Bell Gardens, California
Bell Gardens is a city in Los Angeles County, California. The population was 42,072 at the 2010 census, down from 44,054 at the 2000 census. Bell Gardens is part of the Gateway Cities Region, or Southeast Los Angeles County is a urbanized region located in southeastern Los Angeles County, Southern California between the City of Los Angeles, Orange County, the Pacific Ocean. Bell Gardens is notable for being one of only six Los Angeles County cities to permit casino gambling and for being home of the oldest building in Los Angeles County. Bell Gardens is named after James Bell; the “gardens” of its name derives from the many Japanese who, early in Bell Gardens’ existence established vegetable gardens and rice fields in the fertile soil. The city of Bell Gardens has a Native American history dating back thousands of years. In the late 18th century, when the area was associated with a large amount of land situated along the lower basin of the Rio Hondo area in Los Angeles County, Bell Gardens was once a bustling agricultural center for Californios during the Spanish Empire, 1509–1823, the Mexican government, 1823–1848, the United States, after the Mexican-American war concluded in 1848.
Among those early Spanish settlers was one of the Lugos. While stationed at Mission San Antonio de Padua near Salinas, Francisco Lugo's son Antonio Maria Lugo was born in 1783. In 1810 Antonio Lugo, a 35-year-old corporal in the Spanish army, was given the 29,514-acre Rancho San Antonio land grant; the land grant was a reward for his military service during the establishment of the Franciscan Missions in California while being the attendant of colonization for the area. Today the grant includes the cities of Bell Gardens, Maywood, Huntington Park, Walnut Park, South Gate and Commerce. Antonio Lugo built several adobe homes within the boundaries of the Rancho San Antonio grant, raised cattle. One of the adobe houses, built in 1795, is the oldest house in Los Angeles County and is still standing at 7000 Gage Avenue. Lugo was given a term as Mayor of Los Angeles. According to Dr. Roy Whitehead in his book Lugo, "Don Antonio Maria Lugo…rode around Los Angeles and his Rancho San Antonio in great splendor.
He never still spoke only Spanish. He rode magnificent horses, sitting in his $1,500 silver trimmed saddle erect and stately, with his sword strapped to the saddle beneath his left leg…People knew him far and wide, the Indians sometimes named their children after him, as he was one Spanish Don that they admired." Antonio María Lugo died at the age of 85 in 1860. One of his nine children, Vicente Lugo and built a two-story adobe home in 1850, located at 6360 Gage Avenue. A daughter of Antonio Lugo married Stephen C. Foster, Mayor of Los Angeles in 1854, lived in an adobe house just east of 6820 Foster Bridge Road, now a parking lot. A granddaughter of Antonio Lugo married Wallace Woodworth, an early-day merchant and civic leader in Los Angeles, their eldest son, Joseph Woodworth, built a two-story colonial style house at 6820 Foster Bridge Road in 1924. The land's original adobe dwelling was named Casa de Rancho San Antonio by Lugo; when Henry T. Gage, a lawyer who married Antonia Lugo's granddaughter Frances V. Rains, occupied the residence, he added two wings and redwood siding, installed bronze fireplaces, imported expensive fabric wallpaper from France to serve as background for the Gage coat of arms, which enjoys a place of prominence in every room.
The Bell Gardens’ school system began in 1867 when the San Antonio School was built where Bell Gardens Elementary stands today. Area farmers sent their children to the San Antonio School, one of the earliest educational institutions in the County of Los Angeles; because of the rich soil and abundant land, many Japanese immigrants are part of Bell Gardens’ early history. Japanese Gardeners farmed to produce quality vegetables for the marketplace. Rice fields mushroomed within the city limits of Bell Gardens. With some of the richest agricultural land in the country, Bell Gardens remained a farming community until the 1930s. Beginning in the 1930s, cheap homes were constructed, filled by defense plant workers. In 1927, Firestone Tire Company bought some of the land at $7,000 an acre. By 1900, Bell Gardens was divided into tracts of 40 to 100 acres; the land adjoining. Both Bell Gardens and Bell are named for James George Bell. In 1930, O. C. Beck purchased property and begins to build affordable homes for those suffering through the depression era.
It was during this period that the area was known as'Billy Goat Acres'. To this day, Bell Gardens is affectionately known by this moniker. World War I and World War II brought defense plants to the area that helped build the economic stability and the population, which led to construction of new homes, more schools, a prosperous business climate; this land used to be floodplains, farmlands split into long, narrow plots by depression-era developers. Tiny houses were sold and rented to Oakies, the Cherokee, the Cree, forced from their homes by dust bowls and Manifest Destiny. By the 1980s, high-wage factories had left, taking with them all of the whites and many of the blacks. In their places—coming from the Mexican states of Michoacan, Jalisco and Zacatecas— were large families of immigrants. Latinos moved here for work and some brought their small businesses. Thousands of Central Americans fleeing civil wars in the 1980s came to the region and created small businesses and worked in the same service industry jobs.
By the 1990s, Colmar Elementary chang
Lancaster is a charter city in northern Los Angeles County, in the Antelope Valley of the western Mojave Desert in Southern California. As of 2013, Lancaster was the 31st largest city in California. Lancaster is part of a twin city complex with its southern neighbor Palmdale and together they are the principal cities within the Antelope Valley region. Lancaster is located 61 miles north of downtown Los Angeles, near the Kern County line, it is separated from the Los Angeles Basin by the San Gabriel Mountains to the south, from Bakersfield and the San Joaquin Valley by the Tehachapi Mountains to the north. The population of Lancaster grew from 37,000 at the time of its incorporation in 1977 to over 156,000 in 2010. According to the Greater Antelope Valley Economic Alliance report of 2015, Lancaster has a population of 168,049; the area where Lancaster is now located, known as the Antelope Valley, was home to the Paiute Indians. Lancaster's origins as a settlement start with the Southern Pacific Railroad, believed to first use the name Lancaster, where a station house, locomotive watering facilities and section gang housing were built when the railroad laid track through the town's future location.
In 1876 the Southern Pacific completed the line through the Antelope Valley, linking San Francisco and Los Angeles. The origin of Lancaster's name is unclear, attributed variously to the surname of a railroad station clerk, the moniker given by railroad officials, or the former Pennsylvania home of unknown settlers. Train service brought passengers through the water-stop-turned-community, with the help of promotional literature, attracted new settlers; the person credited with formally developing the town is Moses Langley Wicks, who in 1884 bought property from the railroad for $2.50 per acre, mapped out a town with streets and lots, by September was advertising 160-acre tracts of land for $6 an acre. The following year, the Lancaster News started publication, making it the first weekly newspaper in the Antelope Valley. By 1890, Lancaster was bustling and booming, thanks to adequate rainfall, farmers planted and sold thousands of acres of wheat and barley; the town was devastated by the decade-long drought that began in 1894, killing businesses and driving cattle north, though fortunes improved somewhat in 1898 following the nearby discoveries of gold and borax, the latter to become a widespread industrial chemical and household cleaner.
Thanks to the five-year construction of the 233-mile Los Angeles Aqueduct starting in 1908, Lancaster became a boom town by housing aqueduct workers. The 1912 completion of Antelope Valley Union High School allowed students from the growing region to study locally instead of moving to distant cities, the school boasted the state's first dormitory system to accommodate students from outlying districts; the community began a steady growth spurt in the 1930s, starting with construction of Muroc Air Force Base, site of frequent flight tests, including the "breaking" of the sound barrier by Chuck Yeager in a Bell X-1A in 1947. In the 1980s through the end of the program, Edwards Air Force Base, by renamed, hosted a limited number of landings of the Space Shuttle; the development of Air Force Plant 42 in 1958, augmented in the 1960s by construction of Lockheed Aircraft's Plant 10, created tens of thousands of jobs. High-wage employment hit its peak in the 1970s during the Lockheed L-1011 commercial wide body jetliner project, for which all assembly and some engineering and parts production were performed.
250 L-1011 aircraft were airfield. Lancaster was an unincorporated community in Los Angeles County until 1977, when it was incorporated as a city, with Arnold Rodio serving as its first mayor. Lancaster State Prison opened in 1993 and before that Los Angeles County hosted no prisons but accounted for forty percent of California's state-prison inmates. "Most of Lancaster's civic leaders and residents" opposed the building of the prison, four inmates escaped from LAC in its first year of operation. By 2000 a proposal to increase the proportion of maximum-security inmates received little criticism. In 2005, Hyundai Motor Co. announced the grand opening of a 4,300-acre, $60 million "Proving Ground," a state-of-the-art testing facility for cars and sports utility vehicles in nearby California City. Lancaster is now home to major defense contractors such as Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, BAE, government agencies, such as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, which are all active in design and manufacturing of a variety of military and commercial equipment.
Notable projects assembled and/or designed there include the Space Shuttle orbiters, B-1 Lancer bomber, B-2 Spirit bomber, F-117 Nighthawk fighter, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, a wide body passenger jet aircraft. The region is proximate to the Mojave Air & Space Port, famous as the base of operations for Virgin Galactic and Scaled Composites, the company that designed SpaceShipOne and won the X-Prize. In 2010, the city opened The BLVD, a one-mile revitalized stretch of Lancaster Boulevard between 10th Street West and Sierra Highway. City leaders have set the ambitious goal of becoming the nation's first Net-Zero municipality, wherein they will produce more clean energy than they consume. Much of the city's infrastructure including City Hall, local schools, their minor league baseball stadium are solar powered. In March 2013, Lancaster became the first city in the US to require solar panels on all new homes in an effort to make the community more carbon neutral; the rule took effect in January, 2014.
War Eagle Field is a former airfield located in the Mojave Desert, about 5 m
City of Industry, California
City of Industry, or referred to as Industry, is an industrial suburb of Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. Home to over 3,000 businesses and 67,000 jobs, but only 219 residents according to the 2010 census, the city is entirely industrial, it was incorporated on June 18, 1957, has become the economic hub for the San Gabriel Valley. Industry is located at 34°1′N 117°57′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.1 square miles, of which 11.8 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square mile of it is water. Industry is a suburb of Los Angeles, 22 miles away from downtown. In 1841, William and Nicolasa Workman, who emigrated with John Rowland and others, received a land grant for Rancho La Puente from the governor of Alta California; the ranch grew to 49,000 acres. The Workmans established themselves as cattle ranchers and did well financially during the Gold Rush supplying fresh beef in the gold fields. Following the discovery of oil by their son on land they owned in the Montebello hills, the Workmans' grandson, Walter P. Temple, his wife, bought the Workman House and surrounding land in 1917.
This property is now known as the Workman and Temple Family Homestead Museum and is a museum in current day City of Industry, free and open to the public. In the 1910's Tract 1343 was created and shows a large portion of today's City boundaries; the City of Industry was incorporated on June 18, 1957. A little under fifteen years from its incorporation, the City of Industry created a general plan to guide its future development and the 1971 document remains in effect today nearly a half-century later; the plan was overseen by planning consultants Gruen Associates, a firm established in 1950 by Austrian-born Victor Gruen, a visionary architect and urban planner. The goals and objectives section of the general plan identified the primary goal of the city as "creating and maintaining an ideal setting for manufacturing and industrial facilities."In 1962, the Industry Chamber of Commerce formed and in 1974, the Workman House became a historical landmark. In 1981, the Industry Hills Expo Center opened as a community multi-purpose event facility.
In 1985, the inaugural Charity Pro Rodeo took place, to raise funds for youth in the San Gabriel Valley. The annual Rodeo still takes place annually. In 1991, in partnership with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, the Youth Activities League was formed to offer sports to at-risk children as an alternative to gang activity. In recognition of the importance of mass transit, the City invested in the development of this Metrolink transit station near the confluence of the 60 and 57 freeways and in 1993, the City of Industry Metrolink Station opened. In 2004, the Environmental Impact Report and Design for the 57/60 Confluence Project was completed; the three-phased program of improvements consists of ramp and interchange reconfigurations as well as the addition of bypass lanes to reduce weaving, resulting in less congestion for the sixth-worst congested and dangerous freeway interchange in the nation. In the California State Legislature, Industry is in the 22nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Susan Rubio, in the 57th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Ian Calderon.
In the United States House of Representatives, Industry is split between California's 32nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Grace Napolitano and California's 39th congressional district, represented by Democrat Gil Cisneros. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Industry Station in Industry; the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Pomona Health Center in Pomona, serving Industry. City of Industry's City Council members, composed of five members, are elected at large and the elections are held on a Tuesday after the first Monday in June of odd-numbered years; the city is opposing California's Senate Bill 415, which would force it to change election dates to coincide with Los Angeles County and federal elections in even-numbered years, due to a low voter turnout. The city's zoning is devoted to business: 92% is industrial, 8% is commercial; the few residences in the city either existed before incorporation, are on properties adjacent to either Industry Hills Golf Club, Industry Hills Recreation Center or in a small neighborhood adjacent to City Hall.
In addition, there are residents at the El Encanto Healthcare Center, a nursing home owned by the City. The City of Industry has no business taxes and is funded through retail sales tax from shopping centers located within the city limits, property tax on parcels within the City; the city has the highest property tax rate in Los Angeles County, at 1.92%. In addition, there is a revenue-generating hillside hotel resort, known as the Pacific Palms Resort, completely surrounded by the city of La Puente but located in the City of Industry. City of Industry is a popular investment area for Chinese businessmen and the city has emerged as a high-tech import/export center for computer parts, with business links to the Asian marketplace. For convenience many Chinese entrepreneurs and staff live in nearby Rowland Heights, Hacienda Heights, West Covina, Diamond Bar and Walnut; some of the companies with headquarters in Industry are: Arconic Antec Alta Dena AMI ClubWear CSC Enterprise Corp. CyberPowerPC Dacor DUB Emtek Products Hot Topic Gigabyte Technology Called GBT Co, Ltd. as its corporate name in the United States iStarUSA Group ITC-Diligence, Inc.
Manhattan Beach, California
Manhattan Beach is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, United States, on the Pacific coast south of El Segundo, north of Hermosa Beach. Manhattan Beach is one of the three Beach Cities; the climate is unusually moderate because of Manhattan Beach's proximity to the Pacific Ocean, with an average year-round high of 69.1ºF and an average year-round low of 56.4ºF. Its schools are run independently of Los Angeles Unified School District with a separate school board based in Manhattan Beach. Mira Costa High School in Manhattan Beach is ranked in the top 1% of high schools nationally and has students from both Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach. According to a May 18, 2017 PropertyShark study the City of Manhattan Beach 90266 zip code ranked as the 32nd most expensive zip code in the United States. According to a December 2017 PropertyShark study the City of Manhattan Beach had the highest median price per square foot for residential properties of all 88 cities in L. A. County, ahead of Malibu and Beverly Hills.
The community is known for a long beach stretching 2.1 miles and 450 feet wide. The residents have a median age of 44.2 years, an average household size of 2.5, 55.6% are married. Manhattan Beach is known for having less traffic congestion than other parts of Los Angeles, along with many fine dining options, a casual beach culture. In 1863, a Scottish immigrant, Sir Robert Burnett, purchased Rancho Sausal Redondo and Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela from Avila's heirs for $33,000. Ten years in 1873, Burnett leased the ranch to a Canadian, Daniel Freeman. Burnett returned to Scotland. Freeman started growing various crops. On May 4, 1885, Freeman bought the ranch from Burnett for $140,000. George H. Peck owned a lot of the land. A coin flip decided the town's name. Around 1902, the beach suburb was named "Manhattan" after developer Stewart Merrill's home, the New York City borough of Manhattan. "Beach" was appended to the city's name in 1927 at the behest of the postmaster. The land in Manhattan Beach was sand dunes.
During the 1920s and 1930s, Kuhn Brothers Construction Company leveled uneven sandy sites and some excess sand was sold and shipped to Waikiki, Hawaii, to convert their reef and rock beach into a sandy beach. The sand was used to build the Los Angeles Coliseum and portions of the Pacific Coast Highway. Manhattan Beach benefits from ocean breezes that provide clean air and summer temperatures that are 10 to 20 °F cooler than the inland regions of Southern California; the Manhattan Beach Unified School District has test scores ranked #3 in the state of California according to California Department of Education statistics. Forbes magazine ranked Manhattan Beach Unified as the sixth best School District in the U. S. According to a July 5, 2014, article in the Beach Reporter newspaper, the city of Manhattan Beach has more educated residents than any other Los Angeles suburb. Many high-profile individuals in the sports and entertainment industry live in Manhattan Beach due to its oceanfront desirability, top performing school district, commuting distance to Los Angeles.
GQ Magazine named Manhattan Beach one of the nation's six best beaches in their July 2014 issue. The city has a total area of 3.9 square miles. Manhattan Beach features 2.1 miles of ocean frontage. Manhattan Beach is a hotspot for beach surfing. A majority of the land in Manhattan Beach was once exposed sand dunes which now lie beneath the city's buildings and streets; the underlying dunes afford residents ocean views throughout western portions of the city. The tallest hill is 244 feet high and located in the city's southwest region; the only remaining exposed sand dune is at Sand Dune Park, where sand resembling the original landscape can be found. In the late 1920s, Manhattan Beach excess sand was purchased by Hawaiʻian developers, who negotiated a deal with the Kuhn Brothers Construction Company to ship the sand across the Pacific Ocean from Manhattan Beach via Los Angeles Harbor to Waikiki Beach over a 10-year period; the beach is 400 feet wide and 2.1 miles long. In the early part of the last century, the beach was sloping.
From 1938 to 1989, it more than doubled in width when large quantities of sand were placed on beaches to the north during construction of the Hyperion Treatment Plant, Marina Del Rey, Scattergood Power Plant. The sand widened Manhattan Beach; every August, the city hosts the Manhattan Beach Open Volleyball Tournament and the International Surf Festival. Residents have divided the city into several distinct neighborhoods, including the "Strand" "Sand Section", "Hill Section", "Tree Section", "Gas Lamp Section", "Manhattan Village", "Manhattan Heights", "East Manhattan Beach", "Liberty Village", "The Poet's Section", "El Porto"; the Roth Tract, between Herrin and Peck, is sometimes referred to as the "Bird Section." The "Hill Section" is known for its high priced homes where many of the residences are remodeled or newly constructed. The steep hills allow panoramic city views; the nearby "Sand Section" is notable for its quiet walk-street neighborhoods adjacent to the ocean. Oceanfront homes stretch along the bike path and walking lane of "The Strand".
"The Strand" section of Manhattan Beach includes some of the most expensive real estate per square fo
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
Commerce is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 12,823 at the 2010 census, up from 12,568 at the 2000 census, it is bordered by Vernon on the west, Los Angeles on the northwest, East Los Angeles on the north, Montebello on the east and Bell Gardens on the south, Maywood on the southwest. The Los Angeles River forms part of its southwestern boundary, the Rio Hondo separates it from Downey. Commerce is served by the Long Beach and Santa Ana freeways, as well as the Metrolink commuter rail service at the Commerce station, it is referred to as the "City of Commerce" to distinguish it from the common noun. In the 19th century, the area was part of Antonio Maria Lugo's Rancho San Antonio, its conversion to an industrial area began in 1887, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built its main line through the area. The ranch remained intact until Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker, reputedly once the wealthiest woman in Los Angeles, sold some of it around the turn of the 20th century.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad both were built through what would become the community, as was the Pacific Electric Railway's Whittier Line. By the 1920s, factories had arrived. In the late 1940s, industrial leaders banded together with residents in the communities of Bandini and Laguna to encourage commerce, they changed the name to match that goal. The city was incorporated in 1960 to prevent neighboring cities such as Vernon and Los Angeles from annexing industrial land for tax revenue and elected its first city mayor, Maurice Quigley. In the 1970s and 1980s, Commerce negotiated the turbulent period of deindustrialization that hammered nearby cities such as South Gate and Norwalk, maintaining much of its manufacturing and goods-distribution base and converting former industrial land to lucrative commercial uses; the most notable example of this phenomenon is the Citadel outlet mall, which occupies the site of a former tire factory. The owner of the Citadel, Steve Craig, hosts an annual Clean Up Commerce Day and enlists other businesses to work with the city and volunteers in beautifying a specific area of the city.
With a major rail yard within its borders, Commerce has benefited from the huge expansion in international trade traffic through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, albeit at the expense of severe air pollution caused by truck congestion on the Long Beach Freeway. Chrysler had an assembly plant in Commerce from 1930 through July 1971 located at 5800 S. Eastern Avenue and Slauson Avenue, called Los Angeles Assembly, it was closed at the end of the 1971 model year, as Chrysler decided to triple-stack its transport trains for the 1972 model year. Commerce boasts a large aquatic center, Commerce Aquatics that has trained a number of successful water polo players, including four-time Olympic medallist Brenda Villa. Commerce is the site of Williams Ranch, on, the swimming hole that the Sleepy Lagoon Murder of Jose Diaz took place in 1942; the Sleepy Lagoon swimming hole was located near Slauson and Eastern Ave. Commerce is located at 34°0′2″N 118°9′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.5 square miles, over 99% of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Commerce had a population of 12,823. The population density was 1,961.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Commerce was 6,930 White, 96 African American, 161 Native American, 140 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 4,886 from other races, 601 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,114 persons; the Census reported that 12,753 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 3,382 households, out of which 1,751 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,693 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 708 had a female householder with no husband present, 308 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 248 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 559 households were made up of individuals and 326 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 2,709 families.
The population was spread out with 3,824 people under the age of 18, 1,458 people aged 18 to 24, 3,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,590 people aged 45 to 64, 1,370 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. There were 3,470 housing units at an average density of 530.8 per square mile, of which 1,619 were owner-occupied, 1,763 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 6,631 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 6,122 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Commerce had a median household income of $48,729, with 16.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 3,284 households, 2,686 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,913.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units a
Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, United States, situated south of downtown Los Angeles. Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city to incorporate; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 96,456. It is known as the "Hub City" due to its geographic centrality in Los Angeles County. Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Downtown Compton, Richland Farms; the city is a working class city with some middle-class neighborhoods, is home to a young population, at an average 25 years of age, compared to the American median age of 38. In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area; the tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguez's name was applied to the Dominguez Hills area south of Compton; the tree that marked the original northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy and Short streets. The rancho was subdivided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848.
American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848. In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of 30 pioneers to the area; these families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California, in search of ways to earn a living other than the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Named Gibsonville, after one of the tract owners, it was called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, the name was shortened to Compton. Compton's earliest settlers were faced with terrible hardships as they farmed the land in bleak weather to get by with just the barest subsistence; the weather continued to be harsh and cold, fuel was difficult to find. To gather firewood it was necessary to travel to mountains close to Pasadena; the round trip took a week. Many in the Compton party wanted to relocate to a friendlier climate and settle down, but as there were two general stores within traveling distance—one in the pueblo of Los Angeles, the other in Wilmington—they decided to stay put.
By 1887, the settlers realized. A series of town meetings were held to discuss incorporation of their little town. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, but he did stipulate that a certain acreage be zoned for agriculture and named Richland Farms. In January 1888, a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton was forwarded to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature. On May 11, 1888 the city of Compton was incorporated with a population of 500 people; the first City Council meeting was held on May 14, 1888. The ample residential lots of Richland Farms gave residents enough space to raise a family, food to feed them, along with building a barn, caring for livestock; the farms attracted the black families who had begun migrating from the rural South in the 1950s, there they found their'home away from home'. Compton couldn't support large-scale agricultural business, but it did give the residents the opportunity to work the land for their families.
The 1920s saw the opening of the Compton Airport. Compton Junior College was founded and city officials moved to a new City Hall on Alameda Street. On March 10, 1933, a destructive earthquake caused many casualties: schools were destroyed and there was major damage to the central business district. While it would be home to a large black population, in 1930 there was only one black resident. From the 1920s through the early 1940s, the Compton area was home to a sizable Japanese American population, a large proportion of whom were farmers. Shortly after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 in February 1942, Compton residents of Japanese descent were forcibly removed from their homes and incarcerated for the duration of World War II. Most were detained at the Santa Anita Assembly Center. In the late 1940s, middle class blacks began moving into the area on the west side. Compton grew in the 1950s. One reason for this was Compton; the eastern side of the city was predominately white until the 1970s.
Despite being located in the middle of a major metropolitan area, thanks to the legacy of Griffith D. Compton, there still remains one small pocket of agriculture from its earliest years. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the Supreme Court declared all racially exclusive housing covenants unconstitutional in the case Shelley v. Kraemer, the first black families moved to the area. Compton's growing black population was still ignored and neglected by the city's elected officials. Centennial High School was built to accommodate a burgeoning student population. At one time, the City Council discussed dismantling the Compton Police Department in favor of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department in an attempt to exclude blacks from law enforcement jobs. A black man first ran for City Council in 1958, the first black councilman was elected in 1961. In 1969, Douglas Dollarhide became the mayor, the first black man elected mayor of any metropolitan city in California. Two blacks and one Mexican-American were elected to the local school board.
Four years in 1973, Doris A. Davis defeated Dollarhide's bid for re-election to become the first female black mayor of a metropolitan American city. By the early 1970s, the city had one of the largest conce