Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Features new to Windows Vista
Compared with previous versions of Microsoft Windows, new features of Windows Vista are numerous, covering most aspects of the operating system. They include new technical features, new aspects of security and safety, new networking features, new I/O technologies, additional management features. Premium editions of Windows Vista include a redesigned user interface and visual style, named Windows Aero. Aero is intended to be cleaner and more aesthetically pleasing than previous Windows versions, including glass-like transparencies and window animations. Windows Aero features a new default font with a larger size, a streamlined style for wizards, a change in the tone and phrasing of most of the dialogs and control panels. In addition to the Windows Aero visual style, Windows Vista Home Basic includes a "Windows Vista Standard" theme which has the same hardware requirements as "Windows Aero", therefore uses Desktop Window Manager for desktop composition, but does not include the ability to generate live thumbnails of running applications, nor does it allow transparency of the window frame.
As a result, 3D effects and other features associated with live thumbnails are not included with this theme. Included with all versions, there is a "Windows Vista Basic" theme which does not use desktop composition, is geared towards lower-end machines that are not able to use Desktop Window Manager. Vista includes "Windows Classic" and "Windows Standard" themes which are similar to the classic themes in Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Windows Aero is not available in Windows Vista Home Basic and Starter editions, although Desktop Window Manager is included in Windows Vista Home Basic. In Windows Vista, the Start menu has undergone major changes, with the taskbar icon no longer labeled "Start" but instead has the Windows pearl orb. At the top level, the Start menu, as in Windows XP, has two columns of menu choices. Under the default configuration, the "Run," and "Printers" options do not appear. However, those items can be added to the Start menu. One of the chief additions with Windows Vista is a Search pane or box, where users may begin typing immediately.
The contents of the Start menu itself are indexed and searchable, besides the global search index. If indexing is turned on, the search box returns results on-the-fly as users type into it; this allows the Start menu to act as a powerful application launcher. The Start menu search doubles as the Run command from previous versions of Windows; the Run command can be added separately to the right column in the Start menu. Another major change to the Start menu in Windows Vista is that it no longer presents the All programs menu as a horizontally expanding cascading list which utilizes the entire screen space, but instead as a nested folder view with a fixed size; the list of submenus and single items appears over the left column contents with a Back button below it. Subfolders expand and collapse vertically within the list when single-clicked, in a tree-like fashion similar to Windows Explorer. Single items appear at the top and folders appear at the bottom. Hovering the mouse over a folder does not open it.
A limitation of the new Start menu is that subfolders inside the All Programs menu cannot be opened by searching or double clicking. As more programs are installed, a vertical scroll bar appears between the two columns. A dynamically changing icon showing the user's display picture by default is present at the top of the right column, it changes. The Power button's action is configurable through Power options in the Control Panel, though the default setting is to put the computer into Sleep mode. Users can lock their user account by pressing the Lock button. Additional power and account related actions are listed in a sub-menu which appears when the small arrow next to the Lock button is clicked. Like Windows XP, Windows Vista allows users to switch back to the previous version of Start menu, first introduced in Windows 95. Windows Explorer's task panel has been removed, integrating the relevant task options into the toolbar. A Favorites pane on the left contains accessed folders and prepopulated Search Folders.
Seven different views are available to view files and folders, List, Small icons, Medium icons, Large icons, Extra large icons or Tiles. File and folder actions such as Cut, Paste, Redo, Delete and Properties are built into a dropdown menu which appears when the Organize button is clicked, it is possible to change the layout of the Explorer window by using the Organize button. Users can select whether to display Classic Menus, a Search Pane, a Preview Pane, a Reading Pane, and/or the Navigation Pane. Document Properties are available from the common'Open' and'Save' dialog boxes, so it is easier to add metadata to a document; the metadata can be viewed and edited in the Details Pane that shows up at the bottom of an Explorer window. The Navigation Pane contains a list of most common folders for quick navigation, it can show the folder layout of the entire hard drive or a subset of it. It can contain both real folders as well as virtual ones. By default it contains links to folders such as Documents and the publicly shared folder, as well as virtual folders that search and present the saved virtual folders and that lists the changed documents.
The Preview Pane can be used to preview the contents of a document, including viewing pictures in a size larger than the thumbnails shown in the folder listing, s
In computer graphics, back-face culling determines whether a polygon of a graphical object is visible. It is a step in the graphical pipeline that tests whether the points in the polygon appear in clockwise or counter-clockwise order when projected onto the screen. If the user has specified that front-facing polygons have a clockwise winding, but the polygon projected on the screen has a counter-clockwise winding it has been rotated to face away from the camera and will not be drawn; the process makes rendering objects quicker and more efficient by reducing the number of polygons for the program to draw. For example, in a city street scene, there is no need to draw the polygons on the sides of the buildings facing away from the camera. In general back-face culling can be assumed to produce no visible artifact in a rendered scene if it contains only closed and opaque geometry. In scenes containing transparent polygons, rear facing polygons may become visible through the process of alpha composition.
In wire-frame rendering, back-face culling can be used to address problem of hidden line removal, but only for closed convex geometry. A related technique is clipping, which determines whether polygons are within the camera's field of view at all. Another similar technique is Z-culling known as occlusion culling, which attempts to skip the drawing of polygons which are covered from the viewpoint by other visible polygons. One method of implementing back-face culling is by discarding all triangles where the dot product of their surface normal and the camera-to-triangle vector is greater than or equal to zero ⋅ N ≥ 0 where P is the view point, V0 is the first vertex of a triangle and N is its normal, defined as a cross product of two vectors representing sides of the triangle adjacent to V0 N = × Since cross product is non-commutative, defining the normal in terms of cross product allows to specify normal direction relative to triangle surface using vertex order: × = − × If points are in view space, P can be assumed to be, the origin.
− V 0 ⋅ N ≥ 0 It is possible to use this method in projection space by representing above inequality as determinant of a matrix and applying projection matrix to it. Another method exists based on reflection parity, more appropriate for two dimensions where surface normal cannot be computed. Let a unit triangle in two dimensions be defined as U 0 =, U 1 =, U 2 = Then for some other triangle in two dimensions, V 0 =, V 1 =, V 2 = define a matrix that transforms the unit triangle into it M = so that M U 0 = V
In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program, used for shading but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or functions unrelated to graphics at all. Shaders calculate rendering effects on graphics hardware with a high degree of flexibility. Most shaders are coded for a graphics processing unit. Shading languages are used to program the programmable GPU rendering pipeline, which has superseded the fixed-function pipeline that allowed only common geometry transformation and pixel-shading functions; the position, saturation and contrast of all pixels, vertices, or textures used to construct a final image can be altered on the fly, using algorithms defined in the shader, can be modified by external variables or textures introduced by the program calling the shader. Shaders are used in cinema postprocessing, computer-generated imagery, video games to produce a wide range of effects.
Beyond just simple lighting models, more complex uses include altering the hue, brightness or contrast of an image, producing blur, light bloom, volumetric lighting, normal mapping for depth effects, cel shading, bump mapping, chroma keying, edge detection and motion detection, psychedelic effects, many others. The modern use of "shader" was introduced to the public by Pixar with their "RenderMan Interface Specification, Version 3.0" published in May 1988. As graphics processing units evolved, major graphics software libraries such as OpenGL and Direct3D began to support shaders; the first shader-capable GPUs only supported pixel shading, but vertex shaders were introduced once developers realized the power of shaders. The first video card with programmable pixel shader was the Nvidia GeForce 3, released in 2000. Geometry shaders were introduced with Direct3D 10 and OpenGL 3.2. Graphics hardware evolved toward a unified shader model. Shaders are simple programs that describe the traits of either a pixel.
Vertex shaders describe the traits of a vertex. A vertex shader is called for each vertex in a primitive; each vertex is rendered as a series of pixels onto a surface that will be sent to the screen. Shaders replace a section of the graphics hardware called the Fixed Function Pipeline, so-called because it performs lighting and texture mapping in a hard-coded manner. Shaders provide a programmable alternative to this hard-coded approach; the basic graphics pipeline is as follows: The CPU sends instructions and geometry data to the graphics processing unit, located on the graphics card. Within the vertex shader, the geometry is transformed. If a geometry shader is in the graphic processing unit and active, some changes of the geometries in the scene are performed. If a tessellation shader is in the graphic processing unit and active, the geometries in the scene can be subdivided; the calculated geometry is triangulated. Triangles are broken down into fragment quads. Fragment quads are modified according to the fragment shader.
The depth test is performed, fragments that pass will get written to the screen and might get blended into the frame buffer. The graphic pipeline uses these steps in order to transform three-dimensional data into useful two-dimensional data for displaying. In general, this is a large pixel matrix or "frame buffer". There are three types of shaders in common use, with one more added. While older graphics cards utilize separate processing units for each shader type, newer cards feature unified shaders which are capable of executing any type of shader; this allows graphics cards to make more efficient use of processing power. 2D shaders act on digital images called textures in computer graphics work. They modify attributes of pixels. 2D shaders may take part in rendering 3D geometry. The only 2D shader types are pixel shaders. Pixel shaders known as fragment shaders, compute color and other attributes of each "fragment" - a unit of rendering work affecting at most a single output pixel; the simplest kinds of pixel shaders output one screen pixel as a color value.
Pixel shaders range from always outputting the same color, to applying a lighting value, to doing bump mapping, specular highlights and other phenomena. They can alter the depth of the fragment, or output more than one color if multiple render targets are active. In 3D graphics, a pixel shader alone cannot produce some kinds of complex effects, because it operates only on a single fragment, without knowledge of a scene's geometry. However, pixel shaders do have knowledge of the screen coordinate being drawn, can sample the screen and nearby pixels if the contents of the entire screen are passed as a texture to the shader; this technique can enable a wide variety of two-dimensional postprocessing effects, such as blur, or edge detection/enhancement for cartoon/cel shaders. Pixel shaders may be applied in intermediate stages to any two-dimensional images—sp
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Dwm is a dynamic, minimalist tiling window manager for the X Window System that has influenced the development of several other X window managers, including xmonad and awesome. It is internally much simpler. Dwm is written purely in C for performance and security in addition to simplicity, lacks any configuration interface besides editing the source code. One of the project's guidelines is that the source code will never exceed 2000 lines, options meant to be user-configurable are all contained in a single header file. Dwm supports multiple workspaces and, unlike ratpoison, allows moving and resizing windows with the mouse. Older versions of dwm displayed their stdin along the edge of the screen. Recent versions instead display the root window's name; this is used to show information that would appear in the notification area of other desktop environments—a clock, system load info, laptop battery and network status, music player information and the like. This status line is complemented with dmenu, a textual application launcher from the same developers as dwm. dwm uses a focus-follows-mouse model and lacks any window decoration other than a border to show focus.
Since dwm's configurability amounts to patching the source code, many other options are possible. Dmenu is a keyboard-driven menu utility developed as part of the dwm project; when invoked by a user-configured key combination, dmenu displays a horizontal menu of its stdin stream at the top edge of the screen. This is used to pipe in a list of executable names from the user's $PATH, but dmenu can be used for any purpose where a menu is required; the user can start typing a program name, dmenu will narrow the list to show only substring matches for what the user typed. The user can use the arrow keys to navigate the menu; when a choice is made, dmenu sends the selected text to stdout, piped into a shell to launch the program. Command-line options can alter the font and colors of the menu, make the search case-insensitive, as well as switch the menu to a vertical orientation or place it at the bottom of the screen. By default, only X Font Server fonts are supported although a patch exists to enable TrueType fonts using Xft. dmenu is similar in function to application launchers such as Katapult or GNOME Do for Linux or LaunchBar or Quicksilver for Mac OS X in that it allows quick launching of programs from a graphical environment using the keyboard.
In addition to dwm, dmenu is used with other window managers like xmonad, or Openbox, other software like the uzbl web browser. Dwm has been an influential project. An extensive list of forks and patches can be found at the official site. Below is a list of a few notable examples: awesome extends dwm with FreeType support, reconfigurability, Lua scripting support and more layout types. Xmonad is a dwm rewrite in Haskell with additional features. Comparison of X window managers Official website Going fast with DWM review in Linux Journal dwm review Configuring dwm Tiling WM review with several pages about twm dwm for Windows dwm page in Free Software Directory stali talk at CLT 2010 referenced dwm