Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design. Many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all; the term web design is used to describe the design process relating to the front-end design of a website including writing markup. Web design overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating markup they are expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines. Although web design has a recent history, it can be linked to other areas such as graphic design. However, web design can be seen from a technological standpoint, it has become a large part of people’s everyday lives. It is hard to imagine the Internet without animated graphics, different styles of typography and music. In 1989, whilst working at CERN Tim Berners-Lee proposed to create a global hypertext project, which became known as the World Wide Web.
During 1991 to 1993 the World Wide Web was born. Text-only pages could be viewed using a simple line-mode browser. In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina, created the Mosaic browser. At the time there were multiple browsers, however the majority of them were Unix-based and text heavy. There had been no integrated approach to graphic design elements such as sounds; the Mosaic browser broke. The W3C was created in October 1994 to "lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability." This discouraged any one company from monopolizing a propriety browser and programming language, which could have altered the effect of the World Wide Web as a whole. The W3C continues to set standards. In 1994 Andreessen formed Communications Corp. that became known as Netscape Communications, the Netscape 0.9 browser. Netscape created its own HTML tags without regard to the traditional standards process. For example, Netscape 1.1 included tags for changing background colours and formatting text with tables on web pages.
During 1998 Netscape released Netscape Communicator code under an open source licence, enabling thousands of developers to participate in improving the software. However, they decided to start from the beginning, which guided the development of the open source browser and soon expanded to a complete application platform; the Web Standards Project was formed and promoted browser compliance with HTML and CSS standards by creating Acid1, Acid2, Acid3 tests. 2000 was a big year for Microsoft. Internet Explorer was released for Mac, it was the first browser to support the PNG image format. During this time Netscape was sold to AOL and this was seen as Netscape’s official loss to Microsoft in the browser wars. Since the start of the 21st century the web has become more integrated into peoples lives; as this has happened the technology of the web has moved on. There have been significant changes in the way people use and access the web, this has changed how sites are designed. Since the end of
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individuals craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.
The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.
Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.
The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and p
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches and manages such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, space planning, site inspections, research, communicating with the stakeholders of a project, construction management, execution of the design. In the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building; the profession of interior design has been a consequence of the development of society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design profession; the profession of interior design is separate and distinct from the role of interior decorator, a term used in the US.
The term is less common in the UK, where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore speaking, not yet a profession. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers; this can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th-century India. In medieval times wall art paintings in India have been a common feature of palace like mansions known as havelis. While most traditional homes are done away with modern buildings, there are around 2000 havelis in the Shekhawati region of Rajashtan that display wall art paintings. In ancient Egypt, "soul houses" or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings. From these, it is possible to discern details about the interior design of different residences throughout the different Egyptian dynasties, such as changes in ventilation, columns, loggias and doors.
Throughout the 17th and 18th century and into the early 19th century, interior decoration was the concern of the homemaker, or an employed upholsterer or craftsman who would advise on the artistic style for an interior space. Architects would employ craftsmen or artisans to complete interior design for their buildings. In the mid-to-late 19th century, interior design services expanded as the middle class in industrial countries grew in size and prosperity and began to desire the domestic trappings of wealth to cement their new status. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management, offering full house furnishings in a variety of styles; this business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was usurped by independent amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the professional interior design in the mid-20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits, they framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public.
To meet the growing demand for contract interior work on projects such as offices and public buildings, these businesses became much larger and more complex, employing builders, plasterers, textile designers and furniture designers, as well as engineers and technicians to fulfil the job. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes; as department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One effective advertising tool was to set up model rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see; some of the pioneering firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred and Holland & Sons. These traditional high-quality furniture making firms began to play an important role as advisers to unsure middle class customers on taste and style, began taking out contracts to design and furnish the interiors of many important buildings in Britain.
This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War. The Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. With their own design office and cabinet-making and upholstery workshops, Herter Brothers were prepared to accomplish every aspect of interior furnishing including decorative paneling and mantels and ceiling decoration, patterned floors, carpets and draperies. A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the middle class was the architect Owen Jones, one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century. Jones' first project was his most important—in 1851, he was responsible for not only the decoration of Joseph Paxton’s gigantic Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition but the arrangement of the exhibits within, he chose a controversial palette of red and blue for the interior ironwork and, despite initial negative publicity in the newspapers, was unveiled by Queen Victoria to much critical acclaim.
His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament, in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design and decoration. Jones was employed by some of the leading interior design firms of the day. In 1882, the London Directory of the Post Of
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Textile design is the process of creating designs for woven, knitted or printed fabrics or surface ornamented fabrics. Textile designers are involved with the production of these designs, which are used, sometimes repetitively, in clothing and interior decor items; the field encompasses the actual pattern making while supervising the production process. In other words, textile design is a process from the raw material into finished product. Fiber and finishes are the key elements to be considered during the textile design procedure. Textile designing is a creative field that includes fashion design, carpet manufacturing and any other cloth-related field. Textile design fulfills a variety of purposes in our lives. For example, our clothing, drapes and rugs are all a result of textile design; these examples illustrate the significance of textiles in our daily lives. The creations of textiles are not only important for their use, but for the role they play in the fashion industry. Textile designers have the ability to inspire collections and styles.
The textile industry, while being a creative art form, is a business savvy industry. Textile designers marry a creative vision of what a finished textile will look like with a deep understanding of the technical aspects of production and the properties of fiber and dyes.. Textile designers utilize this deep understanding of textile construction and manufacturing to impact not only the aesthetic of the textile being designed but its function. Aspects of fiber and textile construction must be taken into account from the start of a textile design project and kept in mind until its conclusion. Available machinery for manufacturing, capability of that machinery, limits of design size and scale, width of manufacturability, coloration and finishing techniques all play a key role. At any moment one of these roles may become dominate in a textile designers project. Function of the end product for the textile necessitates a high degree of technical understanding for end use and durability; the creative process begins with different art mediums to map concepts for the finished product.
Traditionally, drawings of woven textile patterns were translated onto special forms of graph paper called point papers, which were used by the weavers in setting up their looms. Today, most professional textile designers use some form of computer-aided design software created expressly for this purpose; some of the latest advances in textile printing have been in the area of digital printing. The process is similar to the computer controlled paper printers used for office applications. In addition, heat-transfer printing is another popular printing method to be used in the textile design. Patterns are designed in repeat to maintain a balanced design when fabric is made into yardage. Repeat size is the distance directly across or down from any motif in a design to the next place that same motif occurs; the size of the repeat is determined by the production method. For example, printed repeat patterns must fit within particular screen sizes while woven repeat patterns must fit within certain loom sizes.
There are several different types of layouts for repeated patterns. Some of the most common repeats are straight and half drop; the same design is produced in many different colored versions, which are called colorways. Once a pattern is complete, the design process shifts to choosing the proper fabrics to get the design printed on or woven into the fabricDesigners might want to use the method of dyeing or printing to create their design. There are many printing methods. Direct Printing Overprinting Discharge Printing Resist Printing Block Printing Roller Printing Screen Printing Clothing technology Fashion design Textile manufacturing Billie J. Collier, Martin J. Bide, Phyllis G. Understanding of Textiles, Pearson Publishers, 2009, ISBN 978-0-13-118770-2, ISBN 0-13-118770-8 Gale, Lajwanti Lahori, Jasbir Kaur, The Textile Book, Berg Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1-85973-512-6 Jackson, Lesley: Twentieth-Century Pattern Design, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2002. ISBN 1-56898-333-6 Jackson, Lesley: Shirley Craven and Hull Traders: Revolutionary Fabrics and Furniture 1957-1980, ACC Editions, 2009, ISBN 1-85149-608-4 Jenkins, David, ed.: The Cambridge History of Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-34107-8 Kadolph, Sara J. ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007, ISBN 0-13-118769-4 Rothstein, Natalie: The Victoria and Albert Museum's Textile Collection: Woven Textile Design in Britain to 1750, Canopy Books, New York and Paris, 1994.
ISBN 1-55859-849-9 Rothstein, Natalie: The Victoria and Albert Museum's Textile Collection: Woven Textile Design in Britain 1750 to 1850, Canopy Books, New York and Paris, 1994. ISBN 1-55859-850-2 Labillois, Tabitha M. ed.: "the meow institute", Mexico, 1756. ISBN 1-55859-851-0
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a