Risk is the possibility of losing something of value. Values can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen. Risk can be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. Uncertainty is a potential and uncontrollable outcome. Risk perception is the subjective judgment people make about the severity and probability of a risk, may vary person to person. Any human endeavour carries some risk; the Oxford English Dictionary cites the earliest use of the word in English as of 1621, the spelling as risk from 1655. It defines risk as: the possibility of injury, or other adverse or unwelcome circumstance. Risk is an influence affecting strategy caused by an incentive or condition that inhibits transformation to quality excellence. Risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has an effect on at least one objective.. The probability of something happening multiplied by benefit if it does; the probability or threat of quantifiable damage, liability, loss, or any other negative occurrence, caused by external or internal vulnerabilities, that may be avoided through preemptive action.
Finance: The possibility that an actual return on an investment will be lower than the expected return. Insurance: A situation where the probability of a variable is known but when a mode of occurrence or the actual value of the occurrence is not. A risk is not a peril, or a hazard. Securities trading: The probability of a loss or drop in value. Trading risk is divided into two general categories: Systematic risk affects all securities in the same class and is linked to the overall capital-market system and therefore cannot be eliminated by diversification. Called market risk. Non-systematic risk is any risk. Called non-market risk, extra-market risk or diversifiable risk. Workplace: Product of the consequence and probability of a hazardous event or phenomenon. For example, the risk of developing cancer is estimated as the incremental probability of developing cancer over a lifetime as a result of exposure to potential carcinogens; the International Organization for Standardization publication ISO 31000 / ISO Guide 73:2002 definition of risk is the'effect of uncertainty on objectives'.
In this definition, uncertainties include events and uncertainties caused by ambiguity or a lack of information. It includes both negative and positive impacts on objectives. Many definitions of risk exist in common usage, however this definition was developed by an international committee representing over 30 countries and is based on the input of several thousand subject matter experts. Different approaches to risk management are taken in different fields, e.g. "Risk is the unwanted subset of a set of uncertain outcomes". Risk can be seen as relating to the probability of uncertain future events. For example, according to Factor Analysis of Information Risk, risk is: the probable frequency and probable magnitude of future loss. In computer science this definition is used by The Open Group. OHSAS defines risk as the combination of the probability of a hazard resulting in an adverse event, the severity of the event. In information security risk is defined as "the potential that a given threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or group of assets and thereby cause harm to the organization".
Financial risk is defined as the unpredictable variability or volatility of returns, this would include both potential better-than-expected and worse-than-expected returns. References to negative risk below should be read as applying to positive impacts or opportunity unless the context precludes this interpretation; the related terms "threat" and "hazard" are used to mean something that could cause harm. Risk is ubiquitous in all areas of life and risk management is something that we all must do, whether we are managing a major organisation or crossing the road; when describing risk however, it is convenient to consider that risk practitioners operate in some specific practice areas. Economic risks can be manifested in higher expenditures than expected; the causes can be many, for instance, the hike in the price for raw materials, the lapsing of deadlines for construction of a new operating facility, disruptions in a production process, emergence of a serious competitor on the market, the loss of key personnel, the change of a political regime, or natural disasters.
Risks in personal health may be reduced by primary prevention actions that decrease early causes of illness or by secondary prevention actions after a person has measured clinical signs or symptoms recognised as risk factors. Tertiary prevention reduces the negative impact of an established disease by restoring f
In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, reward, or punishment for an act or omission performed or neglected in accordance with one's moral obligations. Deciding what counts as "morally obligatory" is a principal concern of ethics. Philosophers refer to people. Agents have the capability to reflect upon their situation, to form intentions about how they will act, to carry out that action; the notion of free will has become an important issue in the debate on whether individuals are morally responsible for their actions and, if so, in what sense. Incompatibilists regard determinism as at odds with free will, whereas compatibilists think the two can coexist. Moral responsibility does not equate to legal responsibility. A person is responsible for an event when a legal system is liable to penalise that person for that event. Although it may be the case that when a person is morally responsible for an act, they are legally responsible for it, the two states do not always coincide.
Depending on how a philosopher conceives of free will, they will have different views on moral responsibility. Metaphysical libertarians think actions are not always causally determined, allowing for the possibility of free will and thus moral responsibility. All libertarians are incompatibilists. Accordingly, libertarians subscribe to the principle of alternate possibilities, which posits that moral responsibility requires that people could have acted differently. Phenomenological considerations are sometimes invoked by incompatibilists to defend a libertarian position. In daily life, we feel. Although this feeling doesn't establish the existence of free will, some incompatibilists claim the phenomenological feeling of alternate possibilities is a prerequisite for free will. Jean-Paul Sartre suggested that people sometimes avoid incrimination and responsibility by hiding behind determinism: "...we are always ready to take refuge in a belief in determinism if this freedom weighs upon us or if we need an excuse".
A similar view has it. That is, a person with the character of a murderer has no choice other than to murder, but can still be punished because it is right to punish those of bad character. How one's character was determined is irrelevant from this perspective. Robert Cummins, for example, argues that people should not be judged for their individual actions, but rather for how those actions "reflect on their character". If character is the dominant causal factor in determining one's choices, one's choices are morally wrong one should be held accountable for those choices, regardless of genes and other such factors. In law, there is a known exception to the assumption that moral culpability lies in either individual character or willed acts; the insanity defense—or its corollary, diminished responsibility —can be used to argue that the guilty deed was not the product of a guilty mind. In such cases, the legal systems of most Western societies assume that the person is in some way not at fault, because his actions were a consequence of abnormal brain function.
The argument from luck is a criticism against the libertarian conception of moral responsibility. It suggests that any given action, a person's character, is the result of various forces outside that person's control, it may not be reasonable to hold that person morally responsible. Thomas Nagel suggests that four different types of luck end up influencing the way that a person's actions are evaluated morally. For instance, a person driving drunk may make it home without incident, yet this action of drunk driving might seem more morally objectionable if someone happens to jaywalk along his path; this argument can be traced back to David Hume. If physical indeterminism is true those events that are not determined are scientifically described as probabilistic or random, it is therefore argued that it is doubtful that one can praise or blame someone for performing an action generated randomly by his nervous system. Hard determinists use liberty in practical moral considerations, rather than a notion of a free will.
Indeed, faced with the possibility that determinism requires a different moral system, some proponents say "So much the worse for free will!". Clarence Darrow, the famous defense attorney, pleaded the innocence of his clients and Loeb, by invoking such a notion of hard determinism. During his summation, he declared: What has this boy to do with it? He was not his own father. All of this was handed to him, he did not surround himself with governesses and wealth. He did not make himself, and yet he is to be compelled to pay. Paul the Apostle, in his Epistle to the Romans addresses the question of moral responsibility as follows: "Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, another unto dishonour?" In this view, individuals can still be dishonoured for their acts though those acts were completely determined by God. Joshua Greene and Jonathan Cohen, researchers in the emerging field of neuroethics, argue, on the basis of
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
A synonym is a word or phrase that means or nearly the same as another lexeme in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are synonymous in one particular sense: for example and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field; the former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have the same meaning because etymology, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat.
Synonyms are a source of euphemisms. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U. S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym; the analysis of synonymy, polysemy and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation; the word comes from ónoma. Synonyms can be any part of speech. Examples: noun drink and beverage verb buy and purchase adjective big and large adverb and speedily preposition on and upon"glass" and"cup"Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student; such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. In English, many synonyms emerged after the Norman conquest of England.
While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people and archer, the Saxon-derived folk and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Lat Latinate equivalents in English. A thesaurus lists related words; the word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, car is a hyponym of vehicle. Homophones are words that have different meanings. For example and which are homophones in most accents. Homographs are words that have different pronunciations.
For example, one can keep a record of documents. Homonyms are words that have different meanings. For example and rose are homonyms. -onym Cognitive synonymy Elegant variation, the gratuitous use of a synonym in prose Synonym ring Synonomy in Japanese Tools which graph words relations: Graph Words – Online tool for visualization word relations Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day. Plain words synonyms finder: Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian and German Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions Classic Thesaurus - Crowdsourced Synonym Dictionary Power Thesaurus - Synonym dictionary with definitions and examples
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the