Dino De Laurentiis
Agostino "Dino" De Laurentiis was an Italian-American film producer. Along with Carlo Ponti, he was one of the producers who brought Italian cinema to the international scene at the end of World War II, he co-produced more than 500 films, of which 38 were nominated for Academy Awards. He had a brief acting career in the late 1930s and early 1940s. De Laurentiis was born at Torre Annunziata in the province of Naples, grew up selling spaghetti made by his father's pasta factory, he started his studies at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia in Rome in the years 1937–1938 interrupted by the outbreak of the Second World War. Following his first movie, L'ultimo Combattimento, Laurentiis produced nearly 150 films during the next seven decades. In 1946 his company, the Dino de Laurentiis Cinematografica, moved into production. In the early years, De Laurentiis produced Italian neorealist films such as Bitter Rice and the Fellini classics La Strada and Nights of Cabiria in collaboration with producer Carlo Ponti.
In the 1960s, Laurentiis built his own studio facilities, although these financially collapsed during the 1970s. During this period, though, De Laurentiis produced such films as Barabbas, a Christian religious epic. De Laurentiis relocated to the US in 1976, became an American citizen in 1986. In the 1980s he had his own studio, De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, based in Wilmington, North Carolina; the building of the studio made Wilmington a center of television production. De Laurentiis made a number of successful and acclaimed films, including The Scientific Cardplayer, Death Wish, Three Days of the Condor, The Shootist, Ingmar Bergman's The Serpent's Egg, Conan the Barbarian, Blue Velvet and Breakdown. De Laurentiis' name became well known through the 1976 King Kong remake, a commercial hit. De Laurentiis produced several adaptations of Stephen King works, including The Dead Zone, Cat's Eye, Silver Bullet, Maximum Overdrive. De Laurentiis's company was involved with the horror sequels Halloween II, Evil Dead II and Army of Darkness.
De Laurentiis produced the first Hannibal Lecter film, Manhunter, an adaptation of the Thomas Harris novel Red Dragon. He passed on adapting the novels' sequel, The Silence of the Lambs, but produced the two follow-ups and Red Dragon, a re-adaptation of the novel, he produced the prequel Hannibal Rising, which tells the story of how Hannibal becomes a serial killer. In the 1980s, de Laurentiis owned and operated DDL Foodshow, a specialty retailer with two gourmet Italian markets in New York City and Los Angeles, his brief first marriage in Italy was annulled. In 1949, De Laurentiis married actress Silvana Mangano. De Laurentiis and Mangano divorced in 1988. In 1990, he married Martha Schumacher, who produced many of his films since 1985, with whom he had two daughters and Dina. One of his grandchildren is Giada De Laurentiis, host of Everyday Italian, Behind the Bash, Giada at Home, Giada's Weekend Getaways on Food Network, he was the younger brother of Luigi De Laurentiis, who became a film producer after Dino did, uncle of Aurelio De Laurentiis a producer and the chairman of S.
S. C. Napoli football club. In 1958, he won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film for producing La Strada, back when producers and directors would win the award instead of the country it was made in. In 2001, he received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 2012, he received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation. De Laurentiis died on 10 November 2010 at his residence in Beverly Hills at the age of 91. Dino De Laurentiis Company Official site Dino De Laurentiis at Find a Grave Dino De Laurentiis on IMDb Who Was Dino De Laurentiis? – image slideshow by Life magazine
Heaven's Gate (film)
Heaven's Gate is a 1980 American epic Western film written and directed by Michael Cimino. Loosely based on the Johnson County War, it portrays a fictional dispute between land barons and European immigrants in Wyoming in the 1890s; the film features an ensemble cast, including Kris Kristofferson, Christopher Walken, Isabelle Huppert, Jeff Bridges, John Hurt, Sam Waterston, Brad Dourif, Joseph Cotten, Geoffrey Lewis, David Mansfield, Richard Masur, Terry O'Quinn, Mickey Rourke, Willem Dafoe and Nicholas Woodeson, the last two in their first film roles. It is notable for being one of the biggest box office bombs of all time, losing the studio an estimated $37 million, it was initially viewed as one of the worst films made. There were major setbacks in the film's production due to cost overruns, endless retakes, negative press and rumors about Cimino's authoritarian directorial style. Cimino had an ambitious vision, pushing it nearly four times over its planned budget, its resulting financial problems and United Artists' consequent demise led to a move away from the brief 1970s period of director-driven film production in the American film industry, back toward greater studio control of films, as had been predominant in Hollywood until the late 1960s.
In the decades since the release, general assessment of Heaven's Gate has become more positive. The 1980 re-edit has been characterized as "one of the greatest injustices of cinematic history" and re-edits have received critical acclaim; the BBC ranked Heaven's Gate 98th on their 100 greatest American films of all-time list. In 1870, two young men, Jim Averill and Billy Irvine, graduate from Harvard College; the Reverend Doctor speaks to the graduates on the association of "the cultivated mind with the uncultivated" and the importance of education. Irvine, brilliant but intoxicated, follows this with his opposing, irreverent views. A celebration is held, after which the male students serenade the women present, including Averill's girlfriend. Twenty years Averill is passing through the booming town of Casper, Wyoming, on his way north to Johnson County, where he is now a marshal. Poor European immigrants new to the region are in conflict with wealthy, established cattle barons organized as the Wyoming Stock Growers Association.
Nate Champion – a friend of Averill and an enforcer for the stockmen – kills a settler for suspected rustling and dissuades another from stealing a cow. At a board meeting, the head of the Association, Frank Canton, tells members, including a drunk Irvine, of plans to kill 125 named settlers, as thieves and anarchists. Irvine leaves the meeting, encounters Averill, tells him of the Association's plans; as Averill leaves, he exchanges bitter words with Canton. Canton and Averill quarrel, Canton is knocked to the floor; that night, Canton recruits men to kill the named settlers. Ella Watson, a Johnson County bordello madam from Quebec, who accepts stolen cattle as payment for use of her prostitutes, is infatuated with both Averill and Champion. Averill and Watson skate in a crowd dance alone, in an enormous roller skating rink called "Heaven's Gate,", built by local entrepreneur, John L. Bridges. Averill receives a copy of the Association's death list from a baseball-playing U. S. Army captain and reads the names aloud to the settlers, who are thrown into terrified turmoil.
Cully, a station master and friend of Averill's, sees the train with Canton's posse heading north and rides off to warn the settlers but is murdered en route. A group of men come to Watson's bordello and rape her. Averill kills all but one of them. Champion, realizing that his landowner bosses seek to eliminate Watson, goes to Canton's camp, shoots the remaining rapist refuses to participate in the slaughter. Canton and his men encounter one of Champion's friends leaving a cabin with Champion and his friend Nick inside, a gunfight ensues. Attempting to save Champion, Watson arrives in her wagon and shoots one of the hired guns before escaping on horseback. Champion and his two friends are killed in a merciless barrage. Watson warns the settlers of Canton's approach at another huge, chaotic gathering at "Heaven's Gate." The agitated settlers decide to counterstrike. With the hired invaders now surrounded, both sides suffer casualties. Watson and Averill return to Champion's charred and smoking cabin, discover his corpse, along with a handwritten letter documenting his last minutes alive.
The next day, Averill reluctantly joins the settlers, with their cobbled-together siege machines and explosive charges, in an attack against Canton's men and their makeshift fortifications. Again, there are heavy casualties on both sides, before the U. S. Army, with Canton in the lead, arrives to stop the fighting and save the remaining besieged mercenaries. At Watson's cabin, Bridges and Averill prepare to leave for good, but they are ambushed by Canton and two others who shoot and kill Bridges and Watson. After killing Canton and his men, a grief-stricken Averill holds Watson's body in his arms. In 1903 – about a decade – a well-dressed
Crime fiction is a literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection and their motives. It is distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as historical fiction or science fiction, but the boundaries are indistinct. Crime fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction and legal thrillers. Most crime drama does not feature the court room. Suspense and mystery are key elements. One of the earliest stories in which solving a crime is central to the story is Oedipus Rex, in which the search for the murderer of the previous king, leads to the downfall of the current one. Another early example of crime fiction is gong’ an fiction in China, which involved government magistrates who solved criminal court cases and first appeared in colloquial stories of the Song dynasty. An early example of a crime story is the medieval Arabic tale of "The Three Apples", one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.
In this tale, a fisherman discovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman, cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails his assignment; the story has been described as a "whodunit" murder mystery with multiple plot twists. The story has detective fiction elements; the earliest known modern crime fiction is E. T. A. Hoffmann's 1819 novella Mademoiselle de Scudéri. There is Thomas Skinner Sturr's anonymous Richmond, or stories in the life of a Bow Street Officer. Better known are the earlier dark works of Edgar Allan Poe, his brilliant and eccentric detective C. Auguste Dupin, a forerunner to Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes, appeared in works such as "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", "The Mystery of Marie Roget", "The Purloined Letter". With his Dupin stories, Poe provided the framework for the classic detective story.
The detective’s unnamed companion is the narrator of the stories and a prototype for the character of Dr. Watson in Sherlock Holmes stories. Wilkie Collins' epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone is thought to be his masterpiece. French author Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Lecoq laid the groundwork for the methodical, scientifically minded detective; the evolution of locked room mysteries was one of the landmarks in the history of crime fiction. The Sherlock Holmes mysteries of Arthur Conan Doyle are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. A precursor was Paul Féval, whose series Les Habits Noirs features Scotland Yard detectives and criminal conspiracies; the best-selling crime novel of the nineteenth century was Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab, set in Melbourne, Australia. The evolution of the print mass media in the United Kingdom and the United States in the latter half of the 19th century was crucial in popularising crime fiction and related genres.
Literary'variety' magazines like Strand, McClure's, Harper's became central to the overall structure and function of popular fiction in society, providing a mass-produced medium that offered cheap, illustrated publications that were disposable. Like the works of many other important fiction writers of his day—e.g. Wilkie Collins and Charles Dickens—Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in serial form in the monthly Strand magazine in the United Kingdom; the series attracted a wide and passionate following on both sides of the Atlantic, when Doyle killed off Holmes in The Final Problem, the public outcry was so great, the publishing offers for more stories so attractive, that he was reluctantly forced to resurrect him. In Italy, local authors began to produce crime mysteries in the 1850s. Early translations of English and American stories and local works were published in cheap yellow covers and thus the genre was baptized with the term "Libri gialli" or yellow books; the genre was outlawed by the Fascists during WWII but exploded in popularity after the war influenced by the American hard-boiled school of crime fiction.
There emerged a group of mainstream Italian writers who used the detective format to create an anti-detective or postmodern novel in which the detectives are imperfect, the crimes unsolved and clues left for the reader to decipher. Famous writers include Leonardo Sciascia, Umberto Eco, Carlo Emilio Gadda. In Spain, The Nail and other Tales of Mystery and Crime was published by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón in 1853. Crime fiction in Spain took on some special characteristics that reflected the culture of the country; the Spanish writers emphasized the corruption and ineptitude of the police and depicted the authorities and the wealthy in negative terms. In China, modern crime fiction was first developed from translations of foreign works from the 1890s. Cheng Xiaoqing, considered "The Grand Master" of twentieth-century Chinese detective fiction, translated Sherlock Holmes into classical and vernacular Chinese. In the late 1910s, Cheng began writing his own detective fiction series, Sherlock in Shanghai, mimicking Conan Doyle’s style but reappropriating to a Chinese audience.
During the Mao era, crime fiction was suppressed and Soviet-styled and anti-capitalist. In the post-Mao era, crime fiction in
Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins is a Welsh actor and producer. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1992, was nominated three additional times. Hopkins has won three BAFTAs, two Emmys, the Cecil B. DeMille Award. In 1993, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the arts. Hopkins received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2003, in 2008, he received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. After graduating from the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in 1957, he trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, was spotted by Laurence Olivier who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre. In 1968, he achieved renown. In the mid-1970s, Richard Attenborough, who would direct five Hopkins films, called him "the greatest actor of his generation." Hopkins portrayed Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, its sequel Hannibal, the prequel Red Dragon. Other notable films include The Mask of Zorro, The Bounty, Meet Joe Black, The Elephant Man, Magic, 84 Charing Cross Road, Bram Stoker's Dracula, Legends of the Fall and its sequels, The Remains of the Day, Nixon, The World's Fastest Indian and Fracture.
In 2015, he starred in the BBC television film The Dresser, since 2016, he has starred in the HBO television series Westworld. Hopkins was born on New Year's Eve 1937, in a suburb of Port Talbot, Glamorgan, his parents were Richard Arthur Hopkins, a baker. He stated. "Whenever I get a feeling that I may be special or different, I think of my father and I remember his hands – his hardened, broken hands". His school days were unproductive. In 1949, to instill discipline, his parents insisted he attend Jones' West Monmouth Boys' School in Pontypool, he remained there for five terms and was educated at Cowbridge Grammar School in the Vale of Glamorgan. In a 2002 interview he stated: "I was a poor learner, which left me open to ridicule and gave me an inferiority complex. I grew up convinced I was stupid."Hopkins was inspired by Welsh compatriot Richard Burton, whom he met at the age of 15. Hopkins promptly enrolled at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in Cardiff, from which he graduated in 1957.
After two years of his national service, which he served in the British Army, Hopkins moved to London where he studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Hopkins made his first professional stage appearance in the Palace Theatre, Swansea, in 1960 with Swansea Little Theatre's production of Have a Cigarette. In 1965, after several years in repertory, he was spotted by Laurence Olivier, who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre in London. Hopkins became Olivier's understudy, filled in when Olivier was struck with appendicitis during a 1967 production of August Strindberg's The Dance of Death. Olivier noted in his memoir, Confessions of an Actor, that A new young actor in the company of exceptional promise named Anthony Hopkins was understudying me and walked away with the part of Edgar like a cat with a mouse between its teeth. Hopkins was nervous prior to going on stage, but since that night he has relaxed, quoting his mentor: "He said:'Remember: nerves is vanity – you’re wondering what people think of you.
It was great advice.” Despite his success at the National, Hopkins tired of repeating the same roles nightly and yearned to be in films. He made his small-screen debut in a 1967 BBC broadcast of A Flea in Her Ear, his first starring role in a film came in 1964 in Changes, a short directed by Drewe Henley and produced by James Scott and co-starring Jacqueline Pearce. In 1968, he got his break in The Lion in Winter playing Richard the Lionheart. Although Hopkins continued in theatre he moved away from it to become more established as a television and film actor, he portrayed Charles Dickens in the BBC television film The Great Inimitable Mr. Dickens in 1970, Pierre Bezukhov in the BBC's mini series War and Peace. Making a name for himself as a screen actor, in 1972 he starred as British politician David Lloyd George in Young Winston, in 1977 he played British Army officer John Frost in the World War II-set film A Bridge Too Far. Both of these films were directed by Richard Attenborough, who described Hopkins as “unquestionably the greatest actor of his generation”.
In 1978 he starred in the psychological horror film Magic about a demonic ventriloquist's puppet. In 1980, he starred in The Elephant Man as the English doctor Sir Frederick Treves, who attends to Joseph Merrick, a deformed man in 19th century London; that year he starred opposite Shirley MacLaine in A Change of Seasons and famously said "she was the most obnoxious actress I have worked with." In 1983, Hopkins became a company member of The Mirror Theater Ltd's Repertory Company. He remained an enthusiastic member of the company and the Mirror's Producing Artistic Director Sabra Jones visited him in London in 1986 to discuss moving Pravda to New York from the National Theatre. In 1984, he starred opposite Mel Gibson in The Bounty as William Bligh, captain of the Royal Navy ship HMS Bounty, in a retelling of the mutiny on the Bounty. In 1992
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once
Philip Andre "Mickey" Rourke Jr. is an American actor and former boxer, who has appeared as a leading man in drama and thriller films. During the 1980s, Rourke starred in the comedy-drama Diner, the drama Rumble Fish, the crime-black comedy film The Pope of Greenwich Village, the erotic drama 9½ Weeks, he received critical praise for his work in the Charles Bukowski biopic Barfly and the horror mystery Angel Heart. In 1991, Rourke teamed up with Don Johnson and Tom Sizemore in the cult classic action film Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man. After retiring from boxing in 1994, Rourke returned to acting and had supporting roles in several films, including the drama The Rainmaker, the comedy-drama Buffalo'66, the thriller-remake of Get Carter, the mystery film The Pledge, the crime dark comedy-drama Spun, the action film Once Upon a Time in Mexico and the action thriller Man on Fire, playing the role of a corrupt lawyer, it was around this time that Rourke suffered from the first of his botched cosmetic surgeries after enduring fractures of the nose and cheek bones.
In 2005, Rourke made his comeback in mainstream Hollywood circles with a lead role in the neo-noir action thriller Sin City, for which he won awards from the Chicago Film Critics Association, the Irish Film and Television Awards, the Online Film Critics Society. In the 2008 film The Wrestler, Rourke portrayed a past-his-prime wrestler. Since Rourke has appeared in several commercially successful films, including the 2010 films Iron Man 2 and The Expendables and the 2011 film Immortals. Philip Andre Rourke Jr. was born in Schenectady, New York, the son of Annette and Philip Andre Rourke. His father was of Irish and German descent, his mother had Scottish, French and German ancestry, he still practices his faith. His father, an amateur body builder, left the family. After his parents divorced, his mother married Eugene Addis, a Miami Beach police officer with five sons, moved Rourke, his younger brother, their sister to South Florida. There, he graduated from Miami Beach Senior High School in 1971.
During his teenage years, Rourke focused his attention on sports. He took up self-defense training at the Boys Club of Miami, it was there that he decided on an amateur career. At age 12, Rourke won his first boxing match as a 112-pound flyweight, fighting some of his early matches under the name Phil Rourke, he continued his boxing training in Miami Beach, Florida. In 1969, Rourke weighing 140 pounds, sparred with former World Welterweight Champion Luis Rodríguez. Rodriguez was the number one–rated middleweight boxer in the world and was training for his match with world champion Nino Benvenuti. Rourke claims to have received a concussion from his sparring match with Rodriguez. At the 1971 Florida Golden Gloves, Rourke suffered another concussion in a boxing match. After being told by doctors to take a year off and rest, Rourke temporarily retired from the ring. From 1964 to 1973, Rourke compiled an amateur boxing record of 27 wins and 3 defeats, which included a first-round knockout win over John Carver and decision victories over Ronnie Carter and Javier Villanueva.
Rourke's amateur boxing record was 3 losses. In 1971, as a senior at Miami Beach Senior High School, Rourke had a small acting role in the Jay W. Jensen–directed school play The Serpent. However, Rourke's interests were geared to boxing, he never appeared in any other school productions. Soon after he temporarily gave up boxing, a friend at the University of Miami told Rourke about a play he was directing and how the man playing the role of Green Eyes had quit. Rourke got the part and became enamored with acting. Borrowing $400 from his sister, he moved to New York, working an assortment of odd jobs while studying with Actors Studio alumni Walter Lott and Sandra Seacat, it was under the latter's tutelage, Rourke recalled, that "everything started to click."Seacat motivated Rourke to find his father, from whom he had been separated for more than twenty years. During his appearance on Inside the Actors Studio, after the release of The Wrestler, host James Lipton disclosed that Rourke had been selected to the Actors Studio in his first audition, which Elia Kazan is reported to have said was the "best audition in thirty years".
Appearing in television films during the late 1970s, Rourke made his feature film debut with a small role in Steven Spielberg's 1941. He played Ritchie, Dennis Christopher's bullying and ill-fated co-worker in the 1980 slasher film Fade to Black. However, it was in 1981, with his portrayal of an arsonist in Body Heat, that Rourke first received significant attention, despite his modest time on screen; the following year, he drew further critical accolades for his portrayal as the suave compulsive gambler "Boogie" Sheftell in Barry Levinson's Diner, in which Rourke co-starred, alongside Paul Reiser, Daniel Stern, Steve Guttenberg, Tim Daly and Kevin Bacon. Soon thereafter, Rourke starred in Francis Ford Coppola's follow-up to The Outsiders. Rourke's performance in the film The Pope of Greenwich Village alongside Daryl Hannah and Eric Roberts caught the attention of critic
Zion National Park
Zion National Park is an American national park located in southwestern Utah near the town of Springdale. A prominent feature of the 229-square-mile park is Zion Canyon, 15 miles long and up to 2,640 ft deep; the canyon walls are reddish and tan-colored Navajo Sandstone eroded by the North Fork of the Virgin River. The lowest point in the park is 3,666 ft at Coalpits Wash and the highest peak is 8,726 ft at Horse Ranch Mountain. Located at the junction of the Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, Mojave Desert regions, the park has a unique geography and a variety of life zones that allow for unusual plant and animal diversity. Numerous plant species as well as 289 species of birds, 75 mammals, 32 reptiles inhabit the park's four life zones: desert, riparian and coniferous forest. Zion National Park includes mountains, buttes, monoliths, slot canyons, natural arches. Human habitation of the area started about 8,000 years ago with small family groups of Native Americans, one of, the semi-nomadic Basketmaker Anasazi.
Subsequently, the Virgin Anasazi culture and the Parowan Fremont group developed as the Basketmakers settled in permanent communities. Both groups moved away by 1300 and were replaced by the Parrusits and several other Southern Paiute subtribes. Mormons settled there in the early 1860s. In 1909, President William Howard Taft named the area Mukuntuweap National Monument in order to protect the canyon. In 1918, the acting director of the newly created National Park Service, Horace Albright, drafted a proposal to enlarge the existing monument and change the park's name to Zion National Monument, Zion being a term used by the Mormons. According to historian Hal Rothman: "The name change played to a prevalent bias of the time. Many believed that Spanish and Indian names would deter visitors who, if they could not pronounce the name of a place, might not bother to visit it; the new name, had greater appeal to an ethnocentric audience." On November 20, 1919, Congress redesignated the monument as Zion National Park, the act was signed by President Woodrow Wilson.
The Kolob section was proclaimed a separate Zion National Monument in 1937, but was incorporated into the national park in 1956. The geology of the Zion and Kolob canyons area includes nine formations that together represent 150 million years of Mesozoic-aged sedimentation. At various periods in that time warm, shallow seas, streams and lakes, vast deserts, dry near-shore environments covered the area. Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado Plateau lifted the region 10,000 feet starting 13 million years ago; the park is located in southwestern Utah in Washington and Kane counties. Geomorphically, it is located on the Markagunt and Kolob plateaus, at the intersection of three North American geographic provinces: the Colorado Plateau, the Great Basin, the Mojave Desert; the northern part of the park is known as the Kolob Canyons section and is accessible from Interstate 15, exit 40. The 8,726-foot summit of Horse Ranch Mountain is the highest point in the park. Streams in the area take rectangular paths.
The stream gradient of the Virgin River, whose North Fork flows through Zion Canyon in the park, ranges from 50 to 80 feet per mile —one of the steepest stream gradients in North America. The road into Zion Canyon is 6 miles long, ending at the Temple of Sinawava, named for the coyote god of the Paiute Indians; the canyon becomes more narrow near the Temple and a hiking trail continues to the mouth of The Narrows, a gorge only 20 feet wide and up to 2,000 feet tall. The Zion Canyon road is served by a free shuttle bus from early April to late October and by private vehicles the other months of the year. Other roads in Zion are open to private vehicles year-round; the east side of the park is served by Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, which passes through the Zion–Mount Carmel Tunnel and ends at Mount Carmel. On the east side of the park, notable park features include the East Temple; the Kolob Terrace area, northwest of Zion Canyon, features a slot canyon called The Subway, a panoramic view of the entire area from Lava Point.
The Kolob Canyons section, further to the northwest near Cedar City, features one of the world's longest natural arches, Kolob Arch. Other notable geographic features of the park include the Virgin River Narrows, Emerald Pools, Angels Landing, The Great White Throne, Court of the Patriarchs. Spring weather is unpredictable, with stormy, wet days being common, mixed with occasional warm, sunny weather. Precipitation is heaviest in March. Spring wildflowers bloom from April through June. Fall days are clear and mild. Summer days are hot, but overnight lows are comfortable. Afternoon thunderstorms are common from mid-July through mid-September. Storms may produce waterfalls as well as flash floods. Autumn tree-color displays begin in September in the high country. Winter in Zion Canyon is mild. Winter storms bring light snow to Zion Canyon and heavier snow to the higher elevations. Clear days may become quite warm, reaching 60 °F. Winter storms can make roads icy. Zion roads are plowed, except the Kolob Terrace Road, closed when cover