New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
Theseus was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, Theseus battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order: “This was a major cultural transition, like the making of the new Olympia by Hercules”. Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians; the Athenians regarded Theseus as a great reformer. The myths surrounding Theseus – his journeys and friends – have provided material for fiction throughout the ages. Theseus was responsible for the synoikismos – the political unification of Attica under Athens – represented emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing ogres and monstrous beasts; because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace, excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos and Peitho on the southern slope of the Acropolis.
Plutarch's Life of Theseus makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape, the love of Ariadne for Theseus. Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes, Demon and Cleidemus; as the subject of myth, the existence of Theseus as a real person has not been proven, but scholars believe that he may have been alive during the Late Bronze Age as a king in the 8th or 9th century BC. Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, was childless. Desiring an heir, he asked the Oracle of Delphi for advice, her cryptic words were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief." Aegeus was disappointed. He asked the advice of king of Troezen. Pittheus understood the prophecy, got Aegeus drunk, gave Aegeus his daughter Aethra, but following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore.
There she poured a libation to Sphairos and Poseidon, was possessed by the sea god in the night. The mix gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature. After Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne, had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens, thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens, his mother told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy.
Young and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way. At the first site, Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Asclepius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth, taking from him the stout staff that identifies Theseus in vase-paintings. At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis called "Pityokamptes", he would capture travellers, tie them between two pine trees that were bent down to the ground, let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method, he became intimate with Sinis's daughter, fathering the child Melanippus. In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea; some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. The Bibliotheca by Pseudo-Apollodorus described the Crommyonian Sow as an offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
Near Megara, an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them. Theseus pushed him off the cliff. Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and killed him instead; the last bandit was Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Since he had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, decapitating him with his own axe; when Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role in the self-definition of Western civilisation; that tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form. From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus and Euripides, as well as a large number of fragments from other poets. A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Saint Augustine, Hume, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Freud, Camus and Deleuze—have analysed, speculated upon, criticised the genre. In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general or at the scale of the drama.
In the modern era, tragedy has been defined against drama, the tragicomic, epic theatre. Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy. Taxidou, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation; the word "tragedy" appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = "goat song", which comes from tragos = "he-goat" and aeidein = "to sing". Scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was that around which a chorus danced prior to the animal's ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis says that the original form of the word was trygodia from trygos and ode, because those events were first introduced during grape harvest.
Writing in 335 BCE, Aristotle provides the earliest-surviving explanation for the origin of the dramatic art form in his Poetics, in which he argues that tragedy developed from the improvisations of the leader of choral dithyrambs: Anyway, arising from an improvisatory beginning, grew little by little, as developed whatever of it had appeared. In the same work, Aristotle attempts to provide a scholastic definition of what tragedy is: Tragedy is an enactment of a deed, important and complete, of magnitude, by means of language enriched, each used separately in the different parts: it is enacted, not recited, through pity and fear it effects relief to such emotions. There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested. Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed.
Scott Scullion writes: There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as "song for the prize goat". The best-known evidence is Horace, Ars poetica 220-24. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides. Athenian tragedies
Hippolytus (son of Theseus)
In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. He was identified with the Roman forest god Virbius. More the meaning of Hippolytus' name is ambiguous; the element -λυτος suggests the adjective λυτός, -ή, -όν "which may be undone, destroyed." His name thereby takes on the prophetic meaning "destroyed by horses". The most common legend regarding Hippolytus states that he was killed after rejecting the advances of Phaedra, his stepmother, the second wife of Theseus. Spurned, Phaedra deceived Theseus saying. Theseus, used one of the three wishes given to him by Poseidon to curse Hippolytus. Poseidon sent a sea-monster—or, Dionysus sent a wild bull—to terrorize Hippolytus's horses, who dragged their rider to his death. Versions of this story appear in Euripides' play Hippolytus, Seneca the Younger's play Phaedra, Ovid's Metamorphoses and Heroides, Jean Racine's Phèdre. Euripides' version has Phaedra's nurse tell Hippolytus of Phaedra's love. Hippolytus swore that he would not reveal the nurse as a source of information – after Phaedra killed herself and falsely accused him of raping her in a suicide note, which Theseus read.
Alternatively, it is stated that Phaedra killed herself out of guilt for Hippolytus’ death and that the goddess Artemis subsequently told Theseus the truth. According to some sources, Hippolytus had scorned Aphrodite in order to become a devotee of Artemis, devoting himself to a chaste life in pursuit of hunting. In retaliation, Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him. Hippolytus’ rejection of Phaedra led to his death in a fall from a chariot; as a result, a cult associated with the cult of Aphrodite. His cult believed that Artemis asked Asclepius to resurrect the young man since he had vowed chastity to her, he was brought to Latium, where he reigned under the name of Virbius or Virbio. After his resurrection, he married Aricia. According to another tradition, he lived in the sacred forests near Aricia in Latium. Girls who were about to be married offered locks of their hair to him as a sign of their virginity. Rex Nemorensis The Golden Bough Phaedra complex Ippolito ed Aricia Hippolyte et Aricie Media related to Hippolytus at Wikimedia Commons Hippolytus for details on the figure of Hippolytus and a classicist's philological study of the evolution of Hippolytus as a chastity paradigm in Euripides, Racine.
Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor. It reached its most significant form in Athens in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy. Greek tragedy is believed to be an extension of the ancient rites carried out in honor of Dionysus, it influenced the theatre of Ancient Rome and the Renaissance. Tragic plots were most based upon myths from the oral traditions of archaic epics. In tragic theatre, these narratives were presented by actors; the most acclaimed Greek tragedians are Aeschylus and Euripides. The origin of the word tragedy has been a matter of discussion from ancient times; the primary source of knowledge on the question is the Poetics of Aristotle. Aristotle was able to gather first-hand documentation from theater performance in Attica, inaccessible to scholars today, his work is therefore invaluable for the study of ancient tragedy if his testimony is open to doubt on some points. According to Aristotle, tragedy evolved from the satyr dithyramb, an Ancient Greek hymn, sung along with dancing in honor of Dionysus.
The term τραγῳδία, derived from τράγος "goat" and ᾠδή "song", means "song of the goats," referring to the chorus of satyrs. Others suggest that the term came into being when the legendary Thespis competed in the first tragic competition for the prize of a goat. Alexandrian grammarians understood the term τραγῳδία as a "song for the sacrifice of the goat" or "song for the goat", believing the animal was a prize in a race, as attested by Horace's Ars Poetica: "The poet, who first tried his skill in tragic verse for the paltry prize of a goat, soon after exposed to view wild satyrs naked, attempted raillery with severity, still preserving the gravity of tragedy." There are other suggested etymologies for the word tragedy. The Oxford English Dictionary adds to the standard reference to "goat song", that:As to the reason of the name, many theories have been offered, some disputing the connection with ‘goat’. J. Winkler proposed that "tragedy" could be derived from the rare word tragizein, which refers to "adolescent voice-change" referring to the original singers as "representative of those undergoing social puberty".
D'Amico, on the other hand, suggests that tragoidía does not mean "song of the goats", but the characters that made up the satyr chorus of the first Dionysian rites. Other hypotheses have included an etymology. Jane Ellen Harrison pointed out that Dionysus, god of wine was preceded by Dionysus, god of beer. Athenian beer was obtained from the fermentation of barley, tragos in Greek. Thus, it is that the term was meant to be "odes to spelt," and on, it was extended to other meanings of the same name, she writes: "Tragedy I believe to be not the'goat-song', but the'harvest-song' of the cereal tragos, the form of spelt known as'the goat'." The origin of Greek tragedy is one of the unsolved problems of classical scholarship. Ruth Scodel notes that, due to lack of evidence and doubtful reliability of sources, we know nearly nothing about tragedy's origin. Still, R. P. Winnington-Ingram points out that we can trace various influences from other genres; the stories that tragedy deals with stem from epic and lyric poetry, its meter — the iambic trimeter — owed much to the political rhetoric of Solon, the choral songs' dialect and vocabulary seem to originate in choral lyric.
How these have come to be associated with one another remains a mystery however. Speculating on the problem, Scodel writes that: "Three innovations must have taken place for tragedy as we know it to exist. First, somebody created a new kind of performance by combining a speaker with a chorus and putting both speaker and chorus in disguise as characters in a story from legend or history. Second, this performance was made part of the City Dionysia at Athens. Third, regulations defined how it was to be paid for, it is theoretically possible that all these were simultaneous, but it is not likely." Aristotle writes in the Poetics that, in the beginning, tragedy was an improvisation "by those who led off the dithyramb", a hymn in honor of Dionysus. This was burlesque in tone because it contained elements of the Satyr play; the language became more serious and the meter changed from trochaic tetrameter to the more prosaic iambic trimeter. In Herodotus Histories and sources, the lyric poet Arion of Methymna is said to be the inventor of the dithyramb.
The dithyramb was improvised, but written down before performance. The Greek chorus of up to 50 men and boys danced and sang in a circle accompanied by an aulos, relating to some event in the life of Dionysus. Scholars have made a number of suggestions about the way. "Somebody Thespis, decided to combine spoken verse with choral song.... As tragedy developed, the actors began to interact more with each other, the role of the chorus became smaller." Scodell notes that: The Greek word for “actor” is hypocrites, which means “answerer” or “interpreter,” but the word cannot tell us anything about tragedy’s origins, since we do not know when it came into use. Easterling says: There is.. Much to be said for the view that hypokrites means'answerer', he so evokes their songs. He answers with a long speech about his own situation or, when he enters as messenger, with a narrative of disastrous events... The transformation of the leader into an actor entailed a dramatization of the chorus. Tr
In Greek mythology, Phaedra was a Cretan princess. Phaedra's name derives from the Greek word φαιδρός, which meant "bright". Phaedra was the daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë or Crete, thus sister to Acacallis, Androgeus, Xenodice and Catreus and half-sister to the Minotaur, she was the mother of Demophon of Athens and Acamas. Though married to Theseus, Phaedra fell in love with Theseus's son by another woman. Hippolytus rejected her. In revenge, Phaedra wrote Theseus a letter. Theseus believed her and cursed Hippolytus with one of the three curses he had received from Poseidon; as a result, Hippolytus's horses were frightened by a sea monster and dragged their rider to his death. In another version, after Phaedra told Theseus that Hippolytus had raped her, Theseus killed his son, Phaedra committed suicide out of guilt, for she had not intended Hippolytus to die. Artemis told Theseus the truth. In a third version, Phaedra did not kill herself. Euripides twice placed this story on the Athenian stage. According to some sources, Hippolytus had spurned Aphrodite to remain a steadfast and virginal devotee of Artemis, Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as a punishment.
In one version, Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of her love, he swore he would not reveal her as a source of information. Phaedra has been the subject of many notable works in art, literature and film. Phaedra with attendant her nurse, a fresco from Pompeii circa 60–20 BC Sarcophagus with the death of II fedra Alexandre Cabanel's Phaedra Phaedra's story appears in many acclaimed works of literature, including: Euripides, Greek play Ovid, Heroides IV Seneca the Younger, Latin play Jean Racine, Phèdre, French play Algernon Charles Swinburne, English lyrical drama Herman Bang, Fædra, Danish novel. Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italian play Miguel de Unamuno, Spanish play Eugene O'Neill, Desire Under the Elms, American play Marina Tsvetaeva, Russian play Robinson Jeffers, English long poem Marguerite Yourcenar, "Phaedra", short story from Fires Mary Renault, The Bull from the Sea, English novel Frank D. Gilroy, That Summer, That Fall, retelling of Phaedra and Hippolytus Tony Harrison, Phaedra Britannica, English verse play Salvador Espriu, Catalan play Per Olov Enquist, Till Fedra, Swedish play Sarah Kane, Phaedra's Love, Gate Theatre London Charles L. Mee, True Love, modernized adaptation of Euripides's Hippolytus and Racine's Phèdre Frank McGuinness, Phaedra Phaedra is the subject of a number of musical works, including: Hippolyte et Aricie, opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau, 1733 Fedra, opera by Giovanni Paisiello, 1788 Fedra, opera by Simon Mayr, 1820 Fedra, opera by Ildebrando Pizzetti, 1915, based on D'Annunzio's 1909 play Character in L'abandon d'Ariane by Darius Milhaud, 1928 "Some Velvet Morning", Nancy Sinatra and Lee Hazlewood, 1967 Phaedra by George Rochberg, 1973–1974 Phaedra, album by Tangerine Dream, 1974 Phaedra, song cycle by Mikis Theodorakis Phaedra, cantata by Benjamin Britten, 1976 Lament for Phaedra, composition for soprano and cello by John Tavener, 1995 "Phaedra's Meadow", song on the Blue Rodeo album Are You Ready, 2005 Phaedra, opera by Hans Werner Henze, 2007 Phaedra, song from Obsidian, the 2013 third studio album of electronic artist Baths.
I Remember Phaedra, song from Creatures of the Deep by Rob Haigh, 2017 Fedra, silent short film directed by Oreste Gherardini with Italia Vitaliani as Fedra, Carlo Duse and Ciro Galvani Fedra, filmed in Spain, based on Seneca's Latin play. Directed by Manuel Mur Oti with Emma Penella, Enrique Diosdado, Vicente Parra in the main roles. Minotaur, the Wild Beast of Crete, 1960 Italian sword-and-sandal fantasy film, with Rosanna Schiaffino as Phaedra and her sister Ariadne Phaedra, based on Euripides's play, directed by Jules Dassin with Melina Mercouri and Anthony Perkins Phädra, based on Racine's play, directed by Oswald Döpke with Joana Maria Gorvin as Phaedra and Rolf Henniger as Hippolyt. Smith, William. "Phaedra" Virgil, Aeneid VI.445.
Daly's 63rd Street Theatre
Daly's 63rd Street Theatre was a Broadway theater, active from 1921 to 1941. It was built in 1914 as the 63rd Street Music Hall and had several other names between 1921 and 1938; the building was demolished in 1957. The building which subsequently housed the theater was designed by architect Thomas W. Lamb for the Davenport stock company. Construction began in 1909. On, architect Erwin Rossbach was hired by the Association of Bible Students to complete the structure; the organization intended it to serve for religious screening Biblical films. It was completed in 1914, named the 63rd Street Music Hall. From 1919, it served as a children's cinema. On 31 January 1921, the Cort 63rd Street Theatre was opened in the building. In 1922, the theater was renamed Daly's 63rd Street Theatre, in honor of Augustine Daly; the theater's name was changed on several occasions: it became the Coburn Theatre in 1928 and was renamed Recital Theatre in 1932, only to become the Park Lane Theatre several months later. From 1934 to 1936 it was known as Gilmore's 63rd Street Theatre, afterwards as the Experimental Theatre.
From 1938 until its closure in 1941, it returned to be Daly's 63rd Street Theatre. The building was demolished in 1957; the first production in the theater in 1921 was the premiere of Flournoy Miller's and Aubrey Lyles' hit musical revue Shuffle Along. Other notable premieres at the theatre were Mae West's Sex in February 1926 and the English-language version of Friedrich Wolf's Professor Mamlock in 1937. Shuffle Along Liza Desire Under the Elms Sex Africana Keep Shufflin' Lady Windermere's Fan Awake and Sing! The Miser Professor Mamlock Daly's 63rd Street Theatre on the IBDB