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Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the 1940s by researchers at Hoffmann-La Roche. Desmethylprodine has been labeled by the DEA as a Schedule I drug in the United States, it is an analog of pethidine a Schedule II drug. Chemically, it is a reversed ester of pethidine. Unlike its derivative prodine, it was not reported to exhibit optical isomerism, it was reported to have 30 times the activity of pethidine and a greater analgesic effect than morphine in rats, it was demonstrated to cause central nervous system stimulation in mice. Desmethylprodine was first synthesized in 1947 at Hoffman-LaRoche Laboratories by Albert Ziering and John Lee, they found. Ziering had been searching for synthetic painkillers; the new drug was a slight variant of pethidine. It was never marketed; this research produced the analgesic alphaprodine, a closely related compound. In 1976, a 23-year-old graduate student in chemistry named Barry Kidston was searching for a way to make a legal recreational drug.

Having read the paper by Ziering and Lee, he deduced that he could make a drug with pethidine's effects without its legal restrictions, since desmethylprodine is a different molecule and had never been addressed by law. Kidston synthesized and used desmethylprodine for several months, after which he came down with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and was hospitalized. Physicians were perplexed, since Parkinson's disease would be a great rarity in someone so young, but L-dopa, the standard drug for Parkinson's, relieved his symptoms. L-dopa is a precursor for the neurotransmitter whose lack produces Parkinson's symptoms, it was found that his development of Parkinson's was due to a common impurity in the synthesis of MPPP called MPTP, a neurotoxin that targets dopamine producing neurons. In the United States, MPPP is now in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act with a zero aggregate manufacturing quota as of 2014; the free base conversion ratio for salts includes 0.87 for the hydrochloride.

It is listed under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and is controlled in most countries in the same fashion as is morphine. The intermediate tertiary alcohol is liable to dehydration in acidic conditions if the reaction temperature rises above 30 °C. Kidston did not realize this and esterified the intermediate with propionic anhydride at an elevated temperature. MPTP was formed as a major impurity.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, a metabolite of MPTP, causes rapid onset of irreversible symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease. MPTP is metabolized to the neurotoxin MPP+ by the enzyme MAO-B, expressed in glial cells; this selectively kills brain tissue in the area of the brain called the substantia nigra and causes permanent Parkinsonian symptoms. Structural analogs of desmethylprodine with different N-substituents than a methyl group on the piperidine have been investigated. Several of these have greater in vitro potency compared to desmethylprodine. Norpethidine PEPAP Desmethylprodine - PubChem Street-Drug Contaminant causing Parkinsonism - June 22, 1984 warning from the CDC regarding MPTP byproduct in MPPP


Estelí Villa de San Antonio de Pavia de Estelí is a city and municipality within the Estelí department. It is the third largest city in Nicaragua, an active commercial center in the north and is known as "the Diamond of the Segovia", it enjoys a pleasant climate throughout most of the year due to its location in the north central highlands at a mean elevation of 844 m above sea level. The city is surrounded by forested mountains of pines and walnuts, plateaus that go up to 1600 m above sea level, some of which are protected as natural reserves; the first settlement of what would become the City of Esteli occurred in Villa Vieja in 1685. It was founded by a group of Spaniards fleeing Nueva Segovia which at that time suffered from pirate attacks. Villa Vieja was replaced by a new settlement from where the city of Esteli has grown. Today there is evidence of the first church in the Villa Vieja sector of the city; the town is described in 1858 as "a little town in a small plain through which winds the river of the same name..."

It is described as having a grist-mill and that "the country produces considerable wheat of medium quality."Esteli was described in 1920 as having 8,000 inhabitants and as being a rich and growing center. Estelí was the scene of heavy fighting in the civil war against the Somoza government from 1978 to 1979; the city was air-bombed by the regime's National Guard and burnt by the FSLN guerrillas, which reduced many of the city's buildings to rubble. The human casualties were around 15,000. Estelí rebuilt all but some structures, such as the Teatro Montenegro and the Government Palace, a few may still show bullet holes; the land around Estelí is perfect for growing tobacco for use in cigars, the town became a refuge for Cuban cigar makers after the Cuban Revolution in 1959. Award winning cigars have made Estelí one of the most important cigar-producing cities in the world. Estelí has many language schools. Restaurants and hotels cater to tourists traveling to nearby natural reserves and other parts of the region.

Natural Reserves around the area include Miraflor, Tisey-Estanzuela, Las Brisas-Quiabuc, Tomabú, Moropotente. According to the World Bank and International Finance Corporation's Municipal Scorecard 2008, which complements the annual Doing Business report, the municipality of Estelí ranks 1st and 2nd, out of 143 municipalities in ten Latin American countries, in quality and efficiency to obtain a construction permit and municipal operating license respectively. Esteli has improved its performance from the Municipal Scorecard 2007, where it ranked 5th out of 65 municipalities in five countries. Estelí has the best water supply system in the country with near-full population coverage, it has an extensive sewage disposal coverage. At least three airfields have been built in Esteli throughout history. One of the first airfields documented played the role of alternate airport from 1930-34 when TACA established the service to carry passengers with an El Salvador-Tegucigalpa-Danli-Ocotal-Esteli-Managua route.

La Thompson, three miles north of Estelí, is where the second airstrip was built and used by a company named "Thonsson Corwell" to help complete a stretch of the Pan-American Highway. The third airfield has now been urbanized. In 1950 there was a proposal to create a railroad branch from Esteli to Matagalpa which would connect the city to other parts of the country including Prinzapolka Port in the Caribbean and Managua. In 1940 efforts were made to expand Nicaragua's railroad from El Sauce to the north via Estelí. Thirteen kilometers of rail, the town of Río Grande, a railroad bridge were built with the intention of taking the rail up to Esteli along the Aquespalapa or Villanueva river, which originates in the Quiabuc mountains. Estelí is home to one of the most successful and most popular football clubs in the country, the Real Estelí, nicknamed "El Tren del Norte", they play their home games at the Estadio Independencia, a name created by Oscar Corea Molina. It is home to a professional baseball team, Estelí, which makes it one of only three cities in the country with both a professional football and baseball team.

During the 1970s, Estelí participated in the "Roberto Clemente" baseball tournament and had one of the best baseball teams in the country with the help of one-time big league players like Porfi Altamirano and Albert Williams. Estelí counts on a championship-winning professional cycling team called Real Estelí Ciclismo, member of the Cycling Federation of Nicaragua. In May 2019, Real Estelí won first place in the Elite group of the Europa Tour 2019 cycling competition in San Salvador, El Salvador, hosted by the Cycling Federation of El Salvador; the team won second place in the Master B category. Due to its altitude Estelí can be quite chilly at night or in the morning and cold in winter. Thus, like all northern mountainous regions of Nicaragua, Estelí's gastronomy consists of a hearty mountain diet of beef, veal, geese and heavy soups like albóndiga, res, etc. There's a high consumption of milk products like smoked or spicy cheeses like ahumado and picante, and

Ivan Corea (campaigner)

Ivan Corea established autism-related charities, service organisations such as the Autism Awareness Campaign UK and Autism Sunday. He took a lead role in raising awareness about autism. Corea was born in Colombo, Sri Lanka and educated at S Thomas’ Preparatory School Kollupitiya and S. Thomas' College Mt Lavinia, his classmates included Suresh Thambipillai and R. D. Gunaratne, his family emigrated to United Kingdom, he attended Chalfonts County Secondary School in Chalfont, St. Peter's Buckinghamshire and Archbishop Tenison's Grammar School in Croydon, he went on to attend colleges attached to Greenwich University. Corea has received many awards for his work in autism, including the Charity Times Charity Personality of the Year Award, the Windrush Community Service Award, the BBC TV Community Award, the Asian Woman Magazine Community Award, the Beacon Fellowship Highly Commended Award and the Daily Mail Unsung Heroes Award Certificate, he has been honoured as an'Autism Light,' honouring heroes who have campaigned for autism by a website in the United States of AmericaHe has a record of over 25 years of service as an educator and is a former Fellow of the King's Fund in London.

He has advised Her Majesty's Government as a Consultant to the Ethnic Minorities Division of the Department of Work & Pensions and a Task force of Ministers. Corea's work includes contributions to the Third World Impact books, published in the United Kingdom, the Visible Minority Report, presented to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Kuala Lumpur. In 1981 he was nominated for the United Nations Media Peace Prize in London. Corea was appointed an Olympic Ambassador by Lord Sebastian Coe in 2004 and was involved in persuading the public minority ethnic communities and disability communities in the United Kingdom, to back the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic bid. Corea and his wife Charika were inspired to initiate their autism awareness campaign by their son Charin, who has autism. Corea is the son of Vernon Corea, a well-known broadcaster who worked at Radio Ceylon, Radio Worldwide and the British Broadcasting Corporation, he is the grandson of clergyman Ivan Corea, Rural Dean of Colombo, of the Church of Ceylon and was Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Colombo, the nephew of Ambassador Ernest Corea, his father's younger brother, the great-grandson of Dr. James Alfred Ernest Corea.

In 2016 the family moved to California to follow a theology course

Chip Woodrum

Clifton Alexander "Chip" Woodrum III was a Virginia lawyer and politician. Born in Washington, D. Clifton A. Woodrum Jr. and his wife the former Margaret Troy Lanier, Woodrum lost his lawyer father on Christmas, 1959, but nonetheless graduated from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1961. Continuing the family tradition, he received his law degree from University of Virginia Law School in 1964, his great-grandfather was Roanoke's first elected Commonwealth's attorney. His grandfather Clifton A. Woodrum served in the United States House of Representatives. Chip Woodrum married Emily Clyde Abbitt on August 10, 1963 in Virginia; as had three previous generations of his family, Woodrum practiced law in Virginia. He was active in various bar associations, the Roanoke Chamber of Commerce and the United Way. Woodrum served on the board of directors of the Legal Aid Society of Roanoke from 1967 until 1976 and had served as the organization's vice-president, his political career began in the Roanoke City Young Democrat Club in 1960, as the city bucked Massive Resistance advocated by the Byrd Organization.

First elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1979, Woodrum served from 1980 until 2003. He became its chair, he served on the State Water Commission beginning in 1981. In the General Assembly, Delegate Woodrum served on the Courts of Justice committee and the Appropriations and Corporations and Insurance committees, among others, he modernized Virginia's Freedom of Information Act in the 1990s, helped construct programs to rehabilitate offenders, as well as to enable low income Virginians to attend college. Woodrum served alongside fellow Democrat Vic Thomas. In 1979 they handily defeated Republicans Elizabeth T. Bowles and Mary Brooks, in 1981 they defeated Independent Zaman K. McManaway, his district, which comprised parts of the City of Roanoke as well as the County of Roanoke, was numbered the 7th Virginia district, but became the 6th district in 1982. Further redistricting required by a judicial decision mandating single member districts again combined parts of the city and county, renumbered it as the 16th district from 1983 until 2001.

He faced no opponent when re-elected, but soundly defeated Republican Newell R. Falkinburg in 1995 and Independent A. R. Sadjadi in 1999. After the Republican party took control of the House of Delegates in 2000, he lost his seat on the Appropriations committee and was redistricted into the same district as his ally, former majority leader Richard Cranwell. During his last term, until Woodrum declined to seek re-election, the district was numbered the 11th. After winning a primary contest against B. M. Shepard, lawyer Onzlee Ware succeeded him as that Roanoke district's delegate; the erudite and witty Woodrum was appointed to the board of trustees of the Library of Virginia, where he served beginning in 2004 and as chair in 2011 and 2012. Woodrum died in Florida, where he spent winters

Michael Ryschkewitsch

Michael Ryschkewitsch is the Space Exploration Sector Head at the Applied Physics Laboratory. He served as the Chief Engineer of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Michael Ryschkewitsch earned a B. S. in physics from the University of Florida, a Ph. D. in physics from Duke University. He joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in 1982 to work as a cryogenics engineer on the Cosmic Background Explorer mission, he worked on a number of other projects, including the first servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope. He served as the chairperson of the Genesis spacecraft mishap investigation board, discovered a test that Lockheed Martin had skipped that would have prevented the mishap. Ryschkewitsch was promoted to Deputy Director of Goddard Space Flight Center in 2005, to Chief Engineer of NASA in 2007, he was the third person in a row to go from Deputy Director of a NASA field center to Chief Engineer at NASA Headquarters, after Rex Geveden and Christopher Scolese.

Ryschkewitsch has been awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the NASA Medal for Outstanding Leadership, the Robert Baumann Award for contributions to mission success, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center Leadership Award. Asteroid 182044 Ryschkewitsch was named in his honor; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 25 September 2018


Micropterigoidea is the superfamily of "mandibulate archaic moths", all placed in the single family Micropterigidae, containing about twenty living genera. They are considered the most primitive extant lineage of lepidoptera; the name comes from the Greek for mikros and pterux, a wing.. The fossil record of the group goes back to the Middle-Late Jurassic with the earliest known species being Auliepterix from the Karabastau Formation in Kazakhstan. Kristensen, N. P. and E. S. Nielsen. 1979. A new subfamily of micropterigid moths from South America. A contribution to the morphology and phylogeny of the Micropterigidae, with a generic catalogue of the family. Steenstrupia 5:69–147. Kristensen, N. P.. The non-Glossatan Moths. Ch. 4, pp. 41–49 in Kristensen, N. P.. Lepidoptera and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, New York.

O'Toole, Christopher. 2002. Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. ISBN 1-55297-612-2. Tree of Life Microleps U. S. A. Nearctic Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M. J. 2003 onwards. British insects: the families of Lepidoptera. Version: 29 December 2011 Detailed description and figures including wing venation