Duchess of York, the youngest daughter of the 14th Earl, King George V disliked the name Ann but approved of the alternative Margaret Rose. Margaret was baptised in the chapel of Buckingham Palace on 30 October 1930 by Cosmo Lang.
Margarets early life was spent primarily at the Yorks residences at 145 Piccadilly and she was educated alongside her sister, Princess Elizabeth, by their Scottish governess Marion Crawford. Margarets education was supervised by her mother, who in the words of Randolph Churchill never aimed at bringing her daughters up to be more than nicely behaved young ladies
Dame Judith Olivia Dench CH DBE FRSA, known as Judi Dench, is an English actress and author. Dench made her debut in 1957 with the Old Vic Company. Over the following few years she performed in several of Shakespeares plays in such roles as Ophelia in Hamlet, Juliet in Romeo and Juliet and Lady Macbeth in Macbeth. Although most of her work during this period was in theatre, she branched into film work. She drew strong reviews for her role in the musical Cabaret in 1968. Over the next two decades, Dench established herself as one of the most significant British theatre performers, working for the National Theatre Company and the Royal Shakespeare Company. She achieved success in television during this period, in the series A Fine Romance from 1981 until 1984 and she has received the BAFTA Fellowship and the Special Olivier Award. In June 2011, she received a fellowship from the British Film Institute, Dench is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. Dench was born in Heworth, North Riding of Yorkshire and her mother, Eleanora Olive, was born in Dublin, Ireland.
Her father, Reginald Arthur Dench, a doctor, was born in Dorset and moved to Dublin and he met Denchs mother while he was studying medicine at Trinity College, Dublin. Dench attended The Mount School, a Quaker independent secondary school in York and her brothers, one of whom was actor Jeffery Dench, were born in Tyldesley, Lancashire. Her niece, Emma Dench, is a Roman historian and professor previously at Birkbeck, University of London, and currently at Harvard University. In Britain, Dench has developed a reputation as one of the greatest actresses of the period, primarily through her work in theatre. She has more than once been named one in polls for Britains best actor. Through her parents, Dench had regular contact with the theatre and her father, a physician, was the GP for the York theatre, and her mother was its wardrobe mistress. Actors often stayed in the Dench household, during these years, Judi Dench was involved on a non-professional basis in the first three productions of the modern revival of the York Mystery Plays in the 1950s.
In 1957, in one of the last productions in which she appeared during this period, she played the role of the Virgin Mary, performed on a fixed stage in the Museum Gardens. Though she initially trained as a set designer, she became interested in school as her brother Jeff attended the Central School of Speech
John Marwood Cleese is an English actor, voice actor, screenwriter and comedian. He achieved success at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and as a scriptwriter and performer on The Frost Report. In the mid-1970s, Cleese and his first wife, Connie Booth, co-wrote and starred in the British sitcom Fawlty Towers, with Cleese receiving the 1980 BAFTA for Best Entertainment Performance. Later, he co-starred with Kevin Kline, Jamie Lee Curtis and he starred in Clockwise and has appeared in many other films, including two James Bond films as R and Q, two Harry Potter films, and the last three Shrek films. With Yes Minister writer Antony Jay, he co-founded Video Arts, in 1976, Cleese co-founded The Secret Policemans Ball benefit shows to raise funds for the human rights organisation Amnesty International. Cleese was born in Weston-super-Mare, the child of Reginald Francis Cleese, an insurance salesman. His familys surname was originally Cheese, but his father had thought it was embarrassing, as a child, Cleese supported Bristol City FC and Somerset County Cricket Club.
Cleese was educated at St Peters Preparatory School, where he received a prize for English and did well at cricket, when he was 13, he was awarded an exhibition at Clifton College, an English public school in Bristol. He was already more than 6 feet tall by then, Cleese allegedly defaced the school grounds, as a prank, by painting footprints to suggest that the statue of Field Marshal Earl Haig had got down from his plinth and gone to the toilet. Cleese played cricket in the First XI and did well academically, passing 8 O-Levels and 3 A-Levels in mathematics, physics, I believe that this moment changed my perspective on the world. He took up a place he had won at Downing College, Cambridge and he joined the Cambridge Footlights. He recalled that he went to the Cambridge Guildhall, where each university society had a stall and he replied no as he was not allowed to sing at his school because he was so bad, and if there was anything worse than his singing, it was his dancing. He was asked Well, what do you do, to which he replied, I make people laugh.
At the Footlights theatrical club, he spent a lot of time with Tim Brooke-Taylor and Bill Oddie, Cleese wrote extra material for the 1961 Footlights Revue I Thought I Saw It Move, and was Registrar for the Footlights Club during 1962. He was in the cast of the 1962 Footlights Revue Double Take, Cleese graduated from Cambridge in 1963 with a 2,1. Despite his successes on The Frost Report, his father would send him cuttings from The Daily Telegraph offering management jobs in places like Marks, Cleese was a scriptwriter, as well as a cast member, for the 1963 Footlights Revue A Clump of Plinths. After Cambridge Circus, Cleese briefly stayed in America, performing on, while performing in the musical Half a Sixpence, Cleese met future Python Terry Gilliam, as well as American actress Connie Booth, whom he married on 20 February 1968. At their wedding at a Unitarian Church in Manhattan, the couple attempted to ensure an absence of any theistic language
An audiobook is a recording of a text being read. A reading of the text is noted as unabridged, while readings of a reduced version. Spoken audio has been available in schools and public libraries and to an extent in music shops since the 1930s. Many spoken word albums were made prior to the age of videocassettes, DVDs, compact discs and it was not until the 1980s that the medium began to attract book retailers, and book retailers started displaying audiobooks on bookshelves rather than in separate displays. In 1994, the Audio Publishers Association established the term audiobook as the industry standard, Spoken word recordings first became possible with the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877. Phonographic books were one of the original applications envisioned by Edison which would speak to people without effort on their part. The initial words spoken into the phonograph were Edisons recital of Mary Had a Little Lamb, one early listener complained that he would need a wheelbarrow to carry around talking books recorded on discs with such limited storage capacity.
By the 1930s close-grooved records increased to 20 minutes making possible longer narrative, the first test recordings in 1932 included a chapter from Helen Kellers Midstream and Edgar Allan Poes The Raven. The organization received approval for exemption from copyright and free postal distribution of talking books. M. Delafield, Cora Jarrett, Rudyard Kipling, John Masefield, Macdonald mobilized the women of the Auxiliary under the motto Education is a right, not a privilege. In 1952, Macdonald established recording studios in seven cities across the United States. Caedmon Records was a pioneer in the business, it was the first company dedicated to selling spoken work recordings to the public and has been called the seed of the audiobook industry. Caedmon was formed in New York in 1952 by college graduates Barbara Holdridge and their first release was a collection of poems by Dylan Thomas as read by the author. The original 1952 recording was a selection for the 2008 United States National Recording Registry, Listening Library was a pioneering company, it was one of the first to distribute childrens audiobooks to schools and other special markets, including VA hospitals.
It was founded by Anthony Ditlow and his wife in 1955 in their Red Bank, New Jersey home, like Caedemon, Listening Library and Spoken Arts benefited from the new technology of LPs, but increased governmental funding for schools and libraries beginning in the 1950s and 60s. Cassette tapes were invented in 1963 and a few libraries, such as the Library of Congress, during the 1970s, a number of technological innovations allowed the cassette tape wider usage in libraries and spawned the creation of new commercial audiobook market. In the early 1970s, instructional recordings were among the first commercial products sold on cassette, there were 8 companies distributing materials on cassette with titles such as Managing and Selling Companies and Executive Seminar in Sound on a series of 60-minute cassettes. His company, the Maryland-based Recorded Books, followed the model of Books on Tape but with higher quality studio recordings, Recorded Books and Chivers Audio Books were the first to develop integrated production teams and to work with professional actors
BBC iPlayer is an internet streaming catchup television and radio service in the United Kingdom. The service is available on a range of devices, including mobile phones and tablets, personal computers. Neither the iPlayer services nor the individual TV programmes display any commercial advertising, the terms BBC iPlayer, iPlayer, and BBC Media Player all refer to the same services. BBC Redux was developed as a proof of concept for a cross-platform, BBC iPlayer left beta and went live on 25 December 2007. On 25 June 2008, a new-look iPlayer was launched, originally as a beta-test version alongside the earlier version, the site tagline was Catch up on the last 7 days of BBC TV & Radio, reflecting that programmes were unavailable on iPlayer after this time. The BBC state on their website that this is due to copyright reasons, the marketing slogan was changed to Making the unmissable, unmissable. In May 2010 the site was updated again, to include a recommendations feature, the feature was added to the search function and the channels function.
When users click on a programme by another broadcaster, they are redirected to the relevant broadcasters catch up service, in April 2014, BBC iPlayer was once again relaunched with a new look and a different user interface. From October 2014, the BBC extended the availability for programmes on iPlayer from 7 days to 30 days. However, due to legal reasons, most news bulletins are available for 24 hours after initial broadcast. Some archive programming is availabily for the term, such as Timewatch. Specific applications for mobile platforms were launched in February 2011 and these were initially for iOS and Android devices, where the launch would have the biggest impact. In 2015, the BBC reported that it was moving towards playing audio, the original iPlayer service was launched in October 2005, undergoing a five-month trial by five thousand broadband users until 28 February 2006. The iPlayer was heavily criticised for delay in its launch, rebranding, a new, improved iPlayer service had another very limited user trial which began on 15 November 2006.
At various times during its development, iPlayer was known as the Integrated Media Player, Interactive Media Player and this was done reportedly to allow British ISPs and the BBC to gauge the effect of the iPlayer traffic on the Internet within the UK. However, it was only to users of Windows XP. This was a decision by the BBC, which led to a petition against the decision being posted on 10 Downing Streets e-petition website. The petition reached 16,082 signatures on 20 August 2007, the response from the Government was
Lauren Cecilia Fisher, known professionally as Lauren Laverne, is an English radio DJ, television presenter, author and comedian. Laverne has written a novel entitled Candypop and the Broken Biscuits. Laverne was born and brought up in Sunderland in a large family, One grandfather had been a shipbuilder, another a coalminer. Her father was a lecturer at Newcastle University, Dr Lesley Gofton. She first attended St. Marys R. C, primary School in 1982, where she befriended Marie Nixon, to become a fellow Kenickie guitarist, and St. Anthonys Girls School between 1989 and 1994, where she and Nixon met Emma Jackson. Laverne went on to study at City of Sunderland College from 1994 to 1996, in all, Kenickie achieved four top 40 hits and a top ten album. She was working on an album at this time. She subsequently provided guest vocals on the Divine Comedys 2004 single Come Home Billy Bird, Lavernes first television presenting job was Play UKs series The Alphabet Show, with Chris Addison, made while Kenickie were still together.
She presented a documentary for Sky One on the rise of popularity of the US hit TV Show Buffy the Vampire Slayer, called Buffy and this was done when the show was returning for its sixth season in 2001. In 2003 Lauren was a team captain, along with Jason Byrne. In 2004 she was a regular guest on the quiz show HeadJam, the show finished in April 2006. in April 2006, she appeared as guest host of Never Mind the Buzzcocks. In August, Laverne presented Channel 4s coverage of the V Festival, in March 2007, she presented the NME Awards live from the Hammersmith Palais. In July 2007, Laverne appeared on the comedy show Mock the Week. She appeared on Never Mind the Buzzcocks on 10 January 2008, in September 2008, Laverne appeared again on Mock the Week. In March 2008, Laverne appeared on the Lily Allen and Friends show with fellow Sunderland musicians the Futureheads, from 2006 to 2010, she was a regular presenter with the weekly BBC arts magazine programme The Culture Show, alongside Mark Kermode. She presented the series of the late-night Channel 4 music show Transmission with T-Mobile opposite Steve Jones.
Laverne replaced radio DJ Jo Whiley on the talent show Orange Mobile Act Unsigned, Laverne became a regular presenter in the new magazine format third series of Its Not Easy Being Green, first broadcast on BBC Two in January 2009. She narrated Tough Guy or Chicken, on BBC Three in August 2009
A desert island, deserted island or uninhabited island is an island that is not permanently populated by humans. Uninhabited islands are used in movies or stories about shipwrecked people. Some uninhabited islands are protected as reserves and some are privately owned. Devon Island in Canada is claimed to be the largest uninhabited island in the world, small coral atolls or islands usually have no source of fresh water, but at times a fresh water lens can be reached with a well. Uninhabited islands are called deserted islands or desert islands. In the latter, the adjective desert connotes not desert climate conditions, the word desert has been formerly applied more widely to any wild, uninhabited region, including forest-land, and it is this archaic meaning that appears in the phrase desert island. Similarly, the deserted island does not imply that the island was previously inhabited. The term desert island is commonly used figuratively to refer to objects or behavior in conditions of social isolation.
Behavior on an island is a common thought experiment, for example. Appat Island, Greenland Kermadec Islands in the South Pacific, part of New Zealand Astola Island, Baluchistan Devon Island,55,247 km2, many small islands off the coast of Greece A majority of islands in the Barra Isles archipelago. The most famous of abandoned islands is located at the southernmost point of the outer Hebrides. The protagonists in both are children living in seclusion on a deserted island, until they eventually come in contact with castaways from the outside world who are stranded on the island. The story of Theologus Autodidactus, extends beyond the island setting when the castaways take Kamil back to civilization with them. William Shakespeares 1610–11 play, The Tempest, uses the idea of being stranded on an island as a pretext for the action of the play. In the late 17th century, Philosophus Autodidactus inspired Robert Boyle, Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus was eventually translated into English in the early 20th century.
The novel features Man Friday, Crusoes personal assistant and it is likely that he was inspired by the Latin or English translations of Ibn Tufails Philosophus Autodidactus. Tom Neale was a New Zealander who voluntarily spent 16 years in three sessions in the 1950s and 1960s living alone on the island of Suwarrow in the northern Cook Islands group and his time there is documented in his autobiography, An Island To Oneself. Significant novels set on deserted islands include The Swiss Family Robinson, The Coral Island, The Mysterious Island, Lord of the Flies, The Cay, juana Maria, a Native American woman, was stranded for 18 years on San Nicolas Island off California in the 19th century
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)
The Symphony No.9 in D minor, Op.125, is Ludwig van Beethovens final complete symphony. Completed in 1824, the symphony is one of the works in classical music. It is almost universally considered by critics to be one of Beethovens greatest works, the symphony was the first example of a major composer using voices in a symphony. The words are sung during the movement by four vocal soloists. They were taken from the Ode to Joy, a written by Friedrich Schiller in 1785 and revised in 1803. In the 2010s, it stands as one of the most performed symphonies in the world, the Philharmonic Society of London originally commissioned the symphony in 1817. The main composition work was done between autumn 1822 and the completion of the autograph in February 1824, the symphony emerged from other pieces by Beethoven that, while completed works in their own right, are in some sense musical sketches for the future symphony. 80, basically a concerto movement, brings in a choir. As in the Ninth Symphony, the vocal forces sing a theme first played instrumentally, going further back, an earlier version of the Choral Fantasy theme is found in the song Gegenliebe, for piano and high voice, which dates from before 1795.
According to Robert W. Gutman, Mozarts K.222 Offertory in D minor, Misericordias Domini, written in 1775, contains a melody that foreshadows Ode to Joy. When his friends and financiers heard this, they urged him to premiere the symphony in Vienna in the form of a signed by a number of prominent Viennese music patrons. This was the composers first on-stage appearance in 12 years, the hall was packed with an eager audience, while no complete list of premiere performers exists, many of Viennas most elite performers are known to have participated. The soprano and alto parts were sung by two young singers, Henriette Sontag and Caroline Unger. German soprano Henriette Sontag was eighteen years old when Beethoven personally recruited her to perform in the premiere of the Ninth, personally recruited by Beethoven, 20-year-old contralto Caroline Unger, a native of Vienna, had gained critical praise in 1821 appearing in Rossinis Tancredi. After performing in Beethovens 1824 premiere, Unger found fame in Italy, Italian composers Donizetti and Bellini were known to have written roles specifically for her voice.
Although the performance was directed by Michael Umlauf, the theatres Kapellmeister. However, two earlier, Umlauf had watched as the composers attempt to conduct a dress rehearsal of his opera Fidelio ended in disaster. So this time, he instructed the singers and musicians to ignore the almost totally deaf Beethoven, at the beginning of every part, who sat by the stage, gave the tempos
Joan Ann Plowright, Baroness Olivier, DBE, commonly known as Dame Joan Plowright, is an English retired actress whose career has spanned over six decades. She has won two Golden Globe Awards and a Tony Award and has been nominated for an Academy Award and she is one of only four actresses to have won two Golden Globes in the same year. Plowright was born in Brigg, the daughter of Daisy Margaret and William Ernest Plowright and she attended Scunthorpe Grammar School and trained at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School. Plowright made her debut at Croydon in 1948 and her London debut in 1954. In 1956 she joined the English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre and was cast as Margery Pinchwife in The Country Wife and she appeared with George Devine in the Eugène Ionesco play, The Chairs, Shaws Major Barbara and Saint Joan. She continued to appear on stage and in such as The Entertainer. In 1961, she received a Tony Award for her role in A Taste of Honey on Broadway, through her marriage to Laurence Olivier, she became closely associated with his work at the National Theatre from 1963 onwards.
She was Nanny in 101 Dalmatians, among her television roles, she won another Golden Globe Award and earned an Emmy Award nomination for the HBO film Stalin in 1992 as the Soviet dictators mother-in-law. In 1994, she was awarded the Women in Film Crystal Award, in 2003, Plowright performed in the stage production Absolutely. She was appointed president of the English Stage Company in March 2009, succeeding John Mortimer. She was previously vice-president of the company, Plowright was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1970 Queens New Year Honours and was promoted to Dame Commander in the 2004 Queens New Year Honours. In 2014, she announced her retirement from acting, citing her declining eyesight due to macular degeneration. Plowright was first married to Roger Gage, an actor, in September 1953 and she divorced him and, in 1961, married Laurence Olivier after the ending of his 20-year marriage with the actress Vivien Leigh. The couple had three children, Richard Kerr, Tamsin Agnes Margaret and Julie-Kate, the couple remained married until Lord Oliviers death in 1989.
Joan Plowrights brother, David Plowright, CBE, was an executive at Granada Television, the Plowright Theatre in Scunthorpe is named in Plowrights honour. Upon her marriage to Sir Laurence Olivier, her title became Lady Olivier, however. Her husband was made a peer in 1970 and so she became Baroness Olivier. Over the years Joan Plowright has had many titles as a result of honours awarded, and the appointment of her husband as a peer in 1970
Dame Moura Lympany DBE was an English concert pianist. She was born as Mary Gertrude Johnstone at Saltash and her father was an army officer who had served in World War I and her mother originally taught her the piano. Mary was sent to a convent school in Belgium, where her talent was encouraged. She went on to study in Vienna with Paul Weingarten, and in London with Mathilde Verne, in 1935, she made her London debut at the Wigmore Hall, and in 1938 she came second to Emil Gilels in the Ysaÿe Piano Competition in Brussels. By the Second World War, she was one of the UKs most popular pianists, on 13 April 1940 she gave the British premiere of Khachaturians Piano Concerto in D-flat, one of the pieces most closely associated with her. She had been approached when Clifford Curzon pleaded he would not be able to learn it in time, on 25 February 1945, with Adrian Boult, Lympany was the first British musician to perform in Paris after the Liberation. She performed Alan Rawsthornes Piano Concerto No 1 and the Khachaturian Piano Concerto with Boult conducting the orchestra of the Conservatoire de Paris, in 1944 she married Colin Defries,32 years her senior, but they divorced in 1950.
In 1951 she married Bennet Korn, an American television executive, Lympany very much wanted to start a family but she had two miscarriages, and a son who died shortly after birth. She and Bennet Korn divorced in 1961, some years she became a close friend of the British Prime Minister and amateur musician Edward Heath, mutual friends expressed hopes that they might marry, but this did not happen. After the war she became widely known, performing throughout Europe and in the USA, Australia, New Zealand. When living in New York, Lympany continued her concert and recording career, Lympany was a Steinway pianist and participated in the Steinway Centenary Concert on 19 October 1953 in which ten Steinway pianists played a Polonaise by Chopin. The rehearsal of this piece was recorded and broadcast on Ed Sullivans television show, Lympany gave a recital at Carnegie Hall on November 20,1957, for which tickets sold for 75c to $1.50. Last night Moura Lympany gave evidence of possessing qualities which place her high among her historic colleagues, in 1969 Lympany was diagnosed with breast cancer and her left breast was removed.
Three months after the operation she performed Prokofievs Piano Concerto No.4 for the Left Hand at the Royal Festival Hall and she had a second mastectomy but continued working and gained renewed popularity. From the mid-1980s she was based in Monaco, Moura - Her Autobiography, written with her cousin, author Margot Strickland, was published by Peter Owen in 1991. In 1992 she was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire and she received honours from the Belgian and Portuguese governments. Dame Moura Lympany died in Gorbio near Menton, France, in 2005 and her archive was deposited in the International Piano Archives at the University of Maryland, College Park. Brahms, Intermezzi Beethoven, Piano Concerto No 5, Stadium Concerts S. O and her first and the first full set ever recorded was recorded from 1941 to 1945 for Decca